Brucellosis – what is it, symptoms in humans,causes, treatment, diagnosis

Brucellosis is a disease characterized by lesions.
musculoskeletal, nervous, genital and other
systems. Classical medium circulation pathogens
diseases are domestic animals (cows, goats, horses, less often
pigs). There are several types of Brucella that
mainly affect each of the species of these animals.

What is brucellosis?

бруцеллез

What it is? Brucellosis is an infectious disease that
transmitted from animals to humans. Brucellosis infection
characterized by increased multiplication of bacteria in the body
human and activation of his immune system
causes the occurrence of serious lesions of the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, nervous, respiratory, sexual and many others
systems and organs.

Having penetrated into the body, Brucella quickly spread through the body.
through lymphatic channels and blood vessels. Soon new pockets
infections appear in the liver, spleen, bone marrow,
lymph nodes. However, they can cause many
complications that ultimately can lead to quite
sad consequences.

Causative agent of brucellosis

Pathogens – aerobic and microaerophilic fixed
Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. By international
the classification of the genus Brucella consists of 6 distinct species,
which are divided into a number of biovars.

After penetration into the body of the pathogen causing
brucellosis, symptoms in humans occur in 5 to 30 days (in
on average, 2-3 weeks), with latent carriage can be lengthened
up to 3 months.

Brucella are highly invasive and can penetrate
intact mucous membranes; they are referred to as intracellular
parasites, but they can also be outside the cell. Brucella
quite stable in the external environment.

Brucella могут выживать:

  • In the water – up to 2 months.
  • AT сыром мясе – up to 3 months.
  • In the fur of animals – up to 4 months.
  • At a temperature of 60 degrees – up to 30 minutes.

During boiling, these microorganisms die almost
instantly, as well as when exposed to various disinfectants
solutions (0,2 – 1% solution of bleach, chloramine and so
Further).

The reasons

The main source and reservoir of infection is sheep, goats, large
cattle and pigs. Cases of human infection with brucellosis
from reindeer. In rare cases, the source of infection may
be horses, camels, yaks and some other animals that
emit pathogen with milk, urine, feces, amniotic
fluid.

With brucellosis, there is a clear seasonality of diseases,
characteristic winter-spring rise associated with the period of lambing,
calving, farrowing. However, brucellosis may be recorded during
all year.

The possibility of transmission from a sick person to a healthy person.
rejected, there are also no hospital diseases 
brucellosis.

Human infection with brucellosis occurs as follows.
ways:

  • By drinking milk and meat from infected animals, or
    containing viable Brucella pathogens;
  • In contact with human skin, brucella coarse wool
    cattle;
  • Inhalation of brucella with dust or particles of wool.

Symptoms of brucellosis in humans and photos

Симптомы бруцеллеза

Brucellosis occurs when ingested from 10 microbes.
The gates of infection are microtrauma of the skin, mucous membranes.
digestive organs and respiratory tract. At the site of the gate of infection
no changes are developing. By the lymphatic system
Brucella reach the lymph nodes.

Reproduction and accumulation of microbes in brucellosis occurs
mainly in the lymph nodes, of which the brucella
periodically enter the blood.

The symptoms of brucellosis largely depend on the stage of its development, on
human immune system states as well as from originally
the dose of the pathogen into the body (the higher it is, the faster and
there will be and those will be pronounced clinical manifestations
diseases).

It is also worth noting that most severe forms of brucellosis
due to B. melitensis, which a person can get from
small cattle.

Фото бруцеллеза у человека

Common symptoms of brucellosis:

  • headaches;
  • muscle pain;
  • joint and lower back pain;
  • high temperature;
  • violation of the stool (diarrhea, constipation);
  • weight loss;
  • enlarged lymph nodes and liver;
  • depression.

Инкубационный период при бруцеллезе от 1 до 4 недель,
but can lengthen up to 2-3 months with the development of latent infection.

Forms and characteristics

According to modern clinical classification, there are
The following forms of brucellosis:

  • acute (up to 1.5 months),
  • subacute (up to 4 months),
  • chronic (more than 4 months),
  • residual (clinical effects).

Acute brucellosis

The incubation period for the acute onset of brucellosis may
lasts about 3 weeks, however the incubation can last
several months. The astroseptic form is characterized by high
fever (39-40 ° C and above).

Despite the high and very high body temperature,
the patient’s well-being remains good (at a temperature of 39 ° C and above
the patient can read books, play chess, watch tv and
etc.) This form of brucellosis does not threaten the life of the patient, even without
treatment it ends with recovery.

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Subacute brucellosis in humans

With subacute brucellosis, along with intoxication, such
signs like focal lesions in the form of arthritis, neuritis,
plexitis and others. The transition of subacute brucellosis to chronic
occurs gradually and clinically difficult to catch.

Chronic

Chronic бруцеллез протекает волнообразно, с проявлением
symptoms of multiorgan lesions. In this case, general intoxication
syndrome (fever and intoxication) is usually expressed moderately,
temperature rarely exceeds subfebrile values. Gaps
between exacerbations of the disease can last 1-2 months. AT
case of the formation of a new infectious focus inside the body
deterioration of the general condition.

Residual brucellosis

A person who has had brucellosis may have residual
phenomena. Various symptoms appear:

  • complaints of neurasthenic and vascular vegetative
    character
  • pain in the joints and muscles
  • headache.

Functional disorders remain or are formed.
organic irreversible damage to various organs and systems
especially the organs of motion and support. It is polyarthritis with irreversible
deformities and subsequent contractures, muscle wasting, spondylosis,
arthrosis, ankylosis.

So, this is a very difficult disease – brucellosis. Symptoms
human photo and a general description of the state of the body, allow
immediately calculate the infection to prevent aggravation or transition
in chronic stage.

Diagnostics

You can suspect the diagnosis of brucellosis after a thorough survey
patient, as well as on the basis of clinical examination data and
data on the epidemiological situation in the area. With acute
brucellosis temperature measurement chart has wrong
character, with the appearance of chills, increased sweating.

Также врач должен исключить ревматоидный артрит и
rheumatism, tuberculous focal lesions, gonorrheal and
syphilitic arthritis. If brucellosis is suspected, check
condition of lymph nodes, liver and spleen.

AT то же время, для подтверждения диагноза необходимо провести
a number of laboratory studies.

Brucellosis Tests

Referral for complete blood count and bacteriological
research will give the doctor — the infectious disease specialist as soon as he finds
clear signs of brucellosis.

  1. General blood analysis. AT ней нужно определить содержание
    leukocytes. If the rate is increased, it means that
    The body has an inflammatory process. Settling speed
    red blood cell (ESR) is accelerating, but not by much. Running stage
    disease leads to a decrease in the performance of all elements
    blood.
  2. Urinalysis for brucellosis. Here it is necessary to define
    whether protein is present in the urine, and in what quantities. For this
    It is necessary to repeat this urine test several times.
  3. Биохимический анализ blood. Look at the levels of the liver
    cytolysis (ALAT, ASAT), if these indicators become higher than normal,
    then it is to talk about hyperbilirubinemia, reduced levels of albumin
    (hypoalbuminemia) while the total protein remains at normal
    level

For accurate diagnosis, the patient is prescribed a series of tests.
for brucellosis in humans:

  • aggregate hemagglutination test detecting Brucella antigens
    in blood;
  • Coombs reaction, to detect incomplete antibodies in chronic
    brucellosis;
  • реакция Райта, наиболее информативная при остром brucellosis;
    brucella lysis reaction;
  • sample Byrne, with intradermal administration of brucellin.

For the most accurate results, we recommend
use simultaneously 3-4 serological diagnostic methods,
this is called complex serodiagnosis. 

Brucellosis Treatment

What and how to treat brucellosis in humans? Principles and methods of therapy
depend on the form of brucellosis. Antibiotic therapy can give effect
only in the acute (acute) form of brucellosis, with
chronic forms of antibiotic administration plays a secondary role,
of major importance is vaccine therapy.

Лечение бруцеллёза с помощью лекарств осуществляется
посредством приёма антибиотических препаратов широкого
spectrum of action. Приём антибиотиков длится до полугода,
after which a break is made. When re-diagnosing
efficacy of drugs is revealed.

To antibiotic drugs effective exposure
relate:

  • Gentamicin;
  • Doxycycline;
  • Streptomycin;
  • Rifampicin.

With a diagnosis of chronic brucellosis, treatment is based on
the use of restorative measures and vaccine therapy. Forecast
in most cases favorable, however, it is worth remembering that
that brucellosis often leads to disability.

Usually brucellosis does not cause the death of patients, the prognosis
usually favorable. AT случаях длительного течения и развития
persistent destructive defects of the articular apparatus may
disability

ATакцина против бруцеллеза

ATакцину против бруцеллеза проводят не позднее, чем за 3-4 недели
prior to the start of work related to the risk of infection (time of development
immunity), the maximum tension lasts 5-6 months
Duration – 10-12 months. Before vaccination determine
specific immunity of one of the serological or
skin-allergic reactions. Only individuals with
negative reaction.

In this case, vaccination with its use is carried out only among
population of the areas where diseases are recorded among
animals. ATакцинации также подлежат лица, работающие на
livestock farms and food processing plants
livestock. Vaccination provides quite resistant
immunity for 1-2 years.

ATакцинацию проводят в область наружной поверхности плеча на
the border between the upper and middle third one time or
subcutaneously:

  • One dose in the case of cutaneous administration is 2 drops and contains
    1-1010 микробных клеток;
  • При подкожном ведении — 0,5 мл и содержит 4-108
    microbial cells.

Therefore, the use of the vaccine has its own contraindications. Her
cannot be used in such cases:

  • In the presence of immunodeficiency.
  • When detecting tumors, blood diseases and in the process
    treatment of such ailments. Under these circumstances, vaccination is possible.
    only when half a year has passed since the last course of treatment.
    therapy.
  • At elevated temperatures.
  • During pregnancy and lactation.
  • In the presence of chronic diseases.
  • Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or
    with other immunodeficiency states.
  • With serious diseases of the skin.
  • With a positive reaction to trial vaccination.
  • With the existence of adverse reactions.
  • If you have a history of severe allergic diseases or
    reactions (angioedema, asthma, anaphylactic shock).
    AT данном случае решение о возможности вакцинации принимается только
    after consultation with the allergist.

Prevention

Preventive measures for brucellosis are
non-specific and represented by the fight against proliferation
возбудителей среди animals. This can be achieved by early
identifying, isolating and eliminating sick individuals.

Must be closely monitored products
livestock (milk, meat, wool and processing of hides).

From consumers of meat and dairy products:

  • eating pasteurized or boiled
    of milk
  • Acquisition of meat products bearing a stamp
  • thorough heat treatment of meat and dairy products,
    purchased by hand

In addition, in regions considered disadvantaged in this
sense, there is a regular immunoprophylaxis of brucellosis –
A live vaccine is administered. Slaughterhouse workers are also being vaccinated.
ферм по содержанию таких animals. Disinfection of raw materials is
most important measures for the prevention of brucellosis, as well as
пастеризация of milk и прочие мероприятия.

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