Causes and symptoms of bronchospasm in children andadults

Update: December 2018 How long can a person live without
oxygen? Usually, мозг погибает уже через 6 минут после
прекращения breathing. If the body receives a small
the amount of air, but the person is experiencing a strong deficiency –
the process of dying is much slower. In this case, all
fabrics, without exception, are in a state of “starvation”, since
part of the vital chemical processes stop without
oxygen. If you do not timely fill the amount of this gas,
then death is inevitable.

Acute bronchospasm can cause both quick death and
and a sharp deterioration in well-being. This is a very dangerous violation.
which often leads to a complete cessation of air flow
in the lungs. Why does it occur, how to recognize this condition and what
You can quickly remove the attack you will learn from this article.

What is bronchospasm

бронхоспазмBefore inhaled oxygen enters
lungs, he passes through the larynx, trachea and lower respiratory
of the way. They start with two large bronchi, which branch out
into smaller parts. AT стенке каждого из них обязательно
mucous membrane, muscular tissue and elastic
fiber, allowing them to stretch. The smallest ones
called bronchioles, their diameter is less than 1 mm. These
structures open into the alveoli – microscopic formations,
where is the exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide).

What is bronchospasm? It is a condition in which they contract.
muscle and sharply narrowed lumen of the bronchi. AT результате возникает
difficulty or complete cessation of airflow to the alveoli
and therefore into the blood. The longer this violation persists,
the more pronounced “oxygen starvation” in the tissues.  AT
As a result, severe complications associated with
damage to the brain, heart and kidneys.

Symptoms

Identify this acute condition can be quite easily. Have
a person’s well-being deteriorates and signs appear
respiratory failure. The first signs of bronchoconstriction
are:симптом бронхоспазма

  • Dry, strong cough;
  • Dyspnea at rest, greatly aggravated by
    load;
  • Haveдушье;
  • The feeling of “lack of air” – the patient can not
    breathe;
  • The characteristic position of the body – a person sits with his hands,
    or standing in the slope;
  • Blanching of the skin and mucous membranes;
  • Clouding of consciousness – occurs when a significant deficit
    oxygen.

When spasm is rarely observed all of these symptoms –
a person can describe his condition in different ways. But if he has
These symptoms suddenly appeared, there is a high probability that
this is the beginning of respiratory obstruction (obstruction).

The reasons

ATременное сужение бронхов может возникнуть из-за большого
the number of harmful factors. This may be the effect of bacteria.
or virus, inhalation of toxic substances, asthma attack, side
drug action and more. To provide first aid for
bronchospasm, in most cases, no need to exactly
определять причину an attack. However for проведения правильной
therapy and prevention of recurrent episodes, you need to accurately
determine the harmful factor / disease and eliminate them.

Bronchospasm in children

Symptoms бронхоспазма могут возникнуть у человека любого
age, but in children they are much heavier. It’s related
with features of the structure of their respiratory tract – the child’s bronchi
respond very strongly to any damaging effects, be it
infection, foreign body or allergic reaction. therefore
causing them to have a persistent airway spasm requires
rapid diagnosis and emergency care.

Most often, bronchospasm in children occurs in one of
The reasons listed below.

Foreign body entering the bronchus lumen

This reason is most relevant for younger children (up to
5 years). Curiosity encourages them to try or swallow
небольшие предметы: батарейки, игрушки, косточки и etc. However this
harmless occupation can end in a tragic way if hit
инородного тела в нижние дыхательные of the way.

In addition to the fact that the subject can completely block the gap
bronchus and stop the flow of air, it can cause a strong
bronchospasm. This condition is an attempt by the body to protect itself from
alien object. Unfortunately, it only makes things worse and often
fatal.

When should this cause be considered? Her следует
put in first place in the following cases:

  1. Characteristic age – up to 5 years;
  2. The child was unattended for some time;
  3. On the background of full health, a strong cough appeared, difficulties
    inhalation, shortness of breath and other signs of breathing problems
    (blanching / blue skin, severe weakness, loss
    consciousness);
  4. Often, the entry of a foreign object into the bronchus is accompanied by
    hoarseness. The reason – damage to the vocal cords in
    larynx;
  5. If there is a phonendoscope at home (for example, in a set with manual
    tonometer), you can listen to the right and left half of the chest
    cells If only one blockage occurs from the lungs – to
    the corresponding half will not hear breath.

At home, restore airway patency
almost impossible. Therefore, the first action of parents
who suspected this condition in a child should have a brigade call
Ambulance.

Bronchial Asthma Attack

Asthma is a common cause of bronchospasm in adults and in
children However, if most older patients are aware of
your disease and its treatment methods, then in young patients
this disease must be properly diagnosed. Often, her first
manifestation is precisely the attack of choking / shortness of breath.

Bronchial asthma, in the first place, should be suspected
children with allergies. Often a child suffering from this pathology,
faced in the past with other allergic diseases (eczema,
urticaria, rhinitis, dermatitis and others). In most cases
bronchospasm attack occurs after inhalation of particles
a certain substance. It can be almost anything –
household dust, polluted air, pollen, animal hair and
etc.

It manifests itself quite typically – it develops very quickly.
сухой кашель, больному трудно совершить выдох,
breathing can be so difficult that it feels
choking. Such episodes can occur as several times a day,
no more than once a year, depending on the characteristics
organism. It should be remembered that allergic bronchospasm can
appear not only in the daytime, but also at night. Therefore not
it is recommended to leave the child completely without observation at the time
sleep.

If you suspect a beginning asthma attack, you should
You can quickly seek the help of a specialist who will determine
the required amount of treatment and will give recommendations on changing the image
life with allergies.

Read more about the symptoms of bronchial asthma in children.
here.

Bronchospasm exercise

Intense exercise can cause bronchospasm in children,
so and in older people. The most common violation
develops in a child involved in sports or hard work.
This condition usually occurs at the time of greatest
stress physical strength. Excessive load leads to a surge in
blood biologically active substances that have the ability
quickly narrow the lumen of the bronchi. As a result, the person begins
experiencing a severe lack of oxygen, which is manifested by all
typical symptoms.

Often enough to eliminate all manifestations of pathology
interrupt the execution of physical labor. Cough and shortness of breath
most cases disappear within a few minutes, coloring
skin normal after 5-10 minutes. However in some cases
bronchial narrowing can be quite persistent. Therefore if breathing
not restored in the near future, but a person’s condition
worsened, you should call an ambulance that will expand
respiratory tract medications.

Acute bronchitis

Infectious diseases in children are much heavier than
in adults. As a rule, acute bronchitis is not the cause
bronchospasm, but in young patients (especially if their age
less than 7 years old), inflammation can cause this severe syndrome.
To prevent its occurrence should be timely
recognize the disease and carry out the correct therapy.

Suspect developing acute bronchitis and distinguish it from asthma
possible on the following grounds:

Characteristic symptom Acute bronchitis Difference from asthma
Cough As a rule, at the onset of the disease, the cough is dry, but after
some days it gets wet. This can be separated
clear or purulent sputum.
Cough сухой, приступообразный, сохраняется непостоянно. AT
in most cases, it appears only during exacerbations.
Body temperature Часто повышена (более 38оС). Remains in the normal range.
The presence of signs of intoxication (weakness, sweating, loss
appetite)
Almost always observed with bronchitis. None.
The presence of signs of lesions of the upper respiratory tract (runny nose,
sore throat, hoarseness)
Dyspnea attacks Могут появляться в разгар болезни, чаще у маленьких children ATозникают только во время an attack.
When does bronchospasm occur? ATо время вдыхания аллергена, стресса или при значительных
physical exertion. Exacerbations often occur in the summer or spring,
usually against the background of complete health.

Listed signs of a child is easy to detect.
If you suspect the presence of pathology, you should refer to
a qualified doctor who accurately diagnoses the disease
and determine the correct treatment tactics.

Adult bronchospasm

ATременное сужение бронхов возникает не только у детей, но и у
older people. This condition may be caused
various reasons, including those that were listed
above. Typical symptoms in adults often cause bronchitis,
exacerbation of asthma or excessive exercise. However for
this pathology of patients is more characteristic of other pathologies leading to
to bronchospasm.

Since an adult’s airway is not as responsive to
various harmful factors like a child’s spasm
need more serious irritant. Often in adulthood
the cause of the decrease in the bronchus lumen are chronic
diseases or toxic effects on the body. In order to
suspect the presence of a certain disease, enough
analyze associated symptoms and episodes of the disorder
breathing.

Exacerbation of COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (abbreviated
– COPD is a common cause of impaired respiration and heart function
in smokers and representatives of “harmful” specialties – miners,
workers at the factory, builders and others. Over time, this
chronic pathology in them leads to damage to the walls of the bronchi and
persistent narrowing of their lumen. AT запущенных стадиях ХОБЛ, ткани
respiratory tract may be injured so much that even
potent drugs do not have on such a patient
significant effect.

ATо время обострения этой патологии, у больного могут возникать
temporary respiratory disorders and bronchospasm. As a rule, the main ones
The culprits of such episodes are harmful bacteria. Penetrating
into the body, they begin to actively proliferate and release toxins,
which leads to the release of biologically active substances. It is they and
may cause rapid narrowing of the lower respiratory tract.

How to determine the presence of COPD and timely refer to
a specialist? For this there are clear criteria that will allow
conduct a primary diagnosis to any person. They include
only two points:

  1. AT прошлом больной работал на вредном производстве (не менее 2-3
    years) or smoked;
  2. AT течение нескольких лет, человека беспокоил постоянный кашель
    with sputum (at least 2 years).

For the final diagnosis, an additional
examination (spirometry) and examination of the doctor. Therefore, when
presence of typical symptoms of chronic lung disease
It is recommended to contact a medical facility for
diagnostics.

Подробнее о лечении ХОБЛ читайте here.

Hysterical fit

ATопреки распространенному заблуждению, к нарушению дыхания могут
bring not only the pathology of internal organs. Hysteria –
the most common cause of bronchial tree spasm, which
associated with the sickness of the soul. This is a special mental disorder that
arises in people with a certain temperament. Usually,
they are very emotional, prone to dramatization and exaggeration
everyday events.

Recognize the hysterical seizure that led to bronchospasm,
it can be quite difficult, especially for an unprepared person. For
In order to distinguish it from other acute states, it is necessary
assess the presence of the following features:

  • Before the attack, the patient experienced a strong experience, stress or
    joy;
  • The presence of gestures, facial expressions and cries of “theatrical” character –
    dramatic crying, tearing clothes, distorted flour
    выражение лица и etc.;
  • The patient has a certain warehouse of personality (hypochondria
    or hyperemotional);
  • The episode of respiratory failure develops on the background of normal
    patient health or complaints are chaotic
    (not objectively related, despite the fact that the patient
    sees a connection between them). For example, the appearance of choking with tingling
    в пояснице и etc.

The presence of 2 or more signs – a reason to suspect hysteria
person You need to know that this is a mental disorder also
is a disease that requires proper treatment. Therefore, after
first aid, you should call the ambulance team or
go to hospital on an outpatient basis, depending on the condition
person

ATдыхание раздражающих газов

As mentioned above, the spasm of the bronchial tree is
a protective reaction of the body to a harmful factor. It may occur
in various diseases and conditions, including inhalation
irritating or poisonous substances. They can be easily pushed into
environment, so you need to know how fast
detect this condition and provide proper assistance.

To the most common substances that can cause
inhalation breathing problems include:

  • Contents of pepper spray;
  • Spicy spices;
  • Gasoline vapors;
  • Ammonia fumes;
  • Ammonia;
  • Industrial dust (for example, from copper or chlorine
    production).

For certain individuals, the listed gases and liquids are capable of
вызвать выраженные нарушения breathing. Usually, такие ситуации
develop unexpectedly, both for the patient and for
surrounding Therefore, the main thing is to remember about the possibilities of development.
bronchospasm under the action of irritants and timely
assist the man.

Medicinal bronchospasm

Some pharmacological drugs possess enough
specific side effect – they narrow the bronchial wall,
leading to symptoms of respiratory failure. Such
The action is not manifested in every patient. AT среднем,
the frequency of these reactions is 1 patient per 10,000 and
less often.

Bronchospasm in asthma has much in common with the dosage form.
It also occurs under the influence of a specific substances
(drug) and is quite short-lived. At risk
This side effects have:

Medication group Representatives
Anti-inflammatory non-hormonal drugs
  • Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)
ACE inhibitors (pressure reducing)
  • Enalapril;
  • Captopril;
  • Fozinopril.
Calcium channel inhibitors (pressure reducing)
  • Nifedipine;
  • Amlodipine.
M-cholinomimetics
  • Pilocarpine.
Beta blockers
  • Atenolol;
  • Bisoprolol;
  • Карведилол и etc.

Перечисленные substances при приеме внутрь могут стать причиной
respiratory failure in some people who have
increased sensitivity. Therefore, starting their reception is necessary
carefully assess your well-being to determine the presence
negative reactions. However, this does not mean that you should refuse
from using drugs that cause bronchospasm, and neglect
doctor appointments.

How to remove bronchospasm: first aid

Relief (or removal) of bronchospasm should begin immediately.
after its occurrence, without waiting for the arrival of the doctor. It will help
reduce the risk of adverse effects and improve the condition
the patient. AT первую очередь, следует выполнить следующие действия в
established order:снятие бронхоспазма

  1. Seat the patient closer to fresh air and eliminate the effect
    any irritants (allergens, strong irritants
    запахов и etc.);
  2. Free the chest from clothing and any constraining
    objects (belts, corsets, suspenders and others);
  3. If you have on hand any inhalation drugs from
    bronchospasm improving airway patency
    (Salbutamol, Formoterol, Berodual, Impratropia or Tiotropium
    bromide), it is necessary to make 2-3 inhalations;
  4. ATызвать бригаду скорой медицинской помощи.

The listed actions for bronchospasm must be performed,
regardless of the cause of this acute condition. Her
diagnosis and treatment is a matter of hospital doctors or ambulatory
services, depending on the patient’s condition. At the time of detection
резкого сужения бронхов, главное – снять бронхоспазм и
restore oxygen access to the lungs.

FAQ

ATопрос: Может ли возникнуть сердечный бронхоспазм?

Official medicine does not recognize such a thing as
�”Cardiac asthma”. The mechanism of development and treatment of this condition
is significantly different from the usual narrowing of the bronchi, because
respiratory failure due to swelling of the heart due to edema
lungs.

ATопрос: Как снять бронхоспазм народными методами?

It is not recommended to use any means.
traditional medicine, especially strongly flavored or capable
irritating effect on the skin. They can only strengthen
attack. Removal of bronchospasm is recommended to be checked.
medication methods.

ATопрос: Как выбрать лечение бронхоспазма после
relieving an attack?

This nuance is determined by the attending physician, depending on the cause
an attack. Therefore, before conducting therapy, the doctor prescribes
necessary diagnostic measures to determine the disease,
which caused the narrowing of the bronchi.

ATопрос: Может ли эта болезнь передаваться по
inheritance?

Since the violation of the airway is not
disease, and the state of the body – it is not transmitted to children.
However, the DNA may have a tendency to develop a certain
disease that can lead to this violation.

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