Обновление: Октябрь 2018 Chillsом в народе называют ощущение, когда
the whole body begins to feel the cold that causes the appearance in it
trembling. This condition is described by the words “chills” or “freezes”, and
it is not at all that just a shiver, not accompanied by a feeling
When the chills are accompanied by fever, here, it seems, everything is clear:
you have a cold. But какая может быть причина, что озноб появился
without temperature? This is what we will analyze here.
What determines the formation of chills
The sensation of cold “dictates” to the person the thermoregulatory center –
special nerve cells located in the hypothalamus. When he
feels that the body has cooled, it “includes” the feeling of chills –
protective reaction, which is:
- peripheral vasospasm (dermal, subcutaneous,
localized mucous membranes in contact with the external environment
shells). So, reducing the diameter of blood vessels, the body limits
evaporation of heat from the body;
- muscle tremors, which is needed in order to increase
the amount of heat in the body. A tremor begins with the masticatory muscles,
therefore, the first sign of chills is described as “tooth to tooth is not
- the reflex desire to “curl up”;
- increased metabolism.
By the ability to maintain a constant temperature, the body
a person can be divided into 2 parts:
- «Ядро» или «сердцевина». These are muscles and tissues
lying deeper than 2-2.5 cm from the surface of the skin, internal
organs, organs of the central nervous system. Task
thermostatic center – prevent cooling of the “core” below
35.5 ° C (the temperature of the “core” is judged by the thermometer readings in
axillary cavity, under the tongue, in the rectum or external
- «Оболочка». This is skin, hypoderm,
muscles lying superficially (for example, on the face). Temperature
�”Shell” depends in part on the ambient temperature. Besides
Moreover, it is not the same everywhere: on the skin of the toes and hands, it can
at 25 ° C, on chest covered with clothes, back and abdomen – to
35 ° C.
The temperature control center scans the body temperature every second:
even a change of 0.01 degrees does not escape him. About temperature
he learns with the help of special nerve endings that fix
temperature in the arteries supplying the brain with blood. And when the surrounding
the air gets cold enough, it cools and the blood in
vessels of the “shell”, and this is reflected in the temperature of the whole blood.
Then the thermoregulatory center and gives the “command” to narrow the vessels
�”Shell”, activate muscle tremors and “enable”
non-contractile thermogenesis – energy production in brown adipose
tissue (it is in children and is very rarely conserved by an adult
There is a concept of “installation point”
thermoregulation. This is the level of body temperature to which
the body will strive; when it is reached thermoregulation
the mechanisms are practically turned off, “rest”. If actual
body temperature will be below this “installation”, increases
heat production (using muscle work and brown fat) and decreases
heat transfer (vessels of superficial tissues are narrowed). �”Installation
point “can change with some diseases of the brain, and then
hypothalamus can trigger severe chills during normal
body temperature, considering it low. These diseases include
brain tumors, craniopharyngoma, hemorrhage in the area
hypothalamus, Gaia-Wernicke disease, and neurosurgical
The formation of the “installation point” is affected by:
- the amount of sodium and calcium in the hypothalamus, which depends on
concentrations of these ions in the blood. The latter depends not only on
of how much calcium and sodium comes to a person with food. Important
how this balance will be affected by the endocrine organs and
- balance in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. If a
it changes (including under the influence of drugs), begins
either increase heat production or heat transfer;
- norepinephrine and serotonin concentrations;
- psychogenic factors, stress;
- pyrogens – substances produced in the body
Commands from a temperature control center that compared the actual
The temperature of the blood from the person in charge is not only on the nerves.
Partially they are carried out by hormones. These are thyroid hormones,
which control metabolism, as well as adrenal hormones:
adrenaline and norepinephrine, controlling vascular tone. With
early pregnancy, progesterone “connects” to them,
which shifts the “set point” up slightly to
provide the embryo the opportunity to develop.
Withчины озноба без температуры
Given the mechanisms by which thermoregulation occurs, chills
without increasing the temperature may indicate such
diseases and conditions:
This is the first reason to think about. If inы мерзнете в
indoors in an unheated season, or spent a long time on
cold air / cold water, then with the help of chills the body
trying to raise body temperature to a “set point”.
If inы сильно перенервничали или got scared then it broke
balance between the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems in favor
last. In this case, the hypothalamus “commands” to increase
body temperature. This is a temporary phenomenon; coughing any pain
Ethyl alcohol in various beverages
causes the expansion of the vessels of the “shell”, as a result of the surface
The body evaporates heat and it cools. Temperature reduction
leads to the development of symptoms of chills.
If you are constantly taking Phenothiazine, Phenobarbital,
�“Barboval”, “Sibazon” (“Relanium”, “Valium”), “Gidazepam”,
�”Reserpine”, “Droperidol” or “Haloperidol”, as well as the drug from
nausea “Motilium” (“Domrid”, “Motorix”, based on –
domperidone), keep in mind: they dilate blood vessels. As a result, the body
cools and chills occur.
When a person was sick for a long time or hard, the body threw all its strength
to cure him. This exhausted him and worsened his work.
adrenal glands (a similar effect is observed during stress). Reduction
adrenal hormone production leads to a decrease in temperature
body and, accordingly, activates the symptoms of chills. Temperature
bodies at the same time – below normal.
Diseases accompanied by intoxication
These are mainly infectious diseases:
- respiratory diseases;
- intestinal infections (what is called poisoning);
- pneumonia, especially atypical forms, occurring with
- inflammation of the urinary tract;
- tuberculosis of any localization.
The fact that this disease is caused by one of the types of microbes,
you can think on the basis of what suddenly appears weakness,
appetite is lost or reduced, there may be slight dizziness and
nausea (these are the symptoms of intoxication).
The localization of the inflammatory focus will be indicated by the following symptoms:
ORZ – sore throat and runny nose, with pneumonia – cough,
pain behind the upper sections of the sternum, with inflammation of the urinary
ways – lower back pain, difficulty or pain
Food poisoning is usually accompanied by nausea, diarrhea (even
single); it occurs after eating foods with
cream, meat, dairy products, dishes with mayonnaise.
Tuberculosis is characterized by weakness, night sweats, cough.
They can be observed not too long. Gradually if
the tuberculous process changes its location, coughing can
disappear. Then other symptoms appear: headaches (with
tuberculous meningitis) or back pain (if it is tuberculosis
kidney), bone pain (during the bone process). Intoxication remains
Of course, the feeling of chills with signs of intoxication with
In the absence of an increase in temperature, other
diseases. So, in men, it can be exacerbation of chronic
diseases of the testicles, epididymis, prostate. But in this case on
the foreground will come out discomfort in the scrotal organs
or lower abdomen, urination and erection disorders.
In women, chills without fever, accompanied by intoxication,
may be accompanied by inflammation of the breast tissue (mastitis) and
lactostasis in lactating. Breast cancer is also manifested. But
however, in most cases, pain in
This is an outdated diagnosis that is still used to
designation of disorders of the autonomic nervous system without
signs of damage to its structures. The diagnosis is usually made after
when examining a person presenting one or
a few complaints from the following, exclude more “serious”
diseases: hypertension, heart disease, sugar
diabetes, mental disorders.
The disease manifests itself:
- heart pains;
- feeling of heartbeat or heart failure;
- feeling of inner tremor;
- cold hands and feet;
- migratory pains in joints and muscles.
Blood pressure increase
A chill of the body without fever may be a sign of an increase.
blood pressure. This is not a sign of the disease if
high pressure was measured during how much you
worry or just physically bother. But если озноб на
background pressure above 140/100 mm Hg. was noted alone or when
usually physical activity, you need to enroll to a therapist and
start to control this indicator. Before you get to
this doctor, stop drinking alcohol, strong black teas,
coffee, reduce salt consumed by half.
This is the name when the thyroid gland begins
produce less hormones, which slows down metabolic processes
in the body. This disease can develop in both women and
in men. Hypothyroidism может быть отдельным заболеванием, но также
noted during inflammation of the thyroid gland (including
autoimmune), as well as her cancer.
In children, hypothyroidism is often congenital and
life-threatening, causing a critical slowdown in the development of structures
head the brain.
Symptoms of hypothyroidism can be noticed by relatives of the patient,
only when hormones become too few. In children over 3 years
and adults are:
- swelling of the face, while it becomes yellowish
- slow thought processes and attention;
- skin becomes dry;
- increased chilliness;
- frequent headaches;
- fast fatiguability;
- loss of appetite;
- in women – menstrual disorders, usually
characterized by delays and scarcity of menstruation.
This is the name for a disease in which, in the cold or when
nervous tension in the fingers or toes, in the chin, in the ear
cartilage or in the tip of the nose there is a strong vasospasm.
The attack is accompanied by successive changes: first
affected tissues turn pale, then turn purple-blue,
Gastritis, stomach cancer can manifest feelings of indisposition,
chills, profuse sweating, vertigo. If diseases
accompanied by the production of large amounts of hydrochloric acid, in
pains are felt in the stomach, there is often heartburn,
This is the name of a decrease in the production of its hormones by the pituitary. Chills
no temperature will develop when pituitary function is reduced
in relation to the adrenal cortex. Hormones adrenal cortex
little is produced – weakness, bad mood,
ознобы, связанные со снижением blood pressure.
Likewise, insufficient production is manifested.
adrenal hormones when the pituitary is not affected, but the cortex
adrenal glands. This condition is called hypocorticism. It
may be due to tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis
lesion of this area of the organ. Chronic hypocorticism may
become a complication of any operation, radiation therapy, carried out on
the organs of the retroperitoneal space (kidney, pancreas). is he
may develop due to such rare diseases as
adrenoleukodystrophy or adrenomyedeodystrophy. In some cases
hypocorticism develops for unknown reasons.
Атеросклероз сосудов head мозга
At the initial stage, this disease is manifested by weakness,
increased fatigue, irritability, difficulties with
concentration of attention. Periodically marked bouts of insomnia.
or drowsiness in the afternoon, a headache, noise in one or two ears.
In diabetes mellitus, the vascular lesion of the skin is observed, due to
what they are unable to respond to at a normal rate
on the change in ambient temperature. Besides,
changes are the vessels that feed the brain, including
thermoregulation center. Diabetes can worsen the nutrition of the arms and legs.
Each of these can trigger the development of frequent chills.
This is the name of the condition in which the diameter of the vessels ceases
match the amount of blood in them: or the blood becomes
too small, or vessels become too wide.
Shock может развиваться вследствие сильной аллергической реакции
(anaphylactic shock). In this case, the symptoms appear through
5-120 minutes (less often – more) after an insect bite, taking
some kind of drug, eating some kind of food. Less often
anaphylactic shock occurs after heat / cold
impact, after intense physical exertion.
The cause of shock can be severe pain. is heа возникает вследствие
injuries, wounds, inflammations of any organ or structure.
If you have felt sore throat, cough, nausea for a while
– any symptom indicating microbial inflammation, and then
beginning to get worse, it began to chill, the pulse increased, this
may be toxic shock requiring emergency
In case of heavy vomiting or diarrhea, chills without fever may
mean the development of hypovolemic shock – from the loss of a large
amount of fluid. If shivering with heavy menstruation, in the background
pain in any part of the abdomen or with diarrhea with blood, it can be
hemorrhagic shock – shock from blood loss.
At the slightest suspicion of shock, especially in a child, you need
emergency call ambulance. About inviting district doctors or
visiting them in the clinic speech can not go.
Causes of chills in children
Often, chills in children occurs due to acute respiratory infections, poisoning,
diseases of the urinary tract.
In adolescence, most often “raises his head”
vegetative vascular dystonia, but the symptom can be caused
alcohol intoxication, medication, dilating vessels.
Teenage girls can shiver from freezing and postponed
stresses. In some cases не нужно сбрасывать со счетов
possible pregnancy of a teenage girl.
These are the most common causes of cold sensation and muscle tremors in
children. In general, a child’s chills can be caused by any of those
causes (except atherosclerosis), which are named for adults.
Selected Causes of Chills in Women
In addition to the above reasons, feveriness in women can be
- premenstrual period;
- sweating (hyperhidrosis), the causes of which
can become both sweat gland diseases and endocrine
diseases, and diseases of internal organs, and tuberculosis.
In all these cases, chills can occur at any time of the day.
Appearing in women at night, it is more characteristic of hypothyroidism than
for other states.
Chills без температуры при беременности может возникать
due to any of the above reasons. So pregnant
may get nervous, she may develop acute respiratory viral infections, worsen
vascular dystonia, diabetes mellitus. It is also possible
development of any kind of shock.
Butрмой можно считать озноб, если он:
- appeared only in the first weeks of pregnancy;
- not accompanied by abdominal pain, panic, cough,
- does not occur simultaneously with the release of blood from the genital tract
(even if it is the day on which it previously occurred
The cause of chills during pregnancy can also be
spontaneous miscarriage. is he сопровождается схваткообразной болью в
the stomach and the discharge of blood from the vagina.
Another reason for feeling cold and shivering, characteristic only
for pregnancy, is missed abortion. In this case
chills is a sign of intoxication resulting from
absorption of dead fetal tissue into the blood. In addition to chills, the state
often accompanied by nausea, weakness, body aches.
In the second half of pregnancy, chills may be accompanied by
повышение blood pressure. That means it has evolved.
a complication called “preeclampsia” and requires its treatment.
The next cause of chills, which is typical only for women,
but no longer pregnant, is a hormonal adjustment during
menopause. This can be thought of if a woman is over 40 years old,
in addition to chills, there are “hot flashes” of heat, increased sweating,
insomnia. Such symptoms can be disturbed during the day and awaken in
Causes of chills after childbirth:
- the same as before pregnancy;
- lactostasis: in this case, painful ones can be felt in the chest
lumps that need to be drained to improve your condition.
Often, after birth, various endocrine
diseases. In most cases, it is hypothyroidism, which
causes chills at night, maybe diabetes. If in
the postpartum period was marked by heavy bleeding, constant
freezing can talk about damage to the pituitary gland, leading to
Therefore, if the nursing mother did not freeze and did not become nervous, in
her breasts are not felt any seals and pains, and
her nipples were not injured, she needs to donate blood to the level
glucose, TSH and free hormone T4. If in этих анализах отклонений
No, we recommend visiting an endocrinologist and a neurologist for
Possible causes of chills depending on concomitant
If you have nausea and chills, it could be:
- food poisoning;
- any of the diseases that cause intoxication, including
- stomach cancer;
- any of the shocks;
- early pregnancy.
If the chill is constant, then it is most likely to occur.
diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, vegetative-vascular dystonia.
Headache and chills are characteristic of:
- prolonged fasting;
- lack of sleep;
- vegetative vascular dystonia;
- SARS, pneumonia and other diseases with intoxication, including
- опухоль head the brain.
If there is aches and chills, it can talk about various
diseases and conditions like:
- food poisoning;
- thyroid disease;
- tumors of any localization;
- most infectious diseases;
- diseases of the urinary system (mainly pyelonephritis);
- panic attacks.
When describing a runny nose and chills, it is or ARVI (just not
flu, which always proceeds with fever), or that
less common allergic reaction to pollen, particles of saliva
animals left on their wool, drugs or household appliances
chemistry, produced in the form of an aerosol.
If your condition can be described as “cold chill,” then
most likely, you have, for various reasons, an increased
sweating It may also be lower limb endarteritis,
when the nutrition of the legs is broken, and the whole body is cold.
What to do with chills
The first thing to do with a chill is to wrap up and warm
hands in warm water. If the symptoms resemble shock, you need to cause
�“First Aid”, it’s not necessary to drink hot tea before
aggravate your condition.
In all other cases, you can drink hot tea with raspberries or
cowberries, take cover with a blanket and warm your feet in warm water. Visit
If chills are observed in a child under 3 years old (and especially up to a year),
emergency call and hospitalization are required.
Автор: Кривега Мария Салаватовна врач-реаниматолог