Causes of acetone in the urine in children, adults, during pregnancy

Excretion of acetone from the body with urine is called
acetonuria. Acetons are toxic ketone bodies and
are produced in the body, representing products of incomplete
protein breakdown.

The standard of acetone in the urine are indicators from 20 to 50 mg per
24 hours a day, but most experts state that
indicators should be zero. Dangerous condition of the body
progresses very quickly and carries a serious threat to health and
life, leading to upset consciousness, swelling of the brain, impaired
respiratory and cardiac function, even death.

Acetonuria is caused by ketoacidosis (acetonemia) –
formation of ketone bodies in the blood and their active release through
kidneys with urine, which reflects the analysis of urine. Therefore, acetonuria –
This is not a disease and clinical manifestation, but a laboratory term
As for acetonemia, it is a term that has a clinical

Previously, acetonuria was a rare occurrence, but today
the situation has changed dramatically and a similar problem may arise as
completely healthy person under the influence of provoking factors
and with severe pathologies – diabetes, severe
infectious diseases, etc. What is the reason for the emergence and
amount of acetone in urine?

What are ketone bodies?

Ketone bodies are called so-called intermediates.
products that arise from pathological exchange
processes in the human body – in the production of glucose with
the involvement of fats and proteins.

Glucose is the main source of human energy and
produced by splitting carbohydrates that differ
easy digestibility and enter the body with food.
It is the lack of energetic substance that is the provocateur.
the occurrence of acetone in the urine, so you should follow the diet
nutrition and try to avoid its deficiency.

Without energy, the existence of the human body is impossible, therefore
with a lack of glucose, the process of self-preservation begins,
happening by splitting your own proteins and fats. Similar
pathological processes of self-preservation are called gluconeogenesis and
accompanied by the formation of toxic ketone bodies, which
a small amount is oxidized in the tissues and exhaled with air, and
also excreted with fluid through the kidneys from the body.

If the rate of release of ketones exceeds their selection, then
The following reactions occur in the body:

  • A large number of brain cells are damaged;
  • Gastrointestinal mucosa is affected, which causes vomiting;
  • There is severe dehydration;
  • Disturbed acid-base state, leading to underestimation
    blood pH, i.e. metabolic acidosis;
  • Possible development of cardiovascular failure, the occurrence
    in a state of coma.

Symptoms of acetonuria

The very first symptom with the presence of acetone in the urine is:

  • lack of appetite, provoking refusal to eat or
    fluid intake.
  • after eating, nausea can occur, and even vomiting that persists
    for a long time
  • there are spastic pains in the abdomen, and
    body temperature rises.

If in the presence of such manifestations do not take any
action, then soon the patient’s condition is substantially
worsens, which is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • Dehydration and toxic poisoning – reducing the amount of
    excreted fluid from the body, blanching and dry skin
    covers, the appearance of a characteristic blush in the cheeks,
    обложенность и сухость языка (см. бело-желтый налет на языке,
    dry mouth – causes), the appearance of weakness in the patient;
  • The defeat of the central nervous system – at the very beginning of development
    the disease is marked by arousal, which is replaced soon
    lethargy and constant sleepiness. If measures are not taken
    in time, the development of coma is possible. In some cases, there are
    characteristic cramps;
  • The smell of acetone – in a sick person from the mouth, as well as from emetic
    mass and excreted fluid emit a luscious smell, similar to
    smell of rotten apples. This symptom can be pronounced.
    or barely perceptible that is not an indication of the level of severity
    pathological condition.
  • Enlarged liver (easy to detect with ultrasound), changes in

    • in the blood test – the increase in ESR (see increased ESR causes) and
      leukocyte count
    • acetonuria
    • biochemistry – reduction of chloride and glucose levels, increase
      lipoprotein and cholesterol

Similar признаки можно определить самостоятельно, но
confirmation of the diagnosis should be carried out by a doctor with the help of tests and

Test strips Uriket, Ketofan, Ketoglyuk 1

Ацетон в моче - причиныCauses of acetone in the urine in children, adults, during pregnancyCauses of acetone in the urine in children, adults, during pregnancyPrice 130 -180 rubles. for 50 pcs. Determine the presence of acetonemia
you can do it yourself at home with special
test strips for acetone sold in a pharmacy.

To do this, the test strip is placed in a clean container with the collected

Тест полоски Урикет If the body has pathological
the processes associated with the production of acetone, the color of the tester changes
on pink if the amount of ketone bodies is not high and on
красно-фиолетовый, если имеется выраженная acetonuria.

Causes of acetone increase in urine

To sound the alarm the patient should be when acquiring grandiose
the extent of protein breakdown, as in this case acetone appears
both in urine, and in saliva and emetic masses of the patient. Most
common causes of increased rates
Acetone in urine are considered the following:

  • Diabetes mellitus of moderate and severe severity (usually type 1
    or long-term type 2 diabetes) is the most common cause
    the appearance of acetone in the urine, so with this analysis you should pass
    blood for sugar (see normal blood glucose, causes of sugar
    diabetes). With сахарном диабете в стадии декомпенсации теряется
    a large amount of carbohydrates in the body. Более того acetonuria —
    this is one of the characteristic diagnostic signs of diabetic
    coma. But the severity of acetonuria is difficult to predict.
    the onset of coma because coma can occur when
    a small amount of acetone or absent with a large
    the amount of acetoacetic acid and acetone in the urine analysis.
  • The predominance in the diet of fatty and protein foods.
    Lack of carbohydrates (big breaks in food) makes it difficult to break up
    proteins and fats, which provokes pathological changes in
    the body.
  • Prolonged diets or fasting causing acidosis (impaired
    acid-base balance).
  • With ферментативной недостаточности нарушается переваривание
  • With стрессах, травмах, умственных и физических перегрузках,
    surgical interventions, exacerbation of chronic diseases – in
    conditions when glucose consumption rises.
  • The presence of diseases such as narrowing of the pylorus, cancer
    stomach, severe anemia and cachexia, and esophageal stenosis.
  • Food poisoning or intestinal infections leading to acidosis
    due to diarrhea and vomiting.
  • Alcohol intoxication accompanied by diarrhea and vomiting.
  • Infectious diseases accompanied by fever.
  • Excessive physical exertion, hypothermia.
  • Тяжелые токсикозы (см. гестоз при of pregnancy)
  • Oncological diseases and their treatment.
  • Mental disorders.


Acetonuria in children

Non-diabetic ketoacidosis occurs mainly in children under 12 years old,
this is due to the physiological characteristics of the growing

  • The child does not have large stores of glucose in the body.
    as glycogen, as in adults
  • Moving a lot and wasting energy, they need it.
    more than adults, so eating disorders and
    overloads that have a greater impact on their health
  • Until the age of twelve the child’s body forms
    pancreas that can also be a natural cause
    the occurrence of ketone bodies in the excreted fluid. Deficiency
    necessary for the digestion of food enzymes leads to putrid
    processes, as a result, fermentation products first penetrate into
    blood, and then to the kidneys, causing the appearance of a characteristic sugary
    the smell of acetone in the secreted fluid.

Withчины ацетона в моче у ребенка зависят от тех же факторов, что
and in adults. Most often, the growth of ketone bodies occurs at
the prevalence in the diet of the child fatty and harmful food.
Unbalanced and improper diet carries a serious threat.
for the health of children, so parents should strictly monitor
your baby’s diet.

Danger of acetone in urine during pregnancy

Acetone in the urine in pregnant women is a serious problem
indicating that a woman has a pathological condition,
requiring emergency hospitalization. Most common
the reason for the increase in the number of ketone bodies in the period of gestation
child is toxicosis, accompanied by severe vomiting. Like
the condition is accompanied by dehydration, which is the reason
formation of acetone in the urine. How to cope with nausea in
period of early toxicosis, read our article nausea with
of pregnancy.

Improper nutrition also contributes to the development of pathological
состояния в организме, именно поэтому во время of pregnancy не
should eat too much sweet and fatty, like this
“Did not require” the future baby. Many pregnant women fear
get fat and therefore strive to limit themselves to food, starting by
essentially starving, but such experiments are very dangerous because they can
become a good reason for the development of acetonemia. It is better to eat fractional
often but in small portions, limiting yourself to the flour and fried

Treatment of acetonuria

Acetonuria is a laboratory term, not a clinical one, more correctly.
с клинической точки зрения  говорить о появлении ацетонемии.
Основные направления treatment зависят от установленного диагноза.
With установлении сахарного диабета терапия будет направлена на
maintaining normal blood sugar levels. With временном
metabolic disorder in adults or practically healthy children,
treatment will be aimed at the rapid replenishment of the body with energy,
glucose. Action algorithm when detecting acetone in urine or
smell of acetone from the mouth:


To treat such a condition as the presence of acetone in the urine is necessary
start as early as possible to prevent the development of complications
life-threatening. Recommended for children and pregnant women
undergo inpatient treatment, under the constant supervision of doctors.
Many parents cope with similar pathological conditions.
the body of their children alone, subject to the absence
Indomitable vomiting, severe weakness, drowsiness, seizures and
loss of consciousness:

  • In the first case of the appearance of acetone – an analysis of the level
    blood glucose to exclude or confirm sugar
  • Removal of ketone bodies from the body – cleansing enema,
    intake of enterosorbents (Polysorb, Smekta, Enterosgel, and
    Polyphepan and Filtrum STI);
  • When teething in children, infectious diseases,
    poisoning requires replenishment of glucose deficiency – moderately
    sweet tea, fresh dried fruit compote, weak glucose solution,
    as well as mineral water or oral rehydration solutions –
    Regidron, Litrozole, Oralit, Chlorazol.

After relief of acetonemia, all sorts of
measures to prevent re-development of the disease. With
a single occurrence of acetonuria should be required:

  • pass examinations prescribed by a doctor, pass urine tests and
    blood, including biochemistry
  • It is recommended to undergo ultrasound of the pancreas in children and
    liver examination
  • the frequent occurrence of acetonemic crises requires adjustment
    lifestyle and diet on an ongoing basis.

Lifestyle correction implies adherence to the daily regimen,
which includes regular and timely sleep during the day and at night
time, as well as daily and long walks. Children,
which raises urine acetone strongly
It is recommended to limit the viewing of television programs and completely
exclude computer games.

Strong mental loads are also undesirable, under which
implied extra classes at school. In compulsory
order is recommended to monitor physical activity,
eliminating overload and participation in sports competitions.
Ensure a speedy recovery by visiting
pool and dietary correction.

Table of prohibited and allowed products at the time

What products should be excluded? What products are recommended to use?
  • fatty fish and meat (pork, lamb, red fish, catfish and
  • offal and smoked meats
  • rich broths
  • mushrooms and marinades
  • sour cream and cream
  • sorrel and tomatoes
  • oranges, coffee, cocoa
  • fruits, except citrus
  • jam
  • honey and sugar in reasonable quantities
  • cereals and vegetable broths
  • hard cookies and crackers
  • baked apples
  • tea and dried fruit compote

Eat fast foods, sodas and any kind of
products saturated with dyes and preservatives are not categorically
recommended. От качества питания во время treatment зависит
health of the patient, therefore, this criterion when conducting
conservative therapy should be given special attention.

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