Causes of blood in the feces of a child or an adult

The appearance of blood in the feces is a sign of many diseases and
pathological conditions of various sections of the gastrointestinal
tract. With этом такой симптом можно считать неблагоприятным и
indicative of severe damage to the mucous membrane, submucosa and
even the muscular wall of the mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestinal
tube.

Blood in the feces may be visible to the eye or to detect it.
have to resort to specific laboratory tests. ATидимые
bleeding characteristic of inflammation or damage
departments located at the level of the intestines. So-called,
modified or latent blood enters the feces from the overlying sections
Gastrointestinal tract.

bright red fresh blood Often blood can be found on toilet paper or on linen,
the cause is bleeding of the lower intestines when
anal fissures, hemorrhoids, rectal cancer
diarrhea with blood, pain, fever Intestinal infections – salmonellosis (symptoms, treatment),
dysentery, etc.
dark red clots, blood streaks Symptoms of inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract – dysbacteriosis, disease
Crohn’s, ulcerative colitis, etc.
analysis reveals hidden blood bleeding of the upper GI tract – gastric ulcer, polyps
colon, colon cancer, cancer of the stomach, esophagus.
As well as rectal cancer, helminthic invasions (see symptoms, signs
worms in humans)

If blood is seen in the stool, the reasons

Anal fissures

The most characteristic situation becomes when a bright
red blood in the feces or on the surface of the feces. It –
evidence of an anal crack that occurs when
chronic constipation and excessive straining during the act
defecation. The crack may be accompanied by discomfort after
excrement in the anus. Bleeding is not abundant,
may be repeated for several days.

Diagnosed with a routine surgical examination and with
digital rectal examination. With лечении необходимо
establish regular stools (diet, laxatives with
constipation) and treat the patient with candles with sea buckthorn oil or
Anuzole for a week.

Hemorrhoids

If blood appears on the surface of the feces up to several times
a month darker than a crack, and the patient has pronounced
pain, itching, feeling of distention in the rectal area, it is worth
suspect varicose veins of the rectum (hemorrhoids).
Such a заболевание развивается на фоне того, что вены в этой области
do not have valves and for any chronic increases in intra-abdominal
pressure is easily overstretched and may be damaged, giving
bleeding.

With осмотре в области ануса видны геморрагические узлы (см.
external hemorrhoids: symptoms, treatment) or similar formations
found when viewed from the rectum rectoscope (see internal
hemorrhoids: symptoms, treatment).

кровь в кале

.
Conservatively with hemorrhoids are struggling in the early stages, applying
venotonics (tablets detralex, venoruton, venolan, ginkor forte,
Troxerutin, drops and drops of eskuzan, antistax gels or ointments,
venitan, troksevazin) or venoskleroziruyuschie means, excluding
a number of veins from the bloodstream (suppository hepatotrombin G, ethoxy sclerol).
Additionally, use local anesthetics, laxatives,
anti-clotting, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs.

Operative treatment is routinely resorted to when hemorrhoids are running.
or according to emergency indications at plentiful and long
rectal bleeding.

Nonspecific ulcerative colitis

Nonspecific ulcerative colitis – результат иммунного воспаления,
which is characterized by ulceration of the mucous and submucosa
shells of rectum and colon. With этом в кале на фоне
inflammation appears not only blood, but also mucus and pus. Also
there are abdominal pains, diarrhea, temperature reaction and
intoxication. The disease can be aggravated by inflammation of the peritoneum,
bleeding, bowel perforation, or intestinal obstruction.

The diagnosis is made on the basis of endoscopic and
histological studies. Treatment comes down to назначению
sulfasalazines, glucocorticosteroids or cytostatics. With
Complicated course may require emergency prompt
intervention.

Crohn’s disease

Crohn’s disease имеет наследственный характер, также основывается
on the immune inflammatory process and is able to develop in any
the gastrointestinal tract after measles, on the background
chronic smoking, food allergies, or stress.
The most characteristic lesions are thin and transverse colon
guts.

Repeated loose stools containing impurities of mucus, blood and
pus, combined with pain, fever, skin rash.
Joint pains. Ulceration of the oral mucosa and lowering of vision.
Diagnosis is similar to non-specific ulcerative colitis. Cure
disease ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, metasalazine.

Intestinal infections

Withчинами наличия крови в кале могут быть острые intestinal
infections:

  • bacterial (staphylococcal, klebsielleznye,
    salmonella, paratyphoid, dysenteric,
    campylobacter),
  • viral (enterovirus, rotavirus)
  • паразитарного (амебиаз, шистозома) origin.

They can cause lesions of thin (enteritis) or thick
(колиты) guts.

Temperature rises are combined with frequent loose stools,
содержащим примеси гноя, слизи и blood. There are even original
names that infectiologists characterize bowel movements when
or other types of similar diseases: in amebiasis – this is “raspberry
jelly ”,“ rectal spittle ”in dysentery (see dysentery:
symptoms, treatment).

An interesting phenomenon is viral hemorrhagic
fever (Crimean, Omsk, Central Asian) in which the background
lesions of small vessels a hemorrhagic rash appears on the body and
кровотечения, в том числе, intestinal. Other viral damage
colon, for which fever, bloody diarrhea and
abdominal pain – cytomegalovirus.

Diagnosis of acute and chronic intestinal infections is based on
bacteriological inoculation, microscopy or serological
blood tests (see symptoms of food poisoning). Treatment
bacterial OKA is carried out by furazolidone, enterofuril,
ciprofloxacin, cephalosporins (see treatment of food poisoning,
and probiotics – a list of drugs). ATирусные инфекции
are suppressed by interferons (kipferron, viferon), arbidol.
Parasitic invasions are treated with metronidazole, tinidazole, schistosomiasis
– Praziquantel.

Tumors of various sections of the intestine

Oncological processes give the clinic intestinal obstruction
diagnosed using a survey radiograph of the abdominal cavity
(characteristic symptom of gas bubbles, “Kloyber bowls”) or intestinal
bleeding in the destruction of blood vessels or intestinal wall. Can
gut perforation occurs with the development of fecal inflammation
peritoneum. Treatment в подобных ситуациях оперативное, предполагающее
resection of part of the intestine and arrest of bleeding
electrocoagulation or suturing of blood vessels or intestinal wall.

Intestinal dysbiosis

Intestinal dysbiosis, ассоциированный с приемом антибиотиков,
is called excess bacterial obsemeneiya syndrome
intestine. Its most typical variant is pseudomembranous.
colitis after a course of tetracyclines, clindamycin or aminoglycosides.
Diarrhea and blood in the stool appears when the cause is
intestinal lesions with clostridia. For treatment prescribed
vancomycin, metronidazole and bactrim.

STI

A group of sexually transmitted infections (herpes,
anorectal syphilis, rectal gonorrhea, venereal granuloma)
may also cause damage to the mucous membrane
guts and manifest with blood on the surface of the stool.

Ischemic colitis – oxygen starvation of the intestinal wall
colon due to atherosclerotic damage to the arteries. More often
total damaged mesenteric arteries that interfere with nutrition
left parts of the colon. Oxygen starvation of tissues leads
acute abdominal pain, as well as the appearance of erosions of the intestinal wall,
which become a source of bleeding. Differential
diagnosis and first aid for ischemia consist in patient admission
nitroglycerin, which relieves pain.

Causes of occult blood in feces

That blood that gets into the stool from the upper sections
the digestive tract, manages to “change” along the way.
Hemoglobin, which is part of it, breaks down and turns into
iron sulfate, which gives feces a black color. Such a chair
called melena.

  • Bleeding from esophageal varicose veins

It is characteristic of portal hypertension syndrome,
accompanying cirrhosis of the liver. In addition to tarry stools for this
pathology is characterized by pain behind the sternum, aggravated after taking
food, repeated vomiting of blood. Drop in blood pressure,
tachycardia, sweating. The condition is urgent and is stopped by the introduction
in the esophagus of the balloon probe, pressing the veins.

  • Синдром Мэллори-ATейсса

This is a blood crack of the esophagus or cardiac stomach,
arising from repeated vomiting and reaching the submucosa. More often
all this problem faces drinking people or people with
perforation of ulcers of the entrance section of the stomach. Pain syndrome in
projection of the esophagus combined with melena. Treatment включает введение
aminocaproic acid, bed rest and intramuscular administration
cerucala

  • Bleeding from gastric or duodenal ulcers

can also cause tarry stools. With обширном
bleeding is observed liquid black stools up to several times in
day, nausea, chills. There may be fainting. Gastric
bleeding is also accompanied by brown vomiting (“coffee
the ground ”). Treatment оперативное, сводится к резекции части желудка или
duodenum or closure of the ulcer

  • Perforation of duodenal ulcer

may be accompanied by simultaneous bleeding from the mirror
ulcers on the opposite wall of the intestine (“kissing ulcers”). AT таком
case of acute dagger pain in the right half of the epigastrium will be
combined with signs of continued bleeding: weakness,
sweating, palpitations, loss of consciousness. Saves the patient
only emergency laparotomy with closure of the ulcer or bowel resection
(see duodenal ulcer)

  • Stomach cancer, characterized by rapid satiety,
    aversion to meat, weakness, anemia and exhaustion can also
    complicated by bleeding.
  • Tumors of the esophagus in the stage of collapse can also give
    bleeding and altered blood in feces.
  • Nose bleed
  • Periodontal disease (see how to treat periodontal disease)
  • Stomatitis in adults, stomatitis in children
  • Intestinal tuberculosis

Diagnosis of altered blood in feces

Minor bleeding from injuries and ulceration of the mucous
oral cavity, after extraction of teeth, when bleeding from
esophagus, stomach, duodenum and initial segment
jejunum may not cause visual changes in the stool, but
are determined in feces using a lab test.

Such an analysis is called the Gregersen reaction. In order to
make the test as reliable as possible, three days before the patient
holding prohibited to brush your teeth, eat meat and
fish and iron preparations. Then collect feces. Benzidine with
barium peroxide dissolved in acetic acid, put on a smear
feces on a glass slide and observe the color change. With
the appearance of blue or green staining reaction is considered
positive.

Causes of blood in the feces of a child

Children may suffer from the same gastrointestinal pathologies.
tract as adults. Thus, all that apply to them.
described above. However, in children’s practice, the most
typical states of detecting blood in the stool, which should
remember and exercise some wariness about them.

Intestinal dysbacteriosis (syndrome of excessive bacterial
colonization of the intestine)

Against the background of irrational feeding of children under one year old,
unreasonable or frequent treatment with antibiotics, errors
immune protection of infants, often enough moms and pediatricians
have to deal with the phenomena of loose stools with impurities
blood. These are streaks of blood in the baby’s feces, which can be combined.
with mucus. Abdominal distention is also observed (see flatulence:
causes, treatment), loss of appetite, diathesis. Most often in this
enterocolitis staphylococcal or klebsielleznogo
origin.

They should be differentiated by laboratory culture of feces from
acute intestinal infections and parasitic invasions, in which in the feces
mucus and blood appear, described in the section “If blood is visible
with the eye. ” After verification of the pathogen in babies up to a year, spend
treatment with bacteriophages (staphylococcal, intestinal,
Klebsiella), and older children prescribed enterofuril (see
treatment of intestinal dysbiosis). Next is the control
seeding feces, and followed by a course of probiotics (bifiform, Linex,
bifikola, normoflorin, bifylyuks).

Rectal fissures often accompany another manifestation.
intestinal dysbiosis – constipation, which may be the cause of the possible
the appearance of blood in the feces of a child (see constipation in infants; that
do). Treatment of dysbiosis is carried out according to the scheme given
above. Constipation is also accompanied by rickets and an unbalanced diet.
(see the signs, symptoms of rickets in infants).

Therefore, it is important for children in the first two years of life to adjust
prophylactic or therapeutic intake of vitamin D and supplement them
sufficient amount of liquid (for the artifacts – the volume
one feed distributed per day). Treatment comes down to
stool setting using diet or prescribing lactulose
(Duphalac, Normase) and the use of candles with sea buckthorn
oil

Intestinal obstruction

The most terrible causes of the presence of blood in the feces of babies up to two
years is an invagination of intestines and intestinal impassability. Such a
the condition may be due to congenital abnormalities (incomplete
turning the intestinal tube), and overfeeding the baby, changing the mixture,
destination kefir in children in the first three months of life, too early
and unbalanced complementary foods (see
to properly feed the baby). With инвагинате одна часть кишки
as if soldered into the wall of another, blocking its lumen and causing
partial intestinal obstruction.

The baby starts screaming a lot after eating, one day
abundantly belches a fountain (see the causes of frequent regurgitation in
грудничка), начинает часто какать жидко и с примесью blood. AT
for several hours or a day the stool turns into a lump
red mucus. If during this period of time does not cause
“Ambulance” or self-propelled not to contact the surgical hospital,
the child will stop eating and drinking, will fall into a state of collapse or
shock and may die.

The most interesting thing is that a child under one has such a formidable condition
can be determined by abdominal ultrasound or by viewing
radiograph, and eliminate a simple barium enema, avoiding
abdominal surgery. True, older children perform
laparotomy

Food allergies

Child allergies are so common today she can
be on any food:

  • most often on cow’s milk protein (see when you can give
    milk to baby)
  • citrus fruits (see citrus allergy symptoms)
  • for gluten (see symptoms of celiac disease)
  • various food additives, flavors, dyes, etc.

Sometimes food allergies can manifest skin reactions,
diarrhea, frothy stools, blood in the stool (interspersed,
streaked), small children become whiny, restless,
poor weight gain.

Thus, finding blood in the feces of an infant, it is worth
immediately contact a pediatrician. AT том случае, если у ребенка
there is:

  • loose stools
  • vomiting or regurgitation of a fountain (more often than a third of all
    feedings)
  • elevated temperature
  • the child is too agitated or overly inhibited

it is advisable to call an ambulance brigade or contact
the admission department of the children’s infectious diseases hospital, whose doctors
have higher qualifications and experience in recognizing threatening
child’s life conditions than precinct pediatricians.

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