Bronchitis in adults – causes, signs, symptomsand treatment, drugs, prevention of bronchitis

Bronchitis is an infectious disease that is accompanied by
диффузным воспалением bronchi. Most often occurs on the background
colds, for example, ARVI, flu, although it may have
another origin. There is no one recipe
suitable for everyone.

To answer the question of how to cure bronchitis, you need to
find out what the disease is. The article will consider the main
causes and symptoms of bronchitis in adults, as well as a list
effective treatments for various forms of the disease.

What is bronchitis?

Бронхит

Bronchitis is an inflammatory damage to the tissues of the bronchi,
developing as an independent nosological unit or as
complication of other diseases. At the same time tissue damage
the lung does not occur, and the inflammatory process is localized
exclusively in the bronchial tree.

Damage and inflammation of the bronchial tree may occur
as an independent, isolated process (primary) or
develop as a complication against the background of existing chronic
diseases and infections (secondary).

The first symptoms of bronchitis in adults are: pain in the area
chest, shortness of breath, painful cough, weakness of the whole body.

  • Код мкб 10: J20 — J21.

Бронхит – достаточно серьёзное заболевание, лечение должен
conduct exactly the doctor. It determines the optimal drugs for
treatment, their dosage and combination.

The reasons

As mentioned above, the most frequent and common
cause acute or chronic bronchitis in adults
contingent is viral, bacterial or atypical
Flora.

  • The main bacterial pathogens are: staphylococci, pneumococci,
    streptococci.
  • Возбудители  бронхита вирусной природы: вирус гриппа,
    респираторная синцитиальная инфекция, аденовирус, парагрипп  и
    etc.

Воспалительные заболевания бронхов, в частности бронхит, у
adults can be caused by various reasons:

  • the presence of a viral or bacterial infection in the body;
  • working in rooms with polluted air and on harmful
    production;
  • smoking;
  • living in areas with adverse environmental
    setting.

Acute бронхит возникает при поражении организма вирусами, как
usually the same that cause colds and flu.
The virus cannot be destroyed by antibiotics, so this type of
drugs used extremely rarely.

The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is
smoking cigarettes. Considerable harm is also caused by air pollution,
high content of dust and toxic gases in the environment.

There are a number of factors that can significantly increase the risk
the occurrence of any type of bronchitis:

  • genetic predisposition;
  • life in adverse climatic conditions;
  • smoking (including passive);
  • ecology.

Classification

In modern pulmonological practice, the following
types of bronchitis:

  • infectious (bacterial, fungal or
    viral);
  • having a non-infectious nature (arising under the influence of
    allergens, physical, chemical factors);
  • mixed;
  • with unknown etiology.

Bronchitis is classified according to a number of signs:

For severity:

  • mild
  • moderate
  • severe

Depending on the symmetry of the lesion of the bronchi disease
divided into:

  • Unilateral bronchitis. It affects either the right or left
    part of the bronchial tree.
  • Bilateral. Inflammation has affected both right and left
    части bronchi.

According to the clinical course:

  • acute;
  • chronic.

Acute бронхит

Acute недуг обуславливается недолговременным развитием, которое
can last from 2-3 days to two weeks. In the process of man
suffers initially dry, and after developing into a wet cough with
secretion of mucous substance (sputum). If you do not finish
then there is a high probability of transition of the acute form to
chronic. And then the indisposition can be delayed for indefinite
time.

In this case, the acute form of bronchitis can be of the following types:

  • plain;
  • obstructive;
  • obliterating;
  • bronchiolitis.

In adults, simple and obstructive types of acute bronchitis can
occur very often, following each other, why such a current
the disease is called recurrent bronchitis. It occurs on
throughout the year more than 3 times. The cause of the obstruction may
be too much secreted or strong
отек слизистой оболочки bronchi.

В зависимости от возбудителя заболевания выделяют:

  • Viral.
  • Infectious.
  • Bacterial.
  • Allergic.
  • Asthmatic.
  • Dusty
  • Fungal.
  • Chlamydia.
  • Toxic.

Chronic бронхит

Chronic бронхит — это длительно протекающее
inflammatory disease of the bronchi, progressing with time and
causing structural changes and dysfunction of the bronchial
tree. Среди взрослого населения ХБ встречается у 4-7%
population (some authors argue that 10%). Men are sick
more often than women.

One of the most dangerous complications is pneumonia –
inflammation of the lung tissue. In most cases, it is observed in
patients with immunocompromised and in the elderly. Symptoms
хронического бронхита: кашель, одышка, выделения мокроты.

First signs

If the body temperature has risen, the working capacity has decreased,
tormented by weakness and dry cough, which over time becomes
wet, chances are it is bronchitis.

First signs бронхита острой формы, на которые стоит обратить
attention to an adult:

  • a sharp deterioration in the health and general feeling of the body;
  • increase in body temperature;
  • manifestation of wet cough (sometimes it can be dry);
  • feeling of squeezing in the chest;
  • extreme shortness of breath and rapid fatigue during exercise;
  • lack of appetite and general apathy;
  • the occurrence of intestinal dysfunction, constipation;
  • pain in the head and muscle weakness;
  • heaviness and burning sensation behind the sternum;
  • chills and feeling cold, not wanting to get out of bed;
  • runny nose abundant.

Symptoms бронхита у взрослых

This disease is quite common, every person at least
had bronchitis once in his life and therefore his symptoms are well known
and quickly recognizable.

loading...

Main symptoms of bronchitis:

  • The cough may be dry (without sputum discharge) or wet (with
    sputum discharge).
  • A dry cough can occur with viral or atypical
    infections. The evolution of cough from dry to
    wet.
  • Sputum discharge, especially with a green tint – reliable
    criterion of bacterial inflammation. When the sputum color is white,
    the patient’s condition is considered normal
    diseases. Yellowish color with bronchitis is usually
    patients who smoke for a long time, asthma is determined by this color,
    pneumonia. Brown sputum or blood should alert – this
    dangerous sign, you need urgent medical help.
  • Voice in adults, especially those who have a bad habit
    smoke, just disappears and they can only speak in a whisper.
    Often there are just wheezing in the voice and heaviness of speech, such
    feeling as if the conversation brings physical fatigue. But on
    indeed it is! At this time, breathing is caused by frequent
    shortness of breath and heaviness. At night, the patient breathes not through the nose, but through the mouth,
    while making strong snores.

In acute bronchitis, symptoms and treatment in adults are significant.
differ from those that are characteristic of a disease occurring in
chronic form.

Disrupted bronchial patency against the background of a very long
the course of the disease may indicate the occurrence of chronic
process.

Types of bronchitis Symptoms у взрослых
Acute
  • The appearance of pronounced cough, which is from dry to the near
    time becomes wet;
  • Body temperature increases and can reach 39
    degrees;
  • Increased sweating joins the general malaise;
  • There is a fever, working capacity falls;
  • Symptoms are either mild or bright;
  • While listening to the chest, the doctor hears dry rales and
    stiff breathing;
Chronic Appears, usually in adults, after repeatedly
postponed acute bronchitis, or with prolonged irritation
bronchi (cigarette smoke, dust, exhaust gases, chemical vapors
substances). Manifested by the following features:

  • tachycardia,
  • pain and discomfort when coughing,
  • pale skin
  • fluctuations in body temperature
  • shortness of breath with little exertion
  • heavy sweating
  • wheezing on expiration
  • hard breathing
  • Cough. With this form of the disease, it is persistent, unceasing, with
    slight sputum recurrent. Stop
    seizures are very difficult.

Complications

В большинстве случаев болезнь сама по себе не опасна.
Complications after bronchitis, which are
develop with insufficiently effective treatment. Effects
mainly affect the respiratory system, but may suffer
other organs.

Complicationsми бронхита являются:

  • Acute pneumonia;
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;
  • Asthmatic bronchitis, which increases the risk of developing
    bronchial asthma;
  • Emphysema;
  • Pulmonary hypertension;
  • Expiratory tracheal stenosis;
  • Chronic pulmonary heart;
  • Cardiopulmonary insufficiency;
  • Bronchiectasis.

Diagnostics

When the first symptoms of the disease occur,
contact the therapist. It is he who performs all the diagnostic
activities and prescribes treatment. It is possible that the therapist will direct
patient to more narrow specialists, such as: pulmonologist,
infectious diseases, allergist.

легкие при бронхите

The diagnosis of acute or chronic bronchitis is made
a qualified doctor after examining the patient. Main
indicators are complaints, on the basis of them actually put
diagnosis. The main indicator is the presence of cough with discharge
sputum white and yellow.

Diagnostics бронхита включает:

  • Chest X-ray allows you to diagnose
    pneumonia or another disease that causes cough.
    Radiography is most often prescribed to smokers, including
    the former.
  • The study of lung function is performed using the device under
    name spirometer. It defines the basic characteristics of breathing:
    how much air the lungs hold and how fast
    exhale

Laboratory research:

  • Complete blood count – leukocytosis, leukocyte shift
    left, increased ESR.
  • Biochemical studies – increased blood levels of proteins
    acute phase, a2- and y-globulins, an increase in activity
    angiotensin converting enzyme. Sometimes develops
    hypoxemia.
  • Bacteriological examination – sputum culture.
  • Serological analysis – determination of antibodies to viruses or
    mycoplasma.

Treatment of bronchitis in adults

Лечение бронхита – спорный и многосторонний вопрос,
because there are lots of methods for suppressing symptoms and
primary sources of the disease. Here, principles play an important role.
which are based therapeutic measures.

When the task is to treat the bronchitis in adults, then
There are four main stages of treatment:

  1. At the first stage – this is a voluntary cessation of smoking. it
    significantly increases the effectiveness of treatment.
  2. In the second stage, prescribed medications that
    by stimulating receptors expand the bronchi: bromide,
    Salbutamol, Terbutaline, Fenoterol, Ipratropium bromide.
  3. Prescribe mucolytic and expectorant drugs that
    contribute to the secretion of sputum. They restore ability
    epithelium of the bronchi, dilute phlegm.
  4. In the fourth stage of treatment, bronchitis is prescribed only.
    antibiotics: orally, intramuscularly and intravenously.

Compliance with the regime:

  • На фоне обострения бронхита традиционно рекомендуют
    drink plenty of water For an adult – daily volume
    Liquid consumption should be at least 3 – 3.5 liters. Usually
    well tolerated alkaline mors, hot milk with borjomi in
    ratio of 1: 1.
  • Undergoes a few and the composition of the daily diet of food, which
    should be high in protein and vitamins. Daily
    the diet should contain enough protein and
    of vitamins. It is important to include as much fruit and vegetables as possible.
  • Elimination of physical and chemical factors provoking
    coughing (dust, smoke, etc.);
  • With dry air, the cough is much stronger, so try
    humidify the air in the room where the patient is. The best
    just use for this purpose air cleaner and humidifier
    of air. Daily wet cleaning is also advisable.
    комнаты больного, для очищения of air.

Physiotherapy

Physiotherapy – очень действенна при бронхите, назначается вместе
with drug therapy. Among physiotherapeutic procedures
use quartz treatment, UHF, osequrite, inhalations.

  1. Warming up the chest – appointed only as
    additional therapeutic procedures after the exacerbation is removed
    chronic bronchitis or the first stage of treatment
    acute.
  2. Massage – done with poorly flowing sputum, provides
    the best disclosure of the bronchi and the acceleration of serous purulent or
    purulent sputum.
  3. Therapeutic breathing exercises – helps to restore
    normal breathing and get rid of shortness of breath.
  4. Inhalation. They are hard to call solely physiotherapy,
    because for the most part such procedures are
    full therapy.

Drugs for bronchitis for adults

Before using any drugs, be sure to
consult a doctor.

Bronchodilators

To improve sputum discharge
назначают бронхорасширяющие средства. Adults with bronchitis with
wet cough is usually prescribed pills:

  • Salbutamol
  • Berodual,
  • Euphyllina,
  • Teothard

Expectorant drugs:

  • Mukaltin. Thins viscous sputum, making it easier to leave
    bronchi.
  • Herbal Thermopsis – Thermopsol and Codelac
    Broncho.
  • Herbion syrup, Stoptussin phyto, Bronhikum, Pertusin, Gelomirtol
    – are based on medicinal herbs.
  • ACC (acetylcysteine). An effective means of direct action.
    It has a direct effect on sputum. When receiving erroneous
    dosage can cause diarrhea, vomiting, heartburn.

Take these remedies for acute bronchitis symptoms.
treatment is necessary until complete withdrawal of sputum from the bronchi.
The duration of herbal treatment is about 3 weeks, and medication
7-14 days.

Antibiotics

Antibacterial therapy is used in case of complications.
acute bronchitis when there is no effectiveness from symptomatic and
pathogenetic therapy, in weakened individuals, when sputum changes
(mucus sputum is changed to purulent).

Do not try to determine which antibiotics
with bronchitis in adults will be most effective – there is
several groups of drugs, each of which is active against
certain microorganisms. The most commonly used:

  • penicillins (amoxiclav),
  • macrolides (Azithromycin, Rovamycin),
  • cephalosporins (ceftriaxone),
  • fluoroquinolones (Levofloxacin).

The dosage must also be determined by the doctor. If unchecked
take drugs with antibacterial action, you can seriously
disrupt the intestinal microflora and cause a significant decrease
immunity. It is necessary to drink these medicines strictly according to the scheme, without reducing and
not prolonging the course of treatment.

Antiseptics

Drugs with antiseptic effect are mainly used
in the form of inhalation. With acute bronchitis to reduce the manifestation
symptoms, adults лечат ингаляциями через
небулайзер растворами таких препаратов, как Риванол, 
Dioxidine.

The prognosis of the symptoms of bronchitis with rational treatment in adults,
usually favorable. Complete cure usually occurs in
within 2-4 weeks The prognosis of bronchiolitis is more serious and depends on
timely start of intensive treatment. With late diagnosis
and delayed treatment may develop symptoms of chronic
respiratory failure.

Folk remedies for bronchitis

Before taking traditional remedies, we recommend
consult with your doctor.

  1. Boil some water, add 2 drops of fir oil to it,
    eucalyptus, pine or tea tree. Bend over capacity with
    the mixture and breathe steam for 5-7 minutes.
  2. A very old and effective recipe is a radish, in it
    a small depression is made in which a teaspoon is put
    honey After a while, the radish gives juice and you can
    use 3 times a day. it хороший способ для облегчения кашля,
    if there is no allergy to honey.
  3. We treat bronchitis with calendula flowers. 2 tablespoons
    calendula flowers pour a glass of boiling water and hold on water
    bath 15 minutes. Принимать взрослым по 1-2 tablespoons 3 раза в
    a day 15 minutes before meals.
  4. Pour a glass of milk into an enamel bowl, add 1 to it.
    tablespoon of dry grass sage, tightly cover, let
    Boil over low heat, cool and strain. Then again
    bring to a boil, covered with a lid. Ready means to drink in
    hot bedtime.
  5. Horseradish and honey. The tool helps in the fight against bronchitis and
    lung diseases. Four pieces of horseradish skip,
    смешать с 5 частями honey Take after a meal in one spoon.
  6. Take 2 parts of licorice root and 1 part of lime blossom. Out of grass
    make a decoction and apply when dry coughing or excretion too
    thick sputum.
  7. 10 g of dried and crushed tangerine peel pour 100 ml
    boiling water, insist, strain. Take 1 tablespoon 5 times a
    day before meals. It is used as an expectorant.

Long-term treatment of bronchitis at home often leads
to the occurrence of dangerous complications. If the cough does not go through
month, go to the clinic. Denial of treatment or reliance on
knowledge of pharmacy pharmacy, in adults and the elderly
can cause bronchotracheitis, purulent
infections, tracheobronchitis, tracheitis and long rehabilitation.

Prevention

Primary prevention measures:

  • In adults, complete failure is important for the prevention of bronchitis.
    from smoking, as well as from regular use of alcohol. Similar
    abuses negatively affect the general condition of the body
    и, как следствие, может проявиться бронхит и другие diseases.
  • limit the effects of harmful substances and gases that are necessary
    breathe;
  • time to start the treatment of various infections;
  • do not overcool the body;
  • take care of maintaining immunity;
  • during the heated period, maintain a normal level
    air humidity in the room.

Secondary prophylaxis includes:

  • Elimination of all the above risk factors.
    Early diagnosis and early treatment of acute bronchitis
    (or chronic exacerbations).
  • Hardening of the body in the summer.
  • Prevention of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) in
    the period of the epidemic (usually from November to March).
  • Preventive use of antibacterial drugs in
    for 5 – 7 days with exacerbation of bronchitis caused
    a virus.
  • Daily performing breathing exercises (prevents
    congestion of mucus and infection in the bronchial tree).

Bronchitis in adults – a dangerous disease that cannot be treated
on their own. Self-medication can lead to severe consequences in
form of disability, in some cases even threatened
a life. Timely visit to the doctor and on time
diagnosis helps to avoid complications and relieve symptoms
symptoms already in the initial stages of bronchitis.

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