Update: October 2018
Diathesis in Greek means “bent.” AT
Currently, diathesis is not related to a specific disease, but
consider it a special state of the child’s body with:
- genetic predisposition;
- undulating course, with periods of remission and exacerbation;
- susceptibility to certain diseases: allergies,
respiratory infections, convulsive syndrome, metabolic disorders
substances, immunological abnormalities.
Most often you can observe diathesis on the cheeks of the baby.
Thus, diathesis is an anomaly of the child’s constitution,
which determines the features of its adaptive reactions and
predisposition to certain diseases, among which are not
The last place is occupied by allergic manifestations on the skin and in
respiratory system. The fact that in the classical sense of the majority
Parents appears under the guise of diathesis – there is nothing like
skin manifestations of an allergic variant of diathesis.
Causes of Allergic Diathesis
ATыделить какую-то одну причину диатеза сложно – как правило,
it develops with the cumulative effect of several reasons
the most important of which is hereditary predisposition, and
- poor nutrition of women during gestation
(abuse of products containing a mass of harmful chemicals
- the abuse of pregnant allergenic products (chocolate,
citrus fruits, strawberries, nuts, milk, eggs, honey);
- chronic maternal diseases, infections that affect
the course of pregnancy;
- taking antibiotics and other drugs in the period
- toxicosis during pregnancy;
- complete lack of breastfeeding or his early
- conversion to artificial mixtures, when cow protein
milk becomes an allergen to the baby’s body (see
milk in children), or vitamin complexes included in mixtures
cause allergy in a baby (see harm of synthetic vitamins).
The manifestation of an allergic reaction in a baby can be caused
food allergies, contact reactions, or inhalation of toxic
substances or allergens:
- abundance of dust collectors in the room, rare wet cleaning
- recently renovated or new furniture in the apartment
- presence of pets, birds, etc.
- family members use various deodorants, perfumes,
air flavors, household chemicals (chlorine-containing cleaning and
detergents, washing powders, etc.)
- Most of the toys and items of Chinese baby care
production exude fetid odors, causing poisoning in
Today, absolutely any product (substances, additives in
product) in a child or adult may cause inadequate
immune response – in infants, it depends on the nutrition of the mother or
introduction of complementary foods.
- bathing the child should be using only
hypoallergenic means in the first 3 months for swimming is not
It is desirable to use hot tap water, should
warm or boil cold
- do not wash children’s clothes with ordinary laundry detergent.
высоким содержанием ПАAT и фосфатов (к ним относится и популярный
allegedly “baby” powder Eared nannies), see the black list of washing
- baby’s skin should touch only cotton
fabric, that is, eliminate the touch of synthetic and wool
fabric to the skin (under a synthetic hat to wear cotton cap, under
wool sweater, cotton clothes, etc.)
- in children can cause an allergic reaction antibacterial
wet wipes (see wet wipes are dangerous for baby skin,
wipes with chlorhexidine can not be used to care for
For example, hypersensitivity to ultraviolet, high
the level of immunoglobulins class E and M, the activation of lymphocytes,
identification of antinuclear factors, that is, a tendency to systemic
At which the trigger becomes transferred
bacterial or viral infection of the upper respiratory tract,
provoking the onset of inflammatory changes in the skin and mucous membranes.
It is a tendency to pseudo-allergic reactions, infiltration and
exfoliation of the skin and mucous membranes, impaired water-salt metabolism. This
type of diathesis is characteristic of large babies with loose and abundant
subcutaneous tissue. They are prone to chafing, pastos skin,
reduction of its tone, seborrhea of the head, digestive disorders. Often
these children have an increase in several groups of lymphatic
sites, the tendency to secondary bacterial skin lesions.
The manifestations of diathesis are diverse, they can be observed already in the first
weeks baby’s life. They concern not only the skin reaction, but also
general condition of the child. To know what a diathesis looks like, each should
mom, because no one is immune from its development, but the early
correcting this condition helps stop the progression. Should
differentiate diathesis from prickly heat in a skin body rash
various etiologies, diaper dermatitis, atopic dermatitis
in children, etc.
- Seborrhea or gneiss – fat, brownish scales on the skin
head, crown, eyebrows. Easily removed after oil treatment,
leaving under hyperpigmented or moist areas.
It reappears quickly, causing itching. Read more about seborrhea skin on
- Milk scab – redness of the cheeks of a limited area in the form
bright, sometimes clearly defined blush with thickening of the epidermis.
Small, scaly, roughness and
skin tightening. AT тяжелых случаях диатез на лице проявляется
bubbles and crusts on the cheeks.
- Diaper rash – appear behind the ears, on the folds of the arms and legs, neck,
even with proper hygiene, it is difficult
- Strofulyuz – small-silky, rash rises above the skin on
arms, legs, torso. ATызывает сильный зуд.
- Eczema (from 1-1.5 months to 2 years). ATозникает вследствие
skin scratching and infection. Mostly formed wet
eczema, with suppuration and symptoms of general intoxication, rarely – dry,
with peeling without soaking, gradually turning into atopic dermatitis. AT
severe cases of diathesis extend to the shoulders, chest,
- Urticaria – pale pink blisters like a nettle burn
cause severe itching (see symptoms of urticaria).
Lesions of the mucous membranes
- �”Geographical language” – a characteristic lesion of the mucous tongue in
geographic map view. Symptom occurs due to uneven
sloughing of the mucosal cell layer
- The defeat of the gastrointestinal mucosa, manifested unstable chair,
dysbacteriosis, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain
- Damage to the respiratory tract mucosa: persistent allergic
cough, allergic rhinitis
- Damage to the eyes: allergic conjunctivitis
- Damage to the bladder mucosa: cystitis
- Causeless cry and crying child
- Bad dream
- Frequent regurgitation in infants
- Loss of appetite
Other types of diathesis
This is a failure of the lymphatic system due to low
thymus gland activity. along with an increase in lymph nodes
there is a decrease in the activity of the adrenal glands, a tendency to
allergies and dermatitis. AT том числе. infectious due to
insufficient immune response from the skin and mucous membranes in
conditions of suppression of the production of immunoglobulins. For children with this
the anomaly of the constitution is characterized by longer limbs and
relatively short body, swollen lymph nodes, tonsils,
thymus gland. When the gland is excessively large, it can
disturb breathing. Often дети страдают анемией.
It provokes high nervous irritability and exhaustion. Children
with this kind of diathesis develop faster in psychic terms,
but more exhausted and restless than peers. Striking manifestation
This type of diathesis becomes acetonemic crises, which
often frighten parents and make them look for a baby
severe pathology. Typical crisis due to accumulation
Ketone bodies (acetone) in the blood are a few episodes of vomiting, with
which the child turns pale and sluggish
up to loss of consciousness.
The starting point is almost always stress or error in
diet (long hungry gap, load of protein or fats).
ATыделение противоинсулиновых гормонов или дефицит сахаров ведут к
the system of exchange reactions resulting in the blood floating
excess ketone bodies (acetone, acetoacetic and beta-hydroxybutyric
acids). These substances act on the central nervous system.
oppressors (up to coma), increase the need
tissues in oxygen (provoke oxygen starvation of tissues,
ischemia), spasm blood vessels, irritate the mucous
gastrointestinal tract (vomiting).
Children склонны к ожирению, сахарному диабету, почечным патологиям.
Disorders of uric acid metabolism – the harbinger of gout in adult
Treatment диатеза представляет собой серьезную проблему, не всегда
brings results, which largely depends on the actions
parents. When diathesis appears to start a nursing mother
- go on a strict diet (water porridge, crackers) and see
on the child’s reaction.
- bathe the baby 2 times a day in the infusion sequence, sage or do
starch baths, furatsilinovye or soda lotions.
Food nursing mom
Diathesis in infants is both mom’s sweet tooth and
smoked and sausages, even dairy products, fruit,
chicken meat consumed by a nursing mom can provoke
diathesis in the baby (see what you can eat nursing mom). Modern
производство – антибиотики и комбикорма для птицы и скота,
food additives in finished products, chemicals at cultivation
vegetables and fruits, processing of meat, fruits and vegetables for further
storage products are saturated with harmful substances that
accumulate in the body and may cause inadequate reactions in
Tricks to help reduce the allergenicity of products
- Cooking methods: boiling, steaming, roasting
- Soaking cereals and vegetables before cooking in cold water not less
- Boil meat for 20 minutes in water, which is then
should be drained. Semi-finished product can be stewed or cooked further.
- When purchasing finished products, you should carefully read the composition:
the fewer components there, especially the unknown ones, the better.
Proper feeding and caring for a newborn
- as previously applied to the chest;
- exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months
- adherence to the hypoallergenic diet nursing mom;
- with artificial feeding careful selection of the mixture, not
giving an allergic reaction (special medicinal mixtures on
hydrolyzate, soy protein, lactic acid mixture)
- properly organized complementary foods (see how to properly enter
feeding the baby). For the first acquaintance in vegetables (and this is 5-6
months) zucchini, cauliflower, potatoes and turnips will do. Vegetables
soak 12 hours in cold water, and only then cook
from them mashed potatoes;
- the gradual introduction of complementary foods, the exclusion of the introduction of 2 different
products in one day;
- tracking individual reaction to the product and excluding it
from the diet – keeping a food diary;
- the exclusion of pre-known allergenic products and
components of the diet.
Subsequently, during the transfer of the baby to the adult table, you need
be very careful with typical allergenic products such
like eggs, honey, nuts, red fruits and vegetables, canned
food. New products are introduced into the diet in meager amounts, and what
the later the better.
- frequent change of linen (bed and underwear);
- use of neutral detergents for washing baby clothes and
clothes (see how to make a safe washing powder);
- regular toilet skin after urination and defecation;
- daily baths;
- exclusion of joint bathing with mom and baby;
- use of neutral skin care and washing products,
specially designed for sensitive skin;
- regular nail clipping;
- minimization of household allergens in the child’s habitat:
animal hair, dust, soft toys …
General drug treatment
- Allergy drugs 1 generation, in addition to the main action,
have a slight sedative effect, so they can be prescribed
with severe anxiety of the child, insomnia, constant crying.
Appointed for 10-14 days with a change of drug every 5 days.
Drugs of choice: suprastin, tavegil, pipolfen.
- Antihistamine 2 generations have a pronounced
anti-allergic effect, do not have hypnotic activity, therefore
can be prescribed for a long reception for 3-5 weeks.
Drugs of choice: Claritin, Zyrtec, Elastin (see tablets from
With strong crying and anxiety can be assigned
sedatives for children.
With concomitant, laboratory-confirmed dysbiosis,
course treatment is assigned to one of the drugs: Bifidumbacterin,
Normobact, Linex and others (see the list of probiotics).
Currently, the need for prescription drugs
corrective and enhancing immunity is controversial and amenable to
criticized by many doctors (see what is immunity and drugs for
its increase). The immune system in children is not mature outside
depending on whether he suffers from diathesis or not. Additional
the same drug load and so imperfect, weakened
immunity in these children can lead to pathological reactions and
the launch of autoimmune processes.
Local drug treatment
In the period of exacerbation of common diathesis are shown.
Daily ten minute baths:
- with moist eczema with a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate
- with diaper rash with infusion series, sage, starch. Infusion of herbs
prepared by pouring a glass of boiling water 1 tbsp. vegetable
raw, insisting for 20 minutes and then adding
strained solution in a bath with water.
- For cooking starch bath 2 tbsp. starch dissolve
50 grams of cold water, add two cups of boiling water and
pour the resulting starch jelly in the tub with water.
After bathing, skin folds should be carefully lubricated beforehand.
boiled and cooled vegetable oil.
- Furatsillinovye lotions – for the treatment of allergic rashes
lotions in a concentration of 1/2 or 1/4 pill furatsilina per cup
water. The lotions are kept on the elements until they blanch,
periodically wetting cotton wool in the solution.
- Soda lotion to relieve itching: 1 tsp. baking soda
растворяется в стакане охлажденной кипяченой water. Not allowed
rubbing movements – just gently attach the lotion to
- When dry and peeling enough to lubricate the skin neutral
emollient creams or baby oil.
- Diathesis ointment – without understanding the etiology of the problem, many
parents buy the ointment themselves, relying on the fact that they
eliminate diathesis. This is fundamentally wrong. Ointment is only
symptomatic treatment of one of manifestations of diathesis.
Moreover, any allergy ointment or cream has limitations on
age, as well as contraindications. With extreme caution, only
when prescribed by a doctor, apply ointment with corticosteroids
(Advantan, Elok, Celestoderm, see why it is better to avoid
use of hormonal ointments).
- Паста Гужиенко (цинк + димедрол) – заказывается в
made from alcohol solution of dimedrol and zinc
(pimecrolimus) from 3 months, gently rub into the skin 2-3 p / day
(dimetindena maleate) from 1 month, a thin layer of 2-3 p / day
Dexpanthenol, 1-2 p / day
walnut extracts – licorice, succession, bisabolol and
When joining a bacterial infection
- Vishnevsky (xeroform, tar, castor oil)
- Levomekol (methyluracil, chloramphenicol)
- Xeroform powder
Routine vaccinations могут быть проведены только через 1 месяц
after the fact of diathesis exacerbation. In the entrepreneurial period (3 days)
and after vaccination antihistamines are prescribed for 7-10
Newborn with a history of allergies immediately
subject to an allergic environmental attack, therefore
diathesis prevention should be carried out even in the intrauterine
If a pregnant woman or her mother had a history of diathesis,
there are allergic diseases, should be excluded from the diet
the most allergenic foods (chocolate, strawberries, honey, nuts,
smoked meat, etc.). In no case can not smoke – not only that
this is a direct risk of fetal abnormalities, smoking aggravates
allergic mood of the body.
The diathesis which manages to take under control gradually fades away to
2-4 years. The child becomes resistant to the action of previously dangerous
allergens, tolerates cow protein, eggs, fruits, and more.
Children whose diathesis proceeds without visible improvement, with
persistent periods of exacerbation, atopic dermatitis, risk in
the future of becoming allergic to severe immunodeficiency.
Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог