Causes and treatment of diathesis in infants,prevention and prognosis for the child

Update: October 2018

Diathesis in Greek means “bent.” AT
Currently, diathesis is not related to a specific disease, but
consider it a special state of the child’s body with:

  • genetic predisposition;
  • undulating course, with periods of remission and exacerbation;
  • susceptibility to certain diseases: allergies,
    respiratory infections, convulsive syndrome, metabolic disorders
    substances, immunological abnormalities.

Most often you can observe diathesis on the cheeks of the baby.

Thus, diathesis is an anomaly of the child’s constitution,
which determines the features of its adaptive reactions and
predisposition to certain diseases, among which are not
The last place is occupied by allergic manifestations on the skin and in
respiratory system. The fact that in the classical sense of the majority
Parents appears under the guise of diathesis – there is nothing like
skin manifestations of an allergic variant of diathesis.

Causes of Allergic Diathesis

ATыделить какую-то одну причину диатеза сложно – как правило,
it develops with the cumulative effect of several reasons
the most important of which is hereditary predisposition, and
also:

  • poor nutrition of women during gestation
    (abuse of products containing a mass of harmful chemicals
    additives);
  • the abuse of pregnant allergenic products (chocolate,
    citrus fruits, strawberries, nuts, milk, eggs, honey);
  • chronic maternal diseases, infections that affect
    the course of pregnancy;
  • taking antibiotics and other drugs in the period
    gestation;
  • toxicosis during pregnancy;
  • complete lack of breastfeeding or his early
    completion;
  • conversion to artificial mixtures, when cow protein
    milk becomes an allergen to the baby’s body (see
    milk in children), or vitamin complexes included in mixtures
    cause allergy in a baby (see harm of synthetic vitamins).

The manifestation of an allergic reaction in a baby can be caused
food allergies, contact reactions, or inhalation of toxic
substances or allergens:

Respiratory diathesis

  • abundance of dust collectors in the room, rare wet cleaning
    premises
  • recently renovated or new furniture in the apartment
  • presence of pets, birds, etc.
  • family members use various deodorants, perfumes,
    air flavors, household chemicals (chlorine-containing cleaning and
    detergents, washing powders, etc.)
  • Most of the toys and items of Chinese baby care
    production exude fetid odors, causing poisoning in
    life.

Food allergies

Today, absolutely any product (substances, additives in
product) in a child or adult may cause inadequate
immune response – in infants, it depends on the nutrition of the mother or
introduction of complementary foods.

Contact diathesis

  • bathing the child should be using only
    hypoallergenic means in the first 3 months for swimming is not
    It is desirable to use hot tap water, should
    warm or boil cold
  • do not wash children’s clothes with ordinary laundry detergent.
    высоким содержанием ПАAT и фосфатов (к ним относится и популярный
    allegedly “baby” powder Eared nannies), see the black list of washing
    powders
  • baby’s skin should touch only cotton
    fabric, that is, eliminate the touch of synthetic and wool
    fabric to the skin (under a synthetic hat to wear cotton cap, under
    wool sweater, cotton clothes, etc.)
  • in children can cause an allergic reaction antibacterial
    wet wipes (see wet wipes are dangerous for baby skin,
    wipes with chlorhexidine can not be used to care for
    infants).

Autoimmune diathesis

For example, hypersensitivity to ultraviolet, high
the level of immunoglobulins class E and M, the activation of lymphocytes,
identification of antinuclear factors, that is, a tendency to systemic
diseases.

Infection-allergic diathesis

At which the trigger becomes transferred
bacterial or viral infection of the upper respiratory tract,
provoking the onset of inflammatory changes in the skin and mucous membranes.

Exudative-catarrhal diathesis

It is a tendency to pseudo-allergic reactions, infiltration and
exfoliation of the skin and mucous membranes, impaired water-salt metabolism. This
type of diathesis is characteristic of large babies with loose and abundant
subcutaneous tissue. They are prone to chafing, pastos skin,
reduction of its tone, seborrhea of ​​the head, digestive disorders. Often
these children have an increase in several groups of lymphatic
sites, the tendency to secondary bacterial skin lesions.

Симптомы диатеза

The manifestations of diathesis are diverse, they can be observed already in the first
weeks baby’s life. They concern not only the skin reaction, but also
general condition of the child. To know what a diathesis looks like, each should
mom, because no one is immune from its development, but the early
correcting this condition helps stop the progression. Should
differentiate diathesis from prickly heat in a skin body rash
various etiologies, diaper dermatitis, atopic dermatitis
in children, etc.

Skin symptoms

  • Seborrhea or gneiss – fat, brownish scales on the skin
    head, crown, eyebrows. Easily removed after oil treatment,
    leaving under hyperpigmented or moist areas.
    It reappears quickly, causing itching. Read more about seborrhea skin on
    head.
  • Milk scab – redness of the cheeks of a limited area in the form
    bright, sometimes clearly defined blush with thickening of the epidermis.
    Small, scaly, roughness and
    skin tightening. AT тяжелых случаях диатез на лице проявляется
    bubbles and crusts on the cheeks.
  • Diaper rash – appear behind the ears, on the folds of the arms and legs, neck,
    even with proper hygiene, it is difficult
    are treatable.
  • Strofulyuz – small-silky, rash rises above the skin on
    arms, legs, torso. ATызывает сильный зуд.
  • Eczema (from 1-1.5 months to 2 years). ATозникает вследствие
    skin scratching and infection. Mostly formed wet
    eczema, with suppuration and symptoms of general intoxication, rarely – dry,
    with peeling without soaking, gradually turning into atopic dermatitis. AT
    severe cases of diathesis extend to the shoulders, chest,
    thighs
  • Urticaria – pale pink blisters like a nettle burn
    cause severe itching (see symptoms of urticaria).

Lesions of the mucous membranes

  • �”Geographical language” – a characteristic lesion of the mucous tongue in
    geographic map view. Symptom occurs due to uneven
    sloughing of the mucosal cell layer
  • The defeat of the gastrointestinal mucosa, manifested unstable chair,
    dysbacteriosis, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain
  • Damage to the respiratory tract mucosa: persistent allergic
    cough, allergic rhinitis
  • Damage to the eyes: allergic conjunctivitis
  • Damage to the bladder mucosa: cystitis

Common symptoms

  • Causeless cry and crying child
  • Bad dream
  • Frequent regurgitation in infants
  • Loss of appetite

Other types of diathesis

Lymphatic diathesis

This is a failure of the lymphatic system due to low
thymus gland activity. along with an increase in lymph nodes
there is a decrease in the activity of the adrenal glands, a tendency to
allergies and dermatitis. AT том числе. infectious due to
insufficient immune response from the skin and mucous membranes in
conditions of suppression of the production of immunoglobulins. For children with this
the anomaly of the constitution is characterized by longer limbs and
relatively short body, swollen lymph nodes, tonsils,
thymus gland. When the gland is excessively large, it can
disturb breathing. Often дети страдают анемией.

Neuro-arthritic diathesis

It provokes high nervous irritability and exhaustion. Children
with this kind of diathesis develop faster in psychic terms,
but more exhausted and restless than peers. Striking manifestation
This type of diathesis becomes acetonemic crises, which
often frighten parents and make them look for a baby
severe pathology. Typical crisis due to accumulation
Ketone bodies (acetone) in the blood are a few episodes of vomiting, with
which the child turns pale and sluggish
up to loss of consciousness.

The starting point is almost always stress or error in
diet (long hungry gap, load of protein or fats).
ATыделение противоинсулиновых гормонов или дефицит сахаров ведут к
the system of exchange reactions resulting in the blood floating
excess ketone bodies (acetone, acetoacetic and beta-hydroxybutyric
acids). These substances act on the central nervous system.
oppressors (up to coma), increase the need
tissues in oxygen (provoke oxygen starvation of tissues,
ischemia), spasm blood vessels, irritate the mucous
gastrointestinal tract (vomiting).

Children склонны к ожирению, сахарному диабету, почечным патологиям.
Disorders of uric acid metabolism – the harbinger of gout in adult
age

Treatment

Treatment диатеза представляет собой серьезную проблему, не всегда
brings results, which largely depends on the actions
parents. When diathesis appears to start a nursing mother
follows:

  • go on a strict diet (water porridge, crackers) and see
    on the child’s reaction.
  • bathe the baby 2 times a day in the infusion sequence, sage or do
    starch baths, furatsilinovye or soda lotions.

Food nursing mom

Diathesis in infants is both mom’s sweet tooth and
smoked and sausages, even dairy products, fruit,
chicken meat consumed by a nursing mom can provoke
diathesis in the baby (see what you can eat nursing mom). Modern
производство  – антибиотики и комбикорма для птицы и скота,
food additives in finished products, chemicals at cultivation
vegetables and fruits, processing of meat, fruits and vegetables for further
storage products are saturated with harmful substances that
accumulate in the body and may cause inadequate reactions in
children.

Tricks to help reduce the allergenicity of products

  • Cooking methods: boiling, steaming, roasting
  • Soaking cereals and vegetables before cooking in cold water not less
    10-12 hours.
  • Boil meat for 20 minutes in water, which is then
    should be drained. Semi-finished product can be stewed or cooked further.
    readiness.
  • When purchasing finished products, you should carefully read the composition:
    the fewer components there, especially the unknown ones, the better.

Proper feeding and caring for a newborn

  • as previously applied to the chest;
  • exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months
    (WHO recommendation);
  • adherence to the hypoallergenic diet nursing mom;
  • with artificial feeding careful selection of the mixture, not
    giving an allergic reaction (special medicinal mixtures on
    hydrolyzate, soy protein, lactic acid mixture)
  • properly organized complementary foods (see how to properly enter
    feeding the baby). For the first acquaintance in vegetables (and this is 5-6
    months) zucchini, cauliflower, potatoes and turnips will do. Vegetables
    soak 12 hours in cold water, and only then cook
    from them mashed potatoes;
  • the gradual introduction of complementary foods, the exclusion of the introduction of 2 different
    products in one day;
  • tracking individual reaction to the product and excluding it
    from the diet – keeping a food diary;
  • the exclusion of pre-known allergenic products and
    components of the diet.

Subsequently, during the transfer of the baby to the adult table, you need
be very careful with typical allergenic products such
like eggs, honey, nuts, red fruits and vegetables, canned
food. New products are introduced into the diet in meager amounts, and what
the later the better.

Care

  • frequent change of linen (bed and underwear);
  • use of neutral detergents for washing baby clothes and
    clothes (see how to make a safe washing powder);
  • regular toilet skin after urination and defecation;
  • daily baths;
  • exclusion of joint bathing with mom and baby;
  • use of neutral skin care and washing products,
    specially designed for sensitive skin;
  • regular nail clipping;
  • minimization of household allergens in the child’s habitat:
    animal hair, dust, soft toys …

General drug treatment

Antihistamines

  • Allergy drugs 1 generation, in addition to the main action,
    have a slight sedative effect, so they can be prescribed
    with severe anxiety of the child, insomnia, constant crying.
    Appointed for 10-14 days with a change of drug every 5 days.
    Drugs of choice: suprastin, tavegil, pipolfen.
  • Antihistamine 2 generations have a pronounced
    anti-allergic effect, do not have hypnotic activity, therefore
    can be prescribed for a long reception for 3-5 weeks.
    Drugs of choice: Claritin, Zyrtec, Elastin (see tablets from
    allergies).

Sedatives

With strong crying and anxiety can be assigned
sedatives for children.

Probiotics

With concomitant, laboratory-confirmed dysbiosis,
course treatment is assigned to one of the drugs: Bifidumbacterin,
Normobact, Linex and others (see the list of probiotics).

Immunomodulators

Currently, the need for prescription drugs
corrective and enhancing immunity is controversial and amenable to
criticized by many doctors (see what is immunity and drugs for
its increase). The immune system in children is not mature outside
depending on whether he suffers from diathesis or not. Additional
the same drug load and so imperfect, weakened
immunity in these children can lead to pathological reactions and
the launch of autoimmune processes.

Local drug treatment

In the period of exacerbation of common diathesis are shown.
Daily ten minute baths:

  • with moist eczema with a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate
    (potassium permanganate);
  • with diaper rash with infusion series, sage, starch. Infusion of herbs
    prepared by pouring a glass of boiling water 1 tbsp. vegetable
    raw, insisting for 20 minutes and then adding
    strained solution in a bath with water.
  • For cooking starch bath 2 tbsp. starch dissolve
    50 grams of cold water, add two cups of boiling water and
    pour the resulting starch jelly in the tub with water.

After bathing, skin folds should be carefully lubricated beforehand.
boiled and cooled vegetable oil.

  • Furatsillinovye lotions – for the treatment of allergic rashes
    lotions in a concentration of 1/2 or 1/4 pill furatsilina per cup
    water. The lotions are kept on the elements until they blanch,
    periodically wetting cotton wool in the solution.
  • Soda lotion to relieve itching: 1 tsp. baking soda
    растворяется в стакане охлажденной кипяченой water. Not allowed
    rubbing movements – just gently attach the lotion to
    inflamed skin.
  • When dry and peeling enough to lubricate the skin neutral
    emollient creams or baby oil.
  • Diathesis ointment – without understanding the etiology of the problem, many
    parents buy the ointment themselves, relying on the fact that they
    eliminate diathesis. This is fundamentally wrong. Ointment is only
    symptomatic treatment of one of manifestations of diathesis.

Moreover, any allergy ointment or cream has limitations on
age, as well as contraindications. With extreme caution, only
when prescribed by a doctor, apply ointment with corticosteroids
(Advantan, Elok, Celestoderm, see why it is better to avoid
use of hormonal ointments).

 Non-hormonal ointment

  • Паста Гужиенко (цинк + димедрол) – заказывается в аптеке,
    made from alcohol solution of dimedrol and zinc
    pasta.
  • Elidel

(pimecrolimus) from 3 months, gently rub into the skin 2-3 p / day

  • Fenistil gel

(dimetindena maleate) from 1 month, a thin layer of 2-3 p / day

  • Bepanten

Dexpanthenol, 1-2 p / day

   
  • La kri

walnut extracts – licorice, succession, bisabolol and
panthenol.

  • Tsindol

(zinc oxide)

  • Desitin

(zinc oxide)

When joining a bacterial infection

  • Vishnevsky (xeroform, tar, castor oil)
  • Levomekol (methyluracil, chloramphenicol)
  • Xeroform powder

Routine vaccinations

Routine vaccinations могут быть проведены только через 1 месяц
after the fact of diathesis exacerbation. In the entrepreneurial period (3 days)
and after vaccination antihistamines are prescribed for 7-10
days

Diathesis prevention

Newborn with a history of allergies immediately
subject to an allergic environmental attack, therefore
diathesis prevention should be carried out even in the intrauterine
period.

If a pregnant woman or her mother had a history of diathesis,
there are allergic diseases, should be excluded from the diet
the most allergenic foods (chocolate, strawberries, honey, nuts,
smoked meat, etc.). In no case can not smoke – not only that
this is a direct risk of fetal abnormalities, smoking aggravates
allergic mood of the body.

Forecast

The diathesis which manages to take under control gradually fades away to
2-4 years. The child becomes resistant to the action of previously dangerous
allergens, tolerates cow protein, eggs, fruits, and more.
Children whose diathesis proceeds without visible improvement, with
persistent periods of exacerbation, atopic dermatitis, risk in
the future of becoming allergic to severe immunodeficiency.

Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог

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