Causes of bleeding from the anus thatdo when blood comes out of the rectum

Update: October 2018

Blood released from the anus is a symptom, rarely
going unnoticed. Even a small portion of blood appeared
once, it is alarming the patient, and abundant blood loss may
put his life in danger.

Causes of bleeding from the anus can be
insignificant, and may indicate severe pathology
внутренних organs.

When should I call an ambulance urgently?

  • если кровотечение plentiful  и не прекращается
  • if bleeding is accompanied by bloody vomiting
  • if bleeding is accompanied by discharge of blood from the nose,
    bruising and hematomas
  • if bleeding is accompanied by worsening of the overall
    states
  • if in parallel with the bleeding the temperature rises and
    intense abdominal pain

Causes of bleeding from the anus

Diseases of the digestive system: Infections:
  • gastric and duodenal ulcer and erosive gastritis
  • varicose veins of the esophagus with thrombophlebitis veins
    spleen or cirrhosis
  • tumors – colorectal cancer
  • intestinal tuberculosis
  • intestinal polyps
  • intestinal diverticulosis
  • Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis
  • hemorrhoids, anal fissures
  • dysentery
  • typhoid fever
  • hemorrhagic fevers
  • salmonellosis
  • enteroviral, rotavirus
  • helminthic invasions – amebiasis, schistosome, etc., when injured
    intestinal wall
  • STDs – syphilis, herpes, rectal gonorrhea, venereal
    granuloma

Other reasons

Blood diseases:
  • leukemia
  • mesentery thrombosis

Differential diagnosis of diseases of the digestive system,
accompanied by the release of blood from the anus

Color and amount of blood The nature of the chair Other symptoms The results of additional surveys
Hemorrhoids A small or moderate amount of scarlet blood on the surface.
feces or after stool
More often – chronic constipation Зуд  в анальной области, боль при инфицировании node When viewed – sometimes external nodes. When rectoscopy – internal
hemorrhoids
Anal fissure Small amount of red blood More often – constipation Sharp pain during bowel movements and hygiene procedures On examination – damage to the skin and mucous membrane of the rectum
Gastric and duodenal ulcer Perforation – a small amount of blood or copious
bleeding. Bloody vomiting, tarry stools
Without features, with heavy bleeding – liquid due to
large amounts of blood
Previous “hungry” pain, with bleeding – pallor
skin and weakness
With gastroduodenoscopy – ulcerative defect in the wall of the stomach,
often cross-cutting. Blood in the stomach
Bleeding from the veins of the esophagus Bloody vomiting, black tarry stools, often bleeding
plentiful
Liquid Prior heartburn, heaviness in hypochondrium. With abundant
bleeding – weakness, pallor
With gastroduodenoscopy – dilated veins in the esophagus, the presence of
liquid blood, damage to the esophageal mucosa
Polyps and intestinal tumors More often – a small amount of blood. Heavy bleeding
only with the destruction of the intestinal wall. Цвет от алого до  черного
tarry
Often – intestinal obstruction. For rectal tumors –
false urge to defecate
Abdominal pain, weakness, weight loss with malignant
tumors. Small polyps are usually asymptomatic.
With colonoscopy – neoplasm in the intestine. the confirmation
diagnosis after biopsy (taking a piece of the tumor and studying it under
microscope)
Crohn’s disease, NUC More often – chronic bleeding in the form of an admixture of blood in
kale
Constipation, diarrhea Abdominal pain (all over or left bottom), arthritis,
dermatitis
With colonoscopy – extensive or local ulcers
intestines
Infections Minor amount of blood More often – diarrhea Abdominal pain, fever, sometimes – a rash on the skin Inflammatory changes in the blood, often – selection
pathogen in the analysis of feces

Gastric and duodenal ulcer и эрозивный гастрит

Peptic ulcer disease caused by bacteria, occurs in waves.
Periods of relative well-being are replaced by exacerbations. If a
ulceration or erosion during gastritis is small, they can
manifest only “hungry” pain or pain immediately after eating. With
over time, the ulcer expands in width and deeper, ultimately piercing
wall of the stomach or intestine. If a повреждается кровеносный сосуд, то
может возникнуть plentiful и опасное для жизни bleeding.

Diagnosis and at the same time treatment is carried out using
Gastroscopy: an ulcer defect is found and cauterized. After
нормализации states проводят лечение воспаления в желудке и
excretion of harmful bacteria.

Hemorrhoids

Two thirds of people over 45 suffer from hemorrhoids.  Cause
diseases – varicose veins straight anorectal area.
These veins can expand outside the anus and inside the straight
guts. Most often, these two options are combined.

Manifestations of hemorrhoids:

  • itching in the anus
  • scarlet bleeding
  • visible loss of knots during straining or at rest
  • severe pain with infection and thrombosis node

Bleeding with hemorrhoids can be of different intensity: from
a few drops during bowel movements until heavy discharge of blood,
aggravating general condition and causing chronic anemia.

In any case, the diagnosis can only be made by a proctologist, who
will conduct a digital examination, rectoscopy or use other
methods.

Hemorrhoid treatment:

  • The first step should always be stool normalization. Need to
    avoid constipation and too frequent bowel movements. To do this, use
    split meals include prunes, kefir, beets and
    other vegetables with fiber (see diet for hemorrhoids). Without
    effect can be applied light laxatives on a plant-based
    (Mukofalk, senade, prebiotics with active ingredient
    Лактулоза,  см. все слабительные средства при запорах)
  • Symptoms may be relieved in the initial stages of the disease.
    drugs. For the purpose of stopping bleeding rectal use.
    suppositories (Natalsid, Proktozan, see candles for hemorrhoids).  For
    pain relievers use painkillers (ointment
    from hemorrhoids)
  • In the case of disease progression, sclerotherapy is used and
    surgical treatment methods. The effect of operations is good, but the risk
    recurrence persists (see external hemorrhoids: treatment, internal
    hemorrhoids).

Anal fissure

The delicate problem of anal fissure occurs in
mainly in constipated people. Delayed chair, hard chair
in combination with anorectal irritation with soap and means
Hygiene is fraught with micro-breaks in the skin and mucous membranes.

As a result, every trip to the toilet turns into torture. Fear
defecation causes psychological constipation, a vicious circle
closes. The main symptoms of anal fissure: blood in the stool and bright
выраженные боли при опорожнении intestine. The doctor makes a diagnosis
after detecting a crack at the junction of the rectal mucosa in
skin

Anal fissure treatment

  • Normalization of the chair. The best way – a diet rich in fiber,
    with enough liquid. In some cases
    herbal laxatives are recommended.
  • The use of ointments with nitroglycerin or calcium blockers
    channels
  • Blockade (anesthesia) to break the vicious circle. After
    the disappearance of pain stool is normal, the crack heals.
  • Surgical correction of the sphincter (elimination of his spasm)

Воспалительные заболевания intestines — неспецифический язвенный
colitis and Crohn’s disease

These two diseases are very similar to each other, they are chronic.
характер  и проявляются воспалением, язвами и нарушением
функции intestine.

Manifestations of NUC and Crohn’s Disease

  • pain (usually over the entire abdomen or lower left)
  • repeated liquid stools for UC and constipation in case of illness
    Crown
  • discharge of blood with feces (from a drop to massive bleeding),
    sometimes mixed with pus
  • внекишечные проявления: артриты, dermatitis, заболевания
    the liver

If one of these diseases is confirmed by
colonoscopy and biopsy need to start treatment. Both diseases as well
especially non-specific ulcerative colitis, can lead to
the formation of malignant tumors. In addition, ulcers can
разрастаться и вызывать разрыв стенки intestines, кровотечение и
peritonitis that bears a direct threat to life.

The main component of the treatment of diseases is prednisone.
It reduces inflammation and blocks the attack of its own immune cells.
on the intestines. In addition to it, diet, painkillers,
antidiarrheal drugs. При обширных поражениях intestines
have to quickly remove part of the body covered with ulcers. After
operations require long-term rehabilitation and use
hormonal drugs.

Varicose veins of the esophagus

Нарушение кровообращения в the liver при циррозе, гепатитах,
tumors and parasitic diseases cause the pressure in
the rest of the veins of the body rises. Including in the veins
esophagus and stomach. The disease does not make itself known for a long time
usually manifests itself in advanced stages.

Manifestations of varicose veins of the esophagus:

  • heartburn, belching, heaviness after eating
  • боли в области the liver
  • bleeding (vomiting of red blood, with bowel movements – dark stools
    colors)

Bleeding usually occurs after overeating or physical
load. Most often the blood volume is insignificant, but its regular
loss leads to anemia. Иногда кровотечение plentiful.

Treatment:

  • лечение основного заболевания the liver
  • antacids (to reduce heartburn and damage the esophagus)
  • with heavy discharge – the introduction of a special swelling
    balloon to the esophagus to stop bleeding
  • surgical treatment of portal hypertension (creation
    искусственных связей между венами the liver)

Полипы intestines

Полип – разрастание слизистой оболочки intestines, возвышающееся
above its surface. There may be random pathology, and
be hereditary (in this case, it is immediately detected
several growths). Small formations usually do not give
They know about themselves and are randomly detected during colonoscopy.

Manifestations of polyps:

  • слизь в kale и кровь в kale
  • constipation or loose stools
  • в тяжелых случаях – непроходимость intestines

Familial (hereditary) polyposis manifests itself pain in the area
bowel, frequent stools and blood in the stool. He especially
dangerous high percentage of polyp transfer to cancer (approximately in one
a third of cases)

Treatment of intestinal polyps is possible only by surgery.
It is very important to conduct a study of remote sprawl to
eliminate cancer. In familial diffuse polyposis, polyps are very common.
reappear, so periodically the operation has to
to repeat.

Tumors of the digestive organs

Tumors of the stomach and intestines often manifest themselves for the first time.
it is an admixture of blood in the feces or bleeding. Depending on the
the localization of the tumor will vary in color and quantity
blood: the lower the source, the more bright and
highlight.

In cancer of the intestines and esophagus, the blood has a dark color, often
accompanied by bloody vomiting. Other symptoms of organ tumors
digestion are pain, diarrhea or constipation, signs of intestinal
obstruction and common symptoms of cancer (weight loss, weakness,
anemia).

Tumors are diagnosed with CT, MRI, colonoscopy and rectoscopy.
With the timely diagnosis of neoplasms
surgical removal and successfully treated with chemotherapy. Tumors
intestines, for example, develop over the years and decades, so
have a good prognosis in the early stages. But unfortunately, oncology
in the early stages are rarely found, only by chance with
examination for another reason, because cell mutation first and
tumor growth is asymptomatic, so the person does not appeal
to the doctor in a timely manner.

Intestinal diverticulosis

Anatomical features of the intestine and chronic constipation –
the reason for another unpleasant disease. Intestinal diverticulosis
– protrusion of the intestinal mucosa through its outer layer.
This can be represented in the form of a bubble formed outside
intestine. The contents of this cavity is poorly emptied. With time
there is inflammation (diverticulitis). This can be complicated.
bleeding, intestinal germination and peritonitis.

Signs of starting diverticulitis:

  • pain in the abdomen, especially the bottom left
  • bleeding from the anus
  • sometimes – temperature increase

The main task in the treatment of diverticulitis is the removal
inflammation and hemostasis. It often happens
resort to surgery to remove part of the infected intestine. So
as usual diverticula are multiple, you need to go
colonoscopy for the detection of other protrusions.

Intestinal and other infections

Many infectious diseases adversely affect the intestines,
leading to the formation of ulcers, erosions and inflammatory changes.
Often this causes bleeding, sometimes very abundant. So,
dysentery begins with profuse watery stools and then
rare defecation with admixture of mucus and blood. Typhoid fever
diagnosed with high fever, characteristic abdominal rash
and the appearance of dark stools due to bleeding. All kinds of
hemorrhagic fevers are manifested by fever and bleeding during
many organs.  Most of these infections are treated.
in the hospital with antibiotics, the injection of liquid for
restoration of water balance and drugs that support the function
organs.

Blood diseases

With bone marrow and peripheral blood pathology, when in
a common analysis appears anemia, lack of immune cells and
platelets, and in the bone marrow punctate there are tumor cells.
In blood diseases, the symptoms are divided into three groups:

  • symptoms of anemia (pallor, weakness, weak hair and nails,
    chilliness, feeling short of breath)
  • leukocyte deficiency symptoms (frequent bacterial, viral
    and fungal diseases)
  • symptoms of platelet deficiency (nosebleeds, severe
    bleeding from the anus после трудной дефекации,
    the causeless appearance of small and large bruises, the outpouring of blood in
    joint cavity and organs)

The cause of these symptoms is the replacement of “good” blood
cells on the bad, tumor, that is, blast. These blast cells
do not perform the necessary functions. To eliminate all symptoms
treatment with cytostatics is necessary. With severe bleeding often
blood transfusions required.

What to do when bleeding from the anus?

If you find a small amount of blood in the feces,
it is necessary to visit a general practitioner or proctologist, without delay.
If the bleeding is heavy and it is accompanied by deterioration
state, then you need to urgently call an ambulance.

The doctor will conduct a series of studies to determine the source
bleeding:

  • Rectoscopy – a study of the lower digestive tract
    tract. You can detect anal fissures, hemorrhoids and formations in
    direct and part of the sigmoid colon
  • Colonoscopy – a more detailed endoscopy,
    allowing you to see all the changes in the colon
  • Irrigoscopy – examination using x-ray and contrast
    substances entered into the intestines to obtain a clear
    Images.
  • Gastroduodenoscopy – a study using the endoscope of the stomach
    and duodenal ulcer. Often use the device for taking a biopsy and
    cauterization of ulcers defects.
  • Laparoscopy and abdominal surgery – simultaneously
    diagnostic and therapeutic procedure that allows you to fully
    inspect the abdominal cavity, take the fluid in the analysis and hold
    biopsy of the suspicious area.

For many diseases, the doctor recommends taking a stool test.
hidden blood. It often happens that there is no visible bleeding,
but with the stool a microscopic amount of blood is released.
If the test result is positive, you need to apply
The above diagnostic methods for detecting pathology.
Treatment of anal bleeding directly depends on its
source.

Bleeding in the anus – not always terrible
symptom. But it is an absolute reason for seeking medical attention and
attentive attitude to their health.

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