BUTтерома: причины возникновения единичных иmultiple cysts

BUTтеромаHaving heard the diagnosis of “atheroma”, the patient can
get scared because of consonance with the names that designate
опухолевые образования, в том числе и malignant. However, these
pathologies arise and develop in completely different ways, have
specific symptoms. That is why it is first necessary
clarify to the patient that an uninfected epidermal cyst is not
threatens his life.

Neoplasm in the dermal layers

BUTтерома — это патология сальной железы, изначально не имеющая
inflammatory component. The essence of the process of its development is reduced to
the accumulation of secretion in the cavity, which lost access to the surface of the skin
due to blockage of the duct.

Etiology of the disease

To develop a pathological process, you must have
provoking factor. Causes of atheroma can be
several situations and conditions:

  1. Etiology of the diseaseProlonged surface contamination
    skin integument. Earth, dust or dirt are quite capable, mixing
    with the secret of sebaceous glands, create a cork. Excess layer of cosmetics
    has the same effect.
  2. Mechanical damage to the skin, including regular, with
    which cells of the injured epithelial layer can
    move and block the exiting duct of the gland.
  3. Abnormalities in the development of sebum glands
    (congenital anomaly).
  4. Hormonal failure – increased production of male hormones –
    testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone. They contribute to the concentration
    secretion of sebaceous glands, thereby creating conditions for the obstructed
    outflow and even blockage of the lumen of the duct.
  5. The appearance of epidermal cystsWeakening of skin protection
    integuments with diabetes.
  6. Cystic fibrosis, also called cystic fibrosis. it
    the disease is inherited and leads to tissue damage
    and increase the viscosity of the secretion of endocrine glands.
  7. The age-related change in the level of female hormones is lower
    estrogen content affects the composition of the secretion of sebaceous glands,
    which may contribute to the formation of epidermal cysts.
  8. Increased fat production in the pubertal skin glands
    period.
  9. Defects in the development of certain skin areas in children. Cysts
    most often found in the ear, with the location
    anterior to the sink – 86%.
  10. Seborrheic dermatitis, accompanied by excessive formation
    sebum.
  11. Developed acne disease.
  12. Increased sweating.

When neoplasms develop on the background of seborrhea or
hyperhidrosis, it is appropriate to consider atheroma as a complication of the main
diseases.

The appearance of epidermal cysts

Typical localizationIf you look at the structure of atheroma,
notice its characteristics is easy: there is a closed
the shell and the contents that the epithelial cells produce
layer inside the capsule itself. It follows from this: like
education is nothing more than a typical cyst. Pathological
the process starts due to blockage of the sebaceous gland duct –
thus formed a closed space that does not have
exit. At this time, sebum continues to be produced and
accumulate inside the cavity bounded by the shell, and it
forced to stretch.

The sizes of such cysts vary from small, with a diameter of
half a centimeter, up to five, and sometimes ten centimeter rounded
neoplasms. In a calm, non-inflammatory state, they are usually
painless and most often only cosmetic
inconvenience.

Such neoplasms are most often found in a patient.
several, sometimes even more than a dozen. In such a case, they talk about
multiple atheromas. It also happens that the patient turns on
about a single cyst.

Typical localization

BUTтеромы могут развиться везде, где есть сальные железы. They can
discover where their ducts open immediately to the surface
кожи, например в области век или ареоl And, of course, where the skin
fat is excreted into the lumen of the follicles, otherwise called hair follicles.
bags. On the human body there are areas where the sebaceous cyst
can not appear in principle, simply because of the lack of
those in the thick skin are palms and feet.

BUTтеромы возникают наиболее часто на тех участках, где сальных
There are a lot of glands:

  • face and scalp;
  • neck;
  • back.

Breast, abdomen, limbs and genitals much less
становятся местом локализации подобных neoplasms.

Clinical manifestationsAccording to the international classification of atheroma
относятся к группе «Cysts кожи и подкожной клетчатки», обозначаемой
L72 Histologically distinguished steacistoma, epidermoid,
trichodermal, other and unspecified skin cysts.

It makes sense to talk about epidermoid cysts as primary
formations. They are congenital and are localized most often on
head and groin area.

For ретенционных фолликулярных атером характерна локализация в
upper torso. They are often called secondary and
classified as a complication of acne and its unprofessional
treatment.

Clinical manifestations

In most cases, the cyst represents a cosmetic defect:
education in the temporal region or near the ear does not look the most
the best decoration. And there will be no noticeable only large
neoplasms: due to their location in the epidermis of the bulge
appear over small cysts. No painful
There are usually no symptoms of atheroma:

  • state of health is normal;
  • temperature indicators do not increase;
  • appetite saved.

The skin over the cyst of the sebaceous gland is most often not different.
in color and texture from neighboring areas, and in the center
noticeable dark point – blocked flow.

But this is true only with a favorable course of the process, and
a complicated infection has completely different signs. When
penetration into the cavity of microbes cystic contents soon
turns into purulent masses, typical manifestations appear
inflammation: increased local temperature, edema, hyperemia and
soreness Very quickly the volume of atheroma itself becomes
substantially large.

Differential diagnostics

Atheroma has typical properties to distinguish it.
from other pathologies. They allow the doctor to determine exactly what
occurs in the patient’s body. The most frequently required to distinguish
cyst from lymph node enlarged for various reasons and
tumors:

  • lipomas;
  • fibroids.

The first was formed in the subcutaneous fatty tissue, both have
connective tissue nature.

Differential diagnosticsIf in the process of examination on the skin
a slight rounded elevation is detected, most likely it is
atheroma. Lipomas, fibromas or lymph nodes become noticeable only in
the case when they are already significantly increased in volume.

Palpation examination of the skin over the tumor
practically moves with it in the case of atheroma and is easy
shifts over the tumors. This is determined by the location.
липомы или фибромы в тканях, лежащих на большей глубине.

Cysts of the sebaceous glands, as well as lipomas, are soft. Fibromas and lymph nodes
on the contrary, they are characterized by a dense consistency.

If the patient notes pain on palpation, and no
signs of an inflammatory process, then with a large degree
probabilities can be said about the presence of fibroma or increased
lymph nodes.

Medical eventsThe main difference between atheroma from others
objects – histological. For опухолевидных новообразований
characterized by an increase in the volume due to cell division. it
касается и доброкачественной, и злокачественной плюс-tissue. BUT
the main symptom of a cyst is the presence of a cavity filled with the product
secretory activity of her epithelium. The resulting mass can
have a different consistency: from curd to very thick.

BUTтеромы никогда не перерождаются, и на их месте не развиваются
malignant neoplasms. Epidermal cysts are not
undergo malignancy, that is, they do not transform into
malignant.

Medical events

This problem cannot be solved only by adjustments and compresses. But in
In the case when for some reason a visit to the surgeon
delayed, they will be helpful.

Traditional medicine

The sebaceous gland can only be removed surgically.
But inозможно замедлить рост новообразования, применив некоторые
recipes offered by experts in traditional medicine:

  1. Traditional medicineIn the warm season you can
    take advantage of the freshly torn leaves of a coltsfoot, putting
    them to the problem area of ​​the skin with a shiny green surface
    plates. Secure with a plaster. The course is from 12 to 14 days.
  2. Cut leaf agave (aloe) or Kalanchoe evening
    attach to atheroma, take off in the morning. Use adhesive tape to
    fixing bandages. The duration of treatment is 2 weeks.
  3. Thoroughly mix 1 tbsp. l смальца с 1 ч. l freshly squeezed
    garlic juice. Lubricate the skin over the lipoma with this composition three times.
    on the day before the state when the tumorous bulge disappears.
  4. Растопив 1 ч. l lamb fat rub it into place
    localization atheroma. In parallel with the external exposure is necessary
    take 3 tbsp. l cranberries (vitamins and vegetable
    antibiotics) daily.

When применения любых препаратов растительного или животного
origin, especially orally, do not rely only on
intuition and reviews of friends. Contraindications are even for mint
tea, and the use of ointments can increase the blood supply to the problem
plot. Each person has their own characteristics
the body and its diseases, so before applying this or that
another prescription is better to consult with your doctor.

Traditional therapy

Traditional therapyMain cause of recurrence
cysts – the remaining fragments of its shell. They give rise to new
atheroma. Therefore, self-treatment is not welcome: without experience and
necessary tools to remove the entire capsule without residue is unlikely
will succeed.

Still, it’s better to ask the surgeon for one more help.
important reason: to achieve complete sterility at home
almost unreal. Self-treatment without strict observance of asepsis
and antiseptics will result in a relapse of the disease or even suppuration and
заражением blood.

With the classic removal of atheroma in the clinic under the local
anesthesia is carefully done incision over the neoplasm.
The size of the cyst determines the length of the wound. Careful and accurate
movements, in order not to violate the integrity, the surgeon separates the capsule
from surrounding tissues and so isolates it in a way. In the extreme
cases, for example, if atheroma was very large and the patient
low blood clotting in the wound cavity can be put
drainage.

Suture material used non-absorbable, superimposed
aseptic dressing. The doctor removes the stitches 10 days after
operations if the formation of connective tissue is well pronounced
bridges in the wound. It is considered normal healing for two.
weeks.

Removal by modern methods

Developed and applied in medical practice and more
modern options for surgery for such diagnoses.
They require expensive special equipment and trained
specialists. How it works:

  1. With the help of a focused laser beam can destroy the cyst
    and cause destructive changes in it and its contents.
  2. Radio waves with intense radiation burn out pathological
    tissue.
  3. High frequency electric current can destroy
    atheroma.

Accordingly, the methods are called laser, radio wave and
electrocoagulation.

In large medical clinics they also use
аргонно-плазменную коагуляцию.

Removal by modern methodsIt is bloodless, almost
jewelry accuracy surgery when the surgeon cuts off
atheroma from surrounding tissues with a special scalpel with directional
plasma beam, which is located at the very edge of the tool.
The operation allows you to very accurately and effectively destroy
abnormal tissue and stop bleeding.

As in the classic version, applied local anesthesia.
After such operations, scars are hardly noticeable or not at all.
are visible.

There are many advantages to new techniques, but there are also disadvantages. First of all,
similar operations can be performed not everywhere, in small hospitals
no equipment needed. Secondly, you can operate on
large private clinics with appropriate equipment, but
The procedure will not be cheap.

Complications in the postoperative period

Monitor the patient after surgery need
required Certain indicators may
indicate undesirable developments:

  1. Complications in the postoperative periodTemperature increase and
    on the second, and on the third day. However, a slight rise is permissible
    on the first day after surgery and is considered normal.
  2. The bandage was soaked with blood. This phenomenon is observed in the patient.
    with hemophilia, thrombocytopenia, and an enlarged spleen and
    hepatic pathologies. Can cause bleeding
    anticoagulants, that is, drugs that reduce clotting
    blood.
  3. The seams are untenable and diverge.
  4. Detection of purulent exudate after surgery to remove
    non-inflammatory atheroma is a serious reason for emergency
    interventions – this indicates a wound infection.

Since most patients after surgery
interventions performed under polyclinic conditions are treated
on an outpatient basis, they must be instructed that
at least one of the listed indicators is an occasion for urgent
appeals to the surgeon. In the tactics of postoperative treatment will
made adjustments.

Suppuration atheroma

In the case of joining the infection surgery
carry out the same methods, but there are significant differences:

  1. Suppuration atheromaIf usually developing atheroma is removed in
    routinely, then patients with cysts complicated by inflammatory
    process, must be operated urgently.
  2. At the final stage: the surgeon does not sew up the wound tightly so as not to
    create microorganisms comfortable conditions. Stitches after removal
    festering sebaceous cysts do not impose.

После обработки антисептиками обязательно ставится drainage. For
This is used by a rubber graduate – the strip must reach
bottom of the wound and a centimeter – one and a half out of it. Sure to
a sterile dressing is applied. Subsequently gum change
first daily, then every other day. You can refuse them
after cessation of discharge.

In the first days of ligation is carried out in the morning and evening. Then – once
per day, as the wound improves. Medical treatments are applied.
мази — Вишневского и Левомеколь.
And every time the fabric is treated with antiseptics is not only desirable
but it is necessary – until the wound heals. Possible appointment
antibiotics.

Even if a festering cyst has broken through and the contents start
independently flow out, you should not relax. Usually
part of the epithelial cells of the capsule in the cavity is preserved, which means
only one thing: there are no guarantees that later will not develop
relapse, and the neoplasm will develop again in the same place.
Therefore, the operation is still necessary.

In the course of its development, an abscess can break through or
having melted the capsule, spread the painful process on
нижележащие tissue. This condition requires immediate
medical intervention.

Try to squeeze out the inflamed atheroma, self-puncture
a hole in its wall is not only unproductive, but also very dangerous.
With such manipulations, the capsule shell may break, and
pus will get direct access to surrounding tissues and infect them. BUT
it will be the beginning for serious complications and occasion for
long treatment.

Preventive measures

Often patients are asked how to protect themselves from recurrences.
Athero at the same place and the emergence of new. Specialists
as a rule, it is advised to follow the following rules
prophylaxis:

  • personal hygiene is important: following the rules of skin care, with
    use caution in fatty areas of scrubs;
  • take a shower daily;
  • do not delay the treatment of skin infections
    pathology;
  • reduce the content of animal fat, refined sugar in the menu,
    consume less salt and spices.

Preventive measuresHaving discovered a neoplasm,
it is necessary to consult a doctor as soon as possible with his help
establish the causes of hyperhidrosis and outline an action plan for its
to eliminate. The causes of atheroma may be different, but
they have a common feature: they themselves can not dissolve and disappear,
but grow to a significant size – quite capable. Surgeons
advised to remove cysts in a planned manner, without waiting for development
inflammatory process.

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