BUTртрит — что это такое, симптомы, причины,degrees, first signs and treatment

BUTртрит — это воспалительное заболевание joints. With
arthritis, a person experiences pain during active movements, flexion and
extension, as well as walking, if the joints of the legs are inflamed. Sometimes
the skin above the sore joint begins to turn red,
there is a local temperature increase or a general
fever.

Let’s take a closer look at what the disease is, what
the causes and first signs are characteristic of him, as well as the better
treat arthritis in adults.

What is arthritis?

BUTртрит

BUTртрит – это совокупное обозначение воспалительных заболеваний
joints, the main symptom of which is joint pain,
especially when walking or using physical force.

The disease is caused by impaired metabolic processes inside
joint resulting in an increase in synovial
shell, leading to tissue proliferation and destruction of cartilage.
Excess fluid in the joint leads to the stimulation of inflammation and
the occurrence of pain and fever.

Withзнаки артрита могут возникать постепенно, начиная просто с
sensations of light swelling and discomfort in the bend of the joint or
phalanges of the fingers and then acute pain and the rest
symptoms.

Kinds

BUTртрит делится, по локализации:

  • моноартрит – заболевание артритом одного сустава;
  • oligoarthritis (two or three affected areas);
  • полиартрит – заболевание артритом больше 3
    joints.

By the nature of the changes that occur, arthritis is divided into:

  • inflammatory, which is characterized by the presence of inflammation,
  • degenerative when first eating disorder occurs
    cartilage, dystrophy, change in the appearance of the affected joint with
    its subsequent deformation.

BUTртрит может быть острым и хроническим:

  • Acute arthritis develops rapidly, accompanied by sharp
    pain and inflammation in the tissues that pass in 2-3 days.
  • Chronic arthritis progresses gradually, slowly moving
    in serious illness.

Due to the origin of the disease:

  • Infectious or purulent arthritis. Manifested under
    exposure to a specific infection.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. Formed due to the prevalence
    infectious-allergic diseases. This view is more
    dangerous than the first, since it often flows into a chronic
    inflammation. If rheumatoid arthritis is not treated, then the patient may
    run into problems of difficulty walking.
  • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. This view is mostly
    occurs in children under the age of 16 years. Unfortunately, the etiology
    the disease is unexplored to date but has
    serious consequences: difficulty walking and disability
    children.
  • Reactive. Reactive arthritis is manifested mainly
    due to changes in immunity in people with hereditary
    location to inadequate utilization of antigen complexes.
    Reactive arthritis sometimes becomes a consequence of many infections.
    Most often it is a consequence of transferred enterocolitis.
  • Gouty arthritis. One joint is usually affected,
    the attack of pain usually develops at night or in the early morning hours,
    if untreated, the seizures recur more often and last longer
    blood uric acid levels are elevated.
  • Osteoarthritis. Joints fail within a few
    years old. A characteristic sign is a crunch in the fingers or toes. Dangerous
    what can hit the spine. May begin to swell and
    to hurt
  • Traumatic. Manifested in the presence of open and
    closed injuries of the joints and in the case of regularly occurring lungs
    injuries.
  • Ревматизм – это хроническое заболевание соединительной
    ткани с преимущественным поражением сердца и joints. Him
    etiology is also not clear, as well as the causes of rheumatoid
    arthritis;
  • BUTртроз — форма артрита, при которой поражаются сугубо суставы,
    and periarticular tissues, without affecting other organs.

Withчины

The unequivocal and exact cause of arthritis is currently not
determined, but doctors have identified some factors that can
provoke the development of arthritis. Consider them:

  • infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses;
  • allergies;
  • metabolic disease;
  • injury;
  • vitamin deficiency (vitamin deficiency);
  • insufficient nutrient intake
  • diseases of the nervous system;
  • disorders of the immune system;
  • excessive stress on the joints;
  • improper diet, incl. alcohol use
    drinks;
  • overweight;
  • endocrine gland disorders;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • укусы насекомых, например осы, пчелы и др.;
  • hypothermia (hypothermia);
  • некоторые болезни: туберкулез, бруцеллёз, подагра,
    dysentery, gonorrhea.

Such factors cause a rather serious blow to the joints,
which can eventually cause arthritis. Besides,
among the main circumstances causing the formation
inflammatory process in connecting elements are
excessive exercise, injury, metabolic disorders,
diseases of the nervous system.

Также появлению артрита способствуют наследственные
патологии суставов и костей, курение и избыточный weight.

Symptoms of Arthritis

The leading symptom of arthritis is pain in one or more
joints. At first they are weak and have almost no effect on
ordinary human life. Over time, the pain syndrome increases: pain
acquire a wave-like character, increasing with movement, in
night time and closer to the morning. The intensity of pain varies from
weak to very strong, sharply impeding any movement.

Secondary symptoms:

  • morning stiffness
  • swelling,
  • skin redness
  • increase in local temperature in the area of ​​inflammation,
  • deterioration of the patient’s motor activity,
  • limited mobility
  • формирование стойких деформаций joints.

It is important to remember that the first signs of arthritis are pain.
In the initial stages, they are weakly expressed, especially in the acute period
are expressed, and in chronic arthritis may vary (mild
highly pronounced, and vice versa). As mentioned above, the signs
may vary with different types of disease.

Kinds артрита Symptoms
Reactive
  • joint pains, their redness, swelling, mobility
    limited
  • eye inflammation: conjunctivitis – redness of the eyes, feeling
    burning eyes, tearing;
  • inflammation of the urinary tract: urethritis – pain, burning or cramps
    when urinating.
Rheumatoid
  • With ревматоидном артрите суставы поражаются симметрично, а
    in places of bends dense small knots are formed.
  • During remission, discomfort is felt mainly in the morning.
    and almost disappears by the afternoon.
  • Exacerbations are accompanied by fever, numbness
    limbs, pain when breathing, inflammation of the lymph nodes and salivary
    glands, photophobia and rezu in the eyes.
Infectious Characterized by:

  • a sharp rise in temperature;
  • chills;
  • headaches;
  • weakness;
  • edema periarticular tissues.

You can determine the type of infection with the help of tests.

Gouty attack
  • In most cases, the first joint of the thumb is affected.
    on the leg, although the disease can manifest itself in the knee and in
    elbow
  • The site of inflammation turns red, swollen and sore.
Psoriatic  Distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis
are defeat:

  • small joints of fingers and toes,
  • asymmetry of the lesion (unlike rheumatoid
    arthritis)
  • Often, over a sore joint, the skin acquires a purple-bluish
    color (swelling of the joints of the fingers often develops,
    covering the entire finger – “finger in the form of sausages”).
Osteoarthritis
  • manifested in the fact that the joints get sick very slowly and
    gradually, as the disease progresses.
  • Also a characteristic feature is the crunch.
  • Both limbs and spinal column are affected;
Traumatic arthritis
  • developing as osteoarthritis. Symptoms те же – это боль,
    puffiness and crunch in the place where the inflammatory disease began
    process.

Extent of the disease

Symptoms of Arthritis по этапам отличаются проявлениями болевых
sensations and aggravation of pathological processes. So if
the disease flows into a complicated form, then the symptoms will be
more tangible. Consider all four stages of manifestation.
arthritis:

артрит на рентгеновском снимке

1 degree

Clinically, the disease does not manifest itself, however
x-rays of the joints are the first signs
inflammation. Sometimes ощущается незначительная скованность движений и
periodic pain during exercise.

2 degree of arthritis

Progressive inflammatory process leads to thinning
tissue articular structures and erosion of the heads of the bones. In the area of
affected joints appear swelling; often observed
локальное повышение температуры и skin redness движения
accompanied by a crunch.

3 degree

The third degree of the disease is characterized by the following
signs of:

  • X-ray examination shows a pronounced
    deformation;
  • Often a person at this stage is assigned a disability;
  • Подвижность limited пациенту трудно передвигаться, если
    damaged lower torso;
  • Hand movements are performed with great difficulty. To the patient
    it becomes problematic to perform even elementary actions on
    self care. The hands are affected symmetrically;
  • Pain haunts a person even when he is in
    state of rest;
  • Due to muscle spasm caused by pain,
    limbs are fixed in the wrong position. This is the result
    приводит к еще большей деформации joints.

BUTртрит 4 степени

Withводит к практически полной обездвиженности поврежденных
joints, with a strong round-the-clock pain. Move
alone is impossible. Negative bone changes are already
become irreversible. With поражении коленей, образуются мышечные
contractures.

Complications

Ignoring the symptoms of arthritis can lead to serious
Complications provoking other diseases:

  • Diseases of the internal organs.
  • Heart failure.
  • Повреждения мягких тканей.
  • Tendon ruptures.
  • Вывих хребта.
  • Numbness of the arms and legs.

Although arthritis is a common phenomenon, with
most people face, its treatment costs
treat with all responsibility. Timely diagnosis and
treatment will help maintain the flexibility and mobility of joints, what will give
the ability to lead an active lifestyle even in the elderly
age

Diagnostics

Although signs of inflammation of the joints are clearly visible even
to a non-specialist, determine the exact form and stage of arthritis, as well as
develop the right therapy strategy based solely on
on the data of anamnesis and physical examination does not appear
possible.

Diagnostics артрита включает:

  • general and biochemical blood test;
  • Analysis of urine;
  • X-rays can determine the state of the bones
    и выявить изменения, вызванные артритом;
  • computer tomograph to assess the state of soft tissues;
  • магнитно — резонансная томография помогает более четко
    рассмотреть состояние костных структур, а также мягких
    fabrics;
  • isotope scanning of the skeleton;
  • Ultrasound helps to determine the degree of damage of large
    joints;
  • analysis of synovial fluid helps to identify especially when
    инфекционном артрите воспалительных агентов и выбрать
    adequate treatment;
  • артроскопия — эндоскопический метод, который подразумевает
    введение специального датчика в полость сустава для изучения
    their condition;
  • артрография определяет состояние хрящевой ткани и мягких
    the tissues that surround the joint;
  • myelography assesses the state of the spinal cord, spine
    и его корешков, используется совместно с компьютерным
    tomograph.

Arthritis treatment

The sooner you worry about the treatment, the more significant the benefit will be.
The first stages of arthritis already affect the joints, and the process with
proper treatment slow down quite realizable. Developed by
Special exercises, exercise therapy, they are prescribed in the improvement period to
muscles developed flexibility. Also prescribed effective
medication drugs.

Arthritis treatment зависит от стадии и формы заболевание. therefore
at the first sign, be sure to contact a specialist and not
self-medicate.

Medication for Arthritis

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Methods involving the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs are mandatory for the treatment of any diseases
associated with the musculoskeletal system. Usually assigned such
drugs like:

  • Ortofen;
  • Diclofenac;
  • Ibuprofen;
  • Imdometacin;
  • Ketoprofen;
  • BUTцетилсалициловая кислота.

The choice of these drugs depends on the individual characteristics.
human body, age, type of disease, presence
diseases prohibiting the use of nonsteroidal drugs.

  • Painkillers for external use

This group of drugs is prescribed for pain in case of
diseases of the musculoskeletal system. They are applied topically to the skin.
over the joint. The main advantage of this method of application
is that the components of the drug are absorbed
directly to the affected tissue, bypassing the path through
gastrointestinal tract.

Withмеры таких препаратов: долгит-крем, апизатрон, бутадион,
Bengey, Voltaren, Fastum, Emulgel, Diclofenac Acry Ointment and
etc.

Universal scheme of arthritis drug treatment looks like
in the following way:

  • The purpose of intra-articular injections, which consist of
    hormonal anti-inflammatory.
  • Withём препаратов, снимающих мышечные спазмы.
  • If the cause of arthritis are frequent stress, then appoint
    antidepressants.
  • Anesthetics injections.
  • The appointment of drugs that protect the gastrointestinal tract from
    irritant anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • Withём витаминов.

How to treat arthritis without medication?

Reducing stress on diseased joints:

  • selection of orthopedic shoes with a comfortable sole;
  • weight loss;
  • use of knee pads, arch supports, walking sticks
    walking;
  • complex medical and physical education, which can
    perform in different starting positions and in water.

Gymnastics should not cause discomfort and cause pain
sensations. Withседания и упражнения при согнутых коленях должны быть
excluded. A visit to the pool is recommended.

Physiotherapy procedures:

  • heat treatment;
  • магнитотерапия для joints;
  • ultrasound;
  • massage;
  • hydrotherapy;
  • acupuncture;
  • laser therapy;
  • electropulse muscle stimulation.

For the appointment of any physiotherapeutic procedures for the patient
There should be no contraindications. The patient must forever
get rid of bad habits and drinking coffee in large
quantities.

Surgical treatment

When damage to some or all of the tissues of the joint is impossible
вылечить таблетками, уколами, мазями или физиотерапией,
various surgical methods are used:

  • arthroscopic synovectomy – removal of a synovial fragment
    shells;
  • cartilage transplantation – cartilage is taken from a healthy joint
    tissue grown in the laboratory and sat down in
    damaged;
  • replacement of the joint with a prosthesis;
  • implanting a metal spacer into the joint imitating
    articular surface.

Invasive treatment of arthritis also includes punctures and
washing the articular cavity with various preparations.

Dieting

The goal pursued by therapeutic nutrition in arthritis is
normalization of the immune response, the weakening of inflammatory reactions and
recovery of the full range of motion of the affected the joint.

Food for arthritis is selected by the attending physician and depends on:

  • forms of the disease;
  • degree of joint damage;
  • associated diseases;
  • severity of clinical manifestations.

Regardless of the type of arthritis developed common
power rules for recovery:

  • food should be low-calorie, the diet is aimed at ensuring
    не набрать лишний вес, дающий нагрузку на суставы – необходимо
    remove extra pounds;
  • it is necessary to balance the flow of all necessary
    components;
  • Cooking should be steamed, it can be cooked or stewed, but
    do not fry;
  • recommended to restore damaged joint structure
    употребление пищи из разваренных костей (холодец),
    that you can eat all you want, they have natural
    chondroprotectors that repair cartilage, but
    подобные блюда нельзя употреблять при подагре;
  • нельзя есть жирное мясо – жиры могут быть только
    vegetable origin;
  • свежевыжатые соки из фруктов, свеклы и моркови помогают
    enrich the body with vitamins, remove toxins and slags from
    him;
  • it is necessary to refuse alcohol, strong coffee and tea, to limit
    use pickles, seasonings and hot spices, except ginger and
    turmeric

In total, nutrition for arthritis corresponds
standard diet (general version) or treatment tables according to Pevzner No.
15, 10, 6, which are prescribed for different types of arthritis.
The energy value of the diet is 2170-2400 kilocalories per
day, and the nutrient content corresponds to the following
scheme:

  • proteins – 85-90g, of which 45-50g of animal proteins
    origin;
  • Fats – 70-80g, of which 25-30g of vegetable fats
    origin;
  • carbohydrates – 300-330g, of which no more than 30-40g complex
    sugars.

When overweight shows a low-calorie diet,
whose energy value is equal to 1340-1550 calories in
day.

Folk remedies

Before you use folk methods for arthritis,
Be sure to consult your doctor.

  1. Birch leaves (2.5 tsp), nettle leaves (2.5
    a teaspoon), grass violets tricolor (2.5 teaspoons). Infusion
    Take 1/2 cup 4 times daily before meals.
  2. Smear the knee with honey, attach a yellow card and tie. Keep
    before burning, then mustard plaster to remove, and the knee with honey
    wrap, as with a compress, and keep all night.
  3. Buttercup flowers stretch and apply to the knee for 2 hours, after which
    remove and wrap the sore spot overnight.
  4. Grate the radish or horseradish on a fine grater. Apply gruel or
    juice itself on a painful place. Hold 40 minutes. Course at
    Arthritis – 10 treatments a day.
  5. When salt is deposited in the joint, cut the onion head
    in half. In the middle of each half pour one drop of tar and
    attach to the sore spot.
  6. Beat yolk with apple cider vinegar. Apply up to
    drying out Apply several times a week for
    of the month.
  7. Garden purslane from arthritis. Chop the grass. Mix with
    cold water, in the ratio – one spoon for one glass of liquid.
    Put on the fire, boil for ten minutes. Cover capacity
    towel and put in a warm place for two hours. Then strain.
    Ready infusion to take three times a day for one dining room
    a spoon.

Prevention

The prevention of joints must be taken care of by people who
are at risk for their professional activities. BUT
also to patients:

  • with heredity to arthritis;
  • endured viral diseases;

To reduce the risk of developing pathology can, if you stick
several rules. The attending physician must tell about
preventive measures, especially for advanced
age Prevention артрита суставов предусматривает:

  • weight control;
  • avoiding injuries while walking, playing sports;
  • protection of joints from excessive load.

If you felt a return of pain, noticed redness and
swelling, consult a doctor. Timely treatment for medical
help prevent severe destruction of the joints.

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