Causes, symptoms and treatment of acuteleukemia

Etiology of the diseaseUnder acute leukemia (leukemia)
understand the rapidly progressive malignant disease, with
which mutated white blood cells are concentrated in the bone marrow and
bloodstream. The basis of the disease is a pathological change.
hematopoietic hemocytoblasts. Initially, the tumor grows in
bone marrow, and then affects other organs and tissues. Pathology not
has age restrictions, but is most often found in
adults.

Etiology of the disease

In modern medical science the study of neoplastic
pathologies of the hematopoietic system plays an important role. Despite
numerous clinical studies, exact reason
the occurrence of this form of cancer has not yet been identified.
It is known for certain that the development of leukemia
circumstances creating preconditions and favorable conditions for
mutations of cellular structures. To such mutagenic factors
include:

  1. Classification of pathologyIonizing radiation. After atomic
    bombing of Japanese cities during the Second World War
    the number of citizens who have had acute leukemia,
    increased many times. And the people who were directly
    near the epicenter, fell sick 50 times more often than those who were behind
    danger zone limit.
  2. Carcinogenic substances. These may be industrial chemicals.
    compounds or metabolites of potent pharmaceuticals
    drugs. There is evidence of an inducing effect.
    carcinogens on the development of oncological process.
  3. Genetic predisposition. Нередко причиной leukemia
    becomes bad heredity. The risk of getting leukemia is much
    higher in those whose relatives suffered from hematopoietic cancer
    system. It is believed that the disease itself is not inherited, but
    propensity to change the genetic material.
  4. Viruses. In expert circles, the popular theory is that some
    non-cellular infectious agents that invade human DNA
    transform healthy cells into cancer cells.
  5. Race, geographical area of ​​residence.
    Statistics indicate that Caucasians are more
    prone to acute leukemia.

Classification of pathology

According to the generally accepted international classification used
in hematology, acute leukemias differentiate according to
morphology of malignant cells. In this regard, distinguish
two main forms of the disease:

  1. Symptomatic pictureLymphoblastic. Carcinogenic process
    affecting the blood system and characterized
    uncontrolled growth of immature lymphoid cells.
    Malignant pathology affects the bone marrow, lymphatic
    nodes, spleen, thymus and other functional
    organs.
  2. Myeloblastic. Причиной острого leukemia становится пролиферация
    unformed blood cells and bone marrow. In the analysis of the patient
    there is a decreased level of leukocytes, platelets and
    red blood cells. Infiltration of tissues by malignant cells
    occurs on the background of ulcerative necrotic and hemorrhagic
    complications. As a rule, death comes from a sudden
    cerebral hemorrhage or aggravated gastrointestinal
    bleeding.

A more detailed classification of acute leukemia has been developed,
taking into account the cytological specificity of hemocytoblasts. Accurate
установка вида leukemia требуется врачам для выработки
therapeutic strategy and projection for the patient.

Symptomatic picture

Clinical stagesIn most cases, the onset of the disease
goes unnoticed. The person feels quite healthy right up
to the maximum distribution of leukemic cells throughout the organs
кроветворной system. Первые симптомы острого leukemia могут
manifest in the form of any infectious disease.

Due to a sharp decline in platelet levels often develops.
hemophilia. The patient complains of fatigue, general malaise,
shortness of breath, increased heartbeat, aches in the bones. Acute phase
oncological process manifests a significant increase
body temperature. Often joins pneumonia,
accompanied by prolonged dry cough and wheezing in the lungs. Everyone has it
четвертого больного встречается менингит с соответствующими
clinical manifestations.

As a result of treatment with cytostatics, cases of
necrotic lesions of the mucous membranes of the digestive
tract. At first, the patient suffers from a weak abdominal distention.
cavities, rumbling and stool disorders, after which
unbearable pain in the stomach, speaking of the presence of erosion or
ulcers.

In the late stages of the disease, the skin is covered slightly.
rising above the surface stained brown or red
colors – the so-called leukemides, which are sources
leukemia infiltration. The liver grows in size and
becomes painful at palpation. Due to renal
insufficiency problems with urination. For
лимфобластного leukemia свойственно увеличение лимфатических узлов и
spleen.

Clinical stages

Clonal malignant pathology usually occurs in
several stages. Acute leukemia begins with suppression
hematopoietic function, pronounced hemorrhagic syndrome and
complications of infectious genesis. Debut disease is different
erased symptoms, and the diagnosis is established randomly.
From the moment of mutation of the first stem cell until the discovery of obvious
симптомов leukemia проходит минимум месяц. In clinical
course of pathology distinguish the following stages:

  1. Diagnostic measuresInitial. In this period
    suspecting the disease is almost impossible. White blood counts
    Taurus changes slightly, immature forms appear
    leukocytes, anemia develops.
  2. Unfolded. At this stage, the person is faced with the true
    symptoms of leukemia caused by inhibition of hematopoiesis and
    the formation of a huge number of blasts in peripheral blood.
    A person’s health is sharply deteriorating, but at the same time absent
    pronounced morphological changes from the circulating
    in the bloodstream of blood vessels.
  3. Remission. Stage, which is characterized by positive dynamics
    against the backdrop of ongoing therapeutic interventions. In peripheral blood not
    blast cells are detected. Partial suppression occurs
    foci of leukemic infiltration, clinical signs
    нейроleukemia не наблюдаются.
  4. Therapeutic strategyRelapse Stage when activated
    growth of immature cells in the bone marrow, isolated
    extramedullary lesions, including soft infiltration
    tissues.
  5. Terminal. At this stage, cytostatic therapy is powerless.
    in front of a far-reaching cancer process. Течение leukemia
    complicated by granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Aggressive growth
    neoplasm adversely affects the work of all vital
    bodies, which ultimately leads to death.

Diagnostic measures

Diagnostics is designed to solve several important problems: first,
establish the fact of the presence of oncology in a patient, and secondly –
choose therapeutic tactics with regard to molecular genetic
особенностей острого leukemia. For подтверждения диагноза
A number of studies are being conducted:

  1. Multicomponent chemotherapyBlood chemistry.
    The change in the number and type of liquid shaped elements
    connective tissue indirectly indicates leukemia.
  2. The study of bone marrow. Bone marrow punctate study for
    establish the final diagnosis and assess the effectiveness of
    therapy.
  3. Immunophenotyping. Special immunological method
    диагностики, позволяющий определить, с какой формой leukemia
    have to deal with.
  4. Cytogenetic study. Allows you to identify chromosomal
    damages whose presence helps determine the type of leukemia and
    evaluate the aggressiveness of the malignant process.
  5. Fine needle biopsy of the lymph nodes. Fabric is being taken
    lymph node for detailed histological analysis.
  6. Bone marrow transplantationSpinal puncture. During
    performing the procedure, the needle is inserted into the spinal canal in
    lumbar spine. The resulting fluid sample is examined.
    to detect cancer cells.
  7. X-ray. X-rays can be seen
    malignant lesions localized in the joints and
    bones.
  8. CT scan. Innovative diagnostic method
    allowing to assess the condition of almost any organ.
  9. Magnetic resonance imaging. Detailed image
    soft tissue structures are produced using strong magnets and
    radio waves. Non-invasive instrumental method is especially justified.
    for examination of the spinal cord and brain.
  10. Ultrasound procedure. It gives an opportunity to assess the state
    lymph nodes and blood-forming organs (liver and
    spleen).
  11. Scanning the lymphatic and bone systems. Radioactive
    the drug, administered by the intravenous method, accumulates in
    lymph nodes and bones, so you can distinguish oncological
    process from banal inflammation.

Therapeutic strategy

Say goodbye to this insidious disease once and for all.
кроветворной системы удается лишь единицам, но лечение leukemia
must continue throughout life. The choice of therapeutic
tactics and medication drugs the doctor carries out taking into account
forms of pathology and individual characteristics of the organism
the patient.

Multicomponent chemotherapy

Adjuvant treatmentsUnder chemotherapy
involve the use of medicinal substances that fight
with cancer cells. High-tech medical care
carried out in several successive stages – induction,
consolidation and supportive treatment. Tumor
the disease does not immediately recede. Those cancer cells that
remain, continue to multiply. Intensive care can
continue until the pathological process
will stop progressing, and sometimes it takes about two
years old.

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The induction stage is considered successful if it occurs.
tissue repair, no bone marrow puncture
malignant cells, and blood counts have returned to normal.
To minimize the risk of infectious complications, induction
pass in a hospital setting under strict medical supervision
staff.

Usually, several cytostatic drugs are administered at once.
drugs. Most common in oncology practice
got Vincristine and Asparaginase. In some cases, apply
Daunorubicin or Methotrexate.

Survival prognosisConsolidation phase during which
eliminated remaining in the body of tumor cells, it is considered
more intense. In order to avoid resistance to a specific
cytostatics patient prescribed a combination of chemotherapeutic
drugs.

If hemoblastosis is in remission, proceed to
maintenance chemotherapy. In addition to antiblastoma
means prednisolone and dexamethasone are prescribed.

Although chemotherapy is aimed at alleviating the condition
cancer patient, it is extremely negative for the body
general, as it causes severe intoxication. Used
drugs disrupt the functioning of all internal organs.
The patient must be mentally prepared for the fact that he will lose hair,
will constantly experience nausea. To timely detect adverse
effects and monitor the results of treatment, the patient should
be tested regularly.

Bone marrow transplantation

ЛейкозPeople suffering from leukemia require a soft transplant
tissue of the inner cavity of the bones, since only it contains
hematopoietic stem cells that are precursors
blood corpuscles. Transplantation that is done in this way
sick, must be necessarily allogeneic. In other words, in
The transplant involves only a genetically compatible donor.

The key condition for such an operation is complete
remission. It is important that the bone marrow cavity be filled.
extremely healthy cells.

Before conducting invasive manipulations of the patient in compulsory
order is subject to conditioning – immunosuppressive
treatment, the purpose of which is to destroy the remaining cancer
cells and suppressing the immune response that is necessary for
prevention of alien biomaterial rejection. Straight
contraindications for transplantation are the following
circumstances:

  • severe pathologies of vital organs
    organism;
  • infectious diseases in the acute phase;
  • non-treatment relapsed leukemia;
  • advanced age.

Adjuvant treatments

Last role in relieving negative symptoms of leukemia
given concomitant therapy, which is prescribed, given
current state of man. The patient most often additionally
prescribe antibacterial drugs and various
detoxification products.

In addition, if indicated, the patient may be referred
on prophylactic brain irradiation. For warning
neurological complications are helpful
эндолюмбальное введение цитостатических drugs. Success
treatment depends largely on proper patient care. Such
people need to be protected from colds, creating for him
living conditions as close as possible to sterile.

Survival prognosis

The chances of recovery in children are much higher than in adults.
This is explained by the fact that the young body is more susceptible to
drugs. You can not discount the fact that
patients of venerable age is a mass of concomitant
chronic diseases that prevent the full
chemotherapy.

On top of that, adults are often pulled to the last
appeal to the doctor, missing the moment when the pathological process
can still be reversed. Admittedly, to solve problems with
the health of their children parents are more responsive.
The prognosis of survival in this disease is affected
following factors:

  • age category of the patient;
  • leukemia form;
  • cytogenetic features of the pathology;
  • the body’s response to cytotoxic drugs.

In the absence of adequate anticancer treatment
life expectancy of the patient rarely exceeds 12 months.
Chemotherapy makes it possible to achieve a five-year survival rate.
approximately every second patient. With myeloblastic form
leukemia to achieve stable remission is much more difficult. Only 10−15%
such patients live more than a year. After transplantation
hematopoietic stem cell remission lasting 5 years
occurs in 60–70% of patients. In general, the prognosis of acute
lymphoblastic leukemia is more favorable than with
myeloblastic.

Hearing a terrible diagnosis, you should not immediately panic and
hands down prematurely. Modern medicine does not stand on
place, every day there are new methods of treatment
oncological diseases that give patients hope for
recovery. Leukemia is not a sentence, so it’s important how you can
soon throw all your strength to fight the disease, and then maybe
she will retreat.

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