Causes of sore throat or larynx when swallowing

Sore throat is a common symptom of pharyngeal diseases that
quite diverse and include inflammation,
neoplasms and injuries. The classic version of pain in the throat,
которые возникают при swallowing или без него — это острое воспаление
tonsils (tonsillitis) or exacerbation of chronic tonsillitis.

In addition to pain, these pathologies are characterized by a rise in temperature,
redness of the throat, palatine arches, tonsils, as well as multiple
purulent deposits in the follicles or lacunae of the tonsils. More about these
diseases can be read in the articles lacunar tonsillitis,
follicular tonsillitis, treatment of tonsillitis in children.

What are the other causes of pain or sore throat?

Sore throat and temperature

Боль в throat при swallowing – очень частый спутник острого
pharyngitis With этом помимо болезненного глотания человека с
pharyngitis may be disturbed by dry throat, scratching and
першения в throat. May accumulate in the throat viscous mucus from
clear (with allergies) to yellow or green (with
bacterial process) colors.

Often pharyngitis is accompanied by a rise in temperature to
low-grade numbers (37, 5). Moderate
intoxication – pains in muscles, head, joints. Also возможна
the reaction of the regional lymph nodes in the form of increase,
compaction and pain of the submandibular and cervical groups of lymph nodes.
If you shine a flashlight in your throat, press your tongue and look at your throat,
then you can see redness and swelling in the area of ​​soft and hard
palate, palatine arches and tonsils. The main difference between pharyngitis and sore throat
– это отсутствие гнойных наложений на миндалинах или в throat.

By origin distinguish the following types of acute infectious

  • ATирусный – аденовирусный, парагриппозный, риновирусный,
    cytomegalovirus caused by Epstein-Barr virus,
  • Bacterial – streptococcal, staphylococcal,
    mycoplasma caused by hemophilic bacilli
  • Fungal – Candida
  • Allergic, toxic, alimentary – with irritation
    chemicals, low temperatures, tobacco smoke and
    cigarette tar
  • Radiation – from exposure to ionizing radiation, for example, when
    radiation therapy

Mandatory condition for the development of acute bacterial or
viral pharyngitis – infection with a bacterium or a virus and fall
local immune defense of the pharynx, in the background:

  • fasting
  • hypothermia
  • taking drugs that suppress immunity
  • chronic diseases

Pharyngomycosis – fungal infection of the pharynx by Candida fungi
Albicane often appears during treatment with systemic or
inhaled glucocorticoids, after a course of antibiotics, on the background
diabetes or immunodeficiency.

  • AT отличие от бактериального воспаления фарингомикоз дает более
    pronounced discomfort in the throat (scratching, sodding, tickling,
    feeling dry and burning).
  • The pain is more moderate, worse when eating and
    swallowing saliva, can give to the front of the neck, under
    lower jaw or ear.
  • Very typical intoxication.
  • A distinctive feature of this kind of defeat pharynx
    white or yellowish raids on the palatal arches become,
    tonsils. soft palate.
  • After rejection of raids or when removing them with a spoon or spatula
    oozing bleeding surfaces appear that increase
    sore throat and can serve as a gate for joining
    secondary bacterial infection.

Pharyngomycosis is separated from diphtheria, in which there are also
raids and intoxication. The main method of differential diagnosis is
crops from the nose and pharynx on BL (Leflera’s wand).

Боль при swallowing без температуры

Often the throat hurts without any temperature reaction, delivering
a lot of inconvenience when eating, talking and alarming

Acute pharyngitis

Allergic, toxic or alimentary pharyngitis
nature (when irritated by different substances or temperature) give
ярок окрашенные боли и дискомфорт при swallowing. No temperature
it is not observed. The easiest way to earn pharyngitis –
it is to smoke a cigarette.

  • With этом глотка раздражается, краснеет
  • Its puffiness develops
  • The mucous becomes full-blooded and dry.
  • Sore throat, dryness and coughing
  • There may be acute pain in the form of tingling.

Of интересных вариантов лекарственных фарингитов стоит отметить
sore throat against the background of the Zulbex proton pump blocker (Rabeprazole),
antitumor agent Tegafur, cytostatic Methotrexate.

Chronic pharyngitis

Chronic pharyngitis существует в виде катарального,
atrophic or granular. Chronic form is not accompanied
intoxication or fever (read sprays for

With катаре или гипертрофии слизистой

  • there is a feeling of tickling, soreness, tickling or scratching in
  • it may also give the impression of a foreign body in the throat,
    which does not prevent the ingestion of food
  • typical frequent swallowing, with which patients
    trying to get rid of the feeling of a lump or obstruction in the throat

Granular process

is he has brighter manifestations than catarrhal. Main
reasons for its occurrence:

  • frequent acute pharyngitis
  • smoking, alcohol abuse
  • gastroesophageal reflux (gastric contents are thrown into
    esophagus with non-closing sphincter of the entrance section of the stomach)
  • dusty and polluted indoor or outdoor air,

Atrophic pharyngitis

accompanied by dry throat and difficulty swallowing
food. Patients often have bad breath and
tendency to increased bleeding of small vessels of the pharynx.
The feeling of a dry throat makes patients drink more.
There is a frequent association of atrophic pharyngitis with gastrointestinal diseases.
by his spontaneous relieving against the background of treated gastritis, ulcerative
disease or duodenitis. End-stage atrophy of the pharyngeal mucosa
accompanied by its sharp thinning, the appearance of many crusts and
erosion and fetid odor (ozena).

Injuries to the pharyngeal mucosa

This is a common cause of pain when swallowing. Acute injuries can
be chemical (vinegar and other acids, alkalis, alcohols),
thermal (burn boiling water) and mechanical (foreign bodies
pharynx, cuts, stabbed or lacerated wounds, gunshot

Chemical burn

This is one of the most unpleasant, dangerous and difficult to treat injuries.
pharynx Moreover, the longer the exposure time to the mucous and than
the more concentrated the solution, the deeper the damage, the more extensive
erosive mucous and higher risks of bleeding and infection. AT
throat appears severe sharp pain, can open
bleeding. Burns with vinegar and alkali are given in the mouth and throat scab
white, sulfuric and hydrochloric acid – brown, and nitric acid
– yellow.

AT отдаленном будущем грубые ожоги дают выраженное рубцевание,
which leads to constriction of the pharynx and esophagus, requires a long
parenteral nutrition (in droppers or through the stoma in the intestine),
exhausts the patient who often needs surgical treatment
and long recovery. Acetic acid burns besides
other things can be accompanied by poisoning and acute renal
insufficiency requiring hemodialysis.

Thermal burns

Such burns most often occur in everyday life due to negligence or
haste when a person drinks hot tea, coffee, milk or eats
soup. They usually burn the oral cavity, but they can also get into the throat
hot liquid, causing burns of varying degrees. Burns are also possible.
steam, gas.

The first degree of thermal or chemical burn leads to
damage to the epithelium of the mucous membrane, which peels off by 3-4 days.
The throat at the same time reddens and swells a little. Subjectively
the victim feels pain when swallowing in the esophagus and burning in

ATторая степень дает не только местные изменения слизистой
(raids in the form of a scab, which rejects after a week,
revealing bleeding surfaces), but also changes in overall
state of health of the victim in the form of intoxication temperature rise.
Defects of the mucosa heal through scarring.

The third degree is extensive and deep damage under
scabs that descend by the end of the second week, extended erosion
and pharyngeal ulcers that slowly heal and leave scars, which
can deform the lumen of the pharynx and constrict it. ATыражена
intoxication and temperature reaction, can develop burn
disease with multiple organ failure. Such burns will be complicated.
laryngitis, tracheobronchitis, inflammation of the mediastinum,
perforations and bleedings.

Mechanical injury

Mechanical injury наиболее часто вызываются инородными телами,
falling into the throat. AT пространстве между миндалинами, дужками, в
the back of the oropharynx and in the area of ​​the rollers may get stuck small
household items (and in children and parts of the designer or part
toys, chips, balls, bones and peel from apples).

Also often fish bones, needles, glass from broken
dishes or cans. Children sometimes bite through Christmas toys or
glass ampoules with medicines left unattended.
The latter, after biting, can also leave cuts in the mouth and
throat. Foreign bodies in the upper pharynx are clearly visible and their
just enough to remove.

But the middle and lower parts of the pharynx, the inspection of which is difficult
, they can keep a foreign object for a long time and become inflamed.
is heи причиняют сильную боль, усиливающуюся при продвижении food.
If a foreign body enters the hypopharynx and it is enough
large, breathing difficulties may occur. With
retrofaringoscopy ENT doctor can find, if not the object itself,
redness and swelling of the mucous membrane

What is a pharyngeal abscess

With повреждении слизистой глотки инородным объектом на
significant depth, may develop an obstructive abscess, which
also gives a sore throat (right or left of the midline).
Withчина его развития – проникновение инфекции в заглоточное
space. Often this complication is given by stab wounds and stabbing.
инородные тела pharynx The clinic develops in two or three days:

  • pain during food progression Causes of sore throat or larynx when swallowing
  • difficulty swallowing
  • respiratory disorders
  • forced head position
  • regional lymphadenitis appears
  • intoxication and temperature rise up to 38-40 degrees

Абсцесс обычно определяется уже на стадии осмотра pharynx With
the necessity of the diagnosis is confirmed by X-ray examination.


Tumors делятся на доброкачественные и злокачественные. Of
benign tumors only large adenomas can make it difficult
swallowing and give some soreness with it. Malignant
neoplasms necessarily in their development come to the stage
periodic or persistent pain. Most often tumors grow
from palatine tonsil, soft palate. Less often – from the back wall

  • Tumors из эпителия (эпителиомы) начинаются с поверхностного
    ulceration, then give regional lymphadenitis with wood
    density of knots soldered among themselves. As it progresses
    the depth and extent of the ulcer increases,
    pain with a characteristic reflection in the ears.
  • Lymphosarcoma gives disorders of swallowing, breathing and pain
  • Reticulosarcoma is similar to lymphosarcoma, but differs more
    early metastasis.
  • Of внешних опухолей заслуживает внимания рак щитовидной железы,
    which also gives difficulty painful swallowing, feeling
    foreign body in the lower parts of the pharynx, neck pain. As you grow
    swelling makes breathing difficult, causes shortness of breath and coughing, and also gives
    swelling of the neck and hoarseness.
  • Also with lymphomas (symptoms) you may experience a sensation of coma.
    throat and swallowing disorders.

Other causes of sore throat when swallowing

Cervical osteochondrosis

It gives a condition called “pharyngeal migraine.” This feeling
a lump in the throat, which can also cause pain when
ingestion (with the defeat of 3 pairs of spinal nerves). Also
compression of the third root gives a feeling of pain behind the ear, feeling
increase language. With поражении четвертого корешка помимо болей и
difficulty in swallowing may appear pains in the heart and collarbone.
This problem should be addressed by a qualified

Neurotic disorders

Panic attacks, neurotic disorders, somatized
depression can also mimic sore throat and difficulty
swallowing. Patients complain of a feeling of hedge in the throat, lump,
which prevents not only swallow, but also take a deep breath. General
state of mind and hypochondria make these
experiences on which patients are often fixed and begin
suffer from carcinophobia. With such disorders appropriate
work with psychiatrists and psychotherapists
drug support antidepressants and techniques
psychotherapy. Read more about the symptoms and causes of panic attacks.

Sore throat on the background of genital infections

Throat syphilis

It begins to appear approximately one month from the moment
infection. On the site of the introduction of pale treponema into the mucous
an ulcer with dense edges and a smooth bottom (hard chancre) is formed.
Also развивается увеличение подчелюстных и шейных лимфоузлов,
which become painful and tight. The chancre does not hurt before
as long as the microbial flora does not penetrate it, causing
secondary suppuration. After 2-3 months, when the secondary develops
syphilis, multiple bright bumps may appear in the throat with
ulceration (syphilis). A dry cough may appear, and
the dissemination process in the larynx – hoarseness.

 Gonorrhea pharynx

With этом картина будет напоминать банальную ангину: боли в throat
and purulent tonsil raids. Infection occurs during
oral sex, and in newborns in childbirth from a sick mother.

Pain in the larynx when swallowing

Sometimes not only the pharynx, but also the respiratory throat (larynx)
responds with pain on swallowing movements.

  • With слишком сухом или холодном воздухе боли в гортани могут
    provoked by swallowing saliva.
  • ATоспаления вирусной, бактериальной, грибковой или паразитарной
    can cause pain in the larynx when swallowing, as well as
    hoarseness and dry cough.
  • Tumors гортаноглотки, сдавливающие нервы или разрушающие
    vessels may also be accompanied by pain.
  • Surgical interventions on the larynx, its injuries or foreign
    тела вполне могут давать стойкий и длительный болевой syndrome.

Таким образом, если ATас или ATаших близких начали беспокоить боли
in the area of ​​the pharynx or neck during meals, it is worth not to postpone
in a long box visit to the ENT or therapist.

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