Update: November 2018
Many diabetics are surprised – why did sugar appear?
I have diabetes? Several chronic endocrine diseases
people in medicine are united under one name – sugar
The causes of this disease is quite a lot, based on
which is a common dysfunction of the endocrine system
based on either an insulin deficiency hormone,
produced by the pancreas, or on the inability of the liver
and body tissues in the proper amount to process and absorb
glucose. Due to the lack of this hormone in the body constantly
the concentration of glucose in the blood rises, which leads to
metabolic imbalance because insulin performs an important
function to control the processing of glucose in all cells and tissues
When pancreatic tissue is destroyed, cells are destroyed,
responsible for producing insulin, which is the reason
diabetes, as well as if for other reasons changes
sensitivity of cells and tissues of the body to insulin,
contained in human blood.
Types of diabetes
The causes of this disease are in violation
metabolism in the body, namely carbohydrates, as well as fat. AT
depending on relative or absolute insufficiency
insulin production or deterioration of tissue sensitivity to
инсулину, выделяют два основных like диабета и прочие виды:
- Инсулинозависимый сахарный диабет — 1 like, причины
occurrences are associated with insulin deficiency. With this type of sugar
diabetes lack of a hormone leads to the fact that it lacks even
for processing a small amount in the body
glucose. As a consequence, blood sugar levels in humans
rises. To avoid ketoacidosis – increase in urine
quantities of ketone bodies, patients are forced to constantly drive into
blood insulin to live.
- Инсулинонезависимый сахарный диабет — 2 like, причины его
appearances are rooted in loss of tissue sensitivity to the hormone
pancreas. With this type there is insulin resistance.
(insensitivity or decreased tissue sensitivity to
insulin), and its relative disadvantage. Therefore, it is not uncommon
hypoglycemic tablets combined with the introduction of insulin.
According to statistics
the number of patients with this type of diabetes is significantly greater than 1
type, about 4 times, they do not need additional
insulin injections, and for their treatment used medicinal
pancreatic stimulants for insulin secretion or
reduce tissue resistance to this hormone. Type 2 diabetes
the turn is subdivided into:
- occurs in people of normal weight
- appears in overweight people.
Gestational diabetes is a rare type of diabetes that
occurs in women during pregnancy, it develops due to
reduce the sensitivity of a woman’s own tissues to insulin under
the influence of pregnancy hormones.
Diabetes, the occurrence of which is associated with a deficiency
Other types of diabetes are secondary because
occur when the following provoking factors:
- Pancreatic diseases – hemochromatosis, chronic
панкреатит, муковисцидоз, панкреатектомия (это диабет 3 like,
which do not recognize in time)
- eating disorder leading to a mixed state –
- Endocrine, hormonal disorders – glucagonoma, syndrome
Cushing, pheochromocytoma, acromegaly, primary aldosteronism
- Chemical diabetes – occurs while taking hormonal
препаратов, психотропных или гипотензивных средств,
thiazide-containing diuretics (glucocorticoids, diazoxide, thiazides,
thyroid hormones, dilantin, nicotinic acid, blockers,
interferon, vakor, pentamidine, etc.)
- BUTномальность рецепторов инсулина или генетические синдромы
— мышечная дистрофия, гиперлипидемия, хорея Гентингтона.
Impaired glucose tolerance, intermittent complex
symptoms that most often go away on their own. it
determined by analysis 2 hours after the glucose load, in
In this case, the patient’s sugar level ranges from 7.8 to 11.1.
mmol / l. При толерантности натощаковыей сахар — от 6,8 до 10
mmol / l, and after eating the same from 7.8 to 11.
Также по теме:
- Signs of Diabetes
- Symptoms of diabetes in men
According to statistics, diabetes affects about 6%.
the entire population of the country, it is only according to official figures, but
the real amount is of course much more since it is known
что диабет 2 like может развиваться годами в скрытой форме и иметь
minor symptoms or go completely unnoticed.
Diabetes mellitus is quite a serious disease, because it is dangerous
those complications that develop in the future. By
diabetes statistics, more than half of diabetics die from
angiopathies of the legs, heart attack, nephropathy. Every year over a million
people are left without a leg, and 700 thousand people lose their sight.
Причины возникновения сахарного диабета 1 like
Many are interested in whether to get diabetes?
There is no doubt that diabetes cannot be infected because it is not
infection. It has long been established by experts
that diabetes is most often due to genetic defects,
obesity, autoimmune disorders. So why diabetes
does a person have?
- The causes of type 1 diabetes mellitus are caused more often.
total autoimmune processes in which the body
antibodies against their own cells are produced, the number
insulin decreases up to complete cessation of production
hormone. This is a genetic predisposition.
- According to many doctors, the most likely factor affecting
извне на развитие сахарного диабета, считается вирусная
infection because often after mumps (mumps),
инфекционного мононуклеоза, краснухи или острого или
chronic viral hepatitis, the patient is registered sugar
diabetes. This is because both in healthy people and in patients
pancreatitis, as well as malignant neoplasms
pancreatic-like autoimmune processes (antibodies to
beta cells) are found extremely rarely – 0.3% of cases. BUT
here the formation of such antibodies appears in patients after
damage to the beta cells of the pancreas in the background of a viral infection.
Also modern endocrinology believes that feeding
cow and goat milk leads to early debut
diabetes, it is not recommended to give children and fish oil.
- The development of this type of diabetes mellitus is increased
T-killer cell activity, that is, not only the violation
humoral, but also cellular immunity lead to this
It is a viral infection that triggers development.
diabetes in children. For example, as a complication after rubella,
every fifth patient after illness develops sugar
type 1 diabetes.
Causes of type 2 diabetes
In this type of diabetes, insulin secretion by beta cells
pancreas remains unchanged, or decreases, but not
much. The bulk of patients with insulin-independent type
diabetes are obese people with a small amount of lean body mass and
a large mass fraction of fat, as well as elderly people. Have
Such diabetes mellitus is considered to be a cause of
the amount of insulin receptors as well
недостаток внутриклеточных ферментов, приводящий к нарушению
exchange of glucose in the cells and tissues of the body. Haveстойчивость
peripheral tissue to pancreatic hormone – insulin
leads to insulinism (increased insulin secretion), which also
Why does diabetes appear?
Hereditary disposition. With diabetes mellitus in both
parents the risk of developing this disease in children during
жизни гарантирован почти на 60%, если диабетом страдает только
one parent, the probability is also high and is 30%. it
due to hereditary over-sensitivity to
endogenous enkephalin, enhances insulin secretion.
In type 2 diabetes, neither autoimmune diseases nor
viral infection are not the causes of its development.
Frequent overeating, overweight, obesity – are major
causes of type 2 diabetes. Fatty tissue receptors,
в отличие от мышечной, имеют заниженную чувствительность к
insulin, so its excess affects the increase in the rate of glucose
in blood. According to statistics, if body weight exceeds the norm by 50%, then
the risk of developing diabetes is approaching 70% if overweight
is 20% of the norm, the risk is 30%. However, even with
a normal weight a person can have diabetes, and in
an average of 8% of the population with no weight problems in one way or another
degrees suffer from this affliction.
With overweight, if you reduce body weight, even by 10%
significantly reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Sometimes when losing weight in a diabetic patient – glucose metabolism disorders
either significantly reduced or completely disappear.
Risk factors for diabetes
- As already mentioned, with genetic disposition, with
the presence of diabetes in next of kin, the risk of
diabetes is very high.
- With significant injury, shock, damage to the pancreas
glands may also develop diabetes.
- Overweight, obesity, lack of exercise, lack of
muscle and abundance of fat body mass.
- Diseases of the pancreas, accompanied by a lesion
- Chronic stress, nervous breakdowns, aggravating factors,
contributing to the progression of the disease and are starting
mechanism of onset of the disease with hereditary location and
- Viral infections such as chickenpox, rubella, hepatitis,
mumps are provoking factors for people with genetic
- Age also plays a key role in the development of diabetes than
an older person, the more worn the body, there are many
chronic diseases – all this increases the risk of developing diabetes.
ATысока вероятность возникновения заболевания у людей после 45
years and more it is higher after 65 years.
- Hypertension, high blood pressure, elevated levels
fats (triglycerides) in the blood, the use of large quantities
- There is a myth that the more a person uses white
sugar, so he has a higher risk of diabetes. it не совсем
so, sweet tooth does not have a higher risk of acquiring this
diseases only because they eat a lot of sweets. Just u
they increase the likelihood of overweight, which in its
queue provokes diabetes, and not vice versa.
- Most often in the event of diabetes mellitus causes
turn out to be several at once, it may be heredity, and
age and overweight.