Bowel cancer — признаки, симптомы и проявленияearly stages in adults, prognosis and prevention

Bowel cancer относится к онкологическим заболеваниям,
formed in the colon and small intestine. ATстречается он как у мужчин,
so in women. Signs of intestinal oncology are pretty
notзначительные на начальной стадии.

Malignant tumor forms on mucous surfaces
intestines, and more often a tumor appears in the large intestine,
there are cases when it is found in the sigmoid, straight, colon
or cecum. Forecast выживаемости пациентов с любым
cancer depends on the stage at which it was
revealed. The sooner a tumor is detected, the greater the chance
the patient is on complete healing.

Why bowel cancer develops, what are the first signs
diseases and what are the methods of prevention – consider
further in the article.

About bowel cancer

Bowel cancer

Bowel cancer — это злокачественное преобразование эпителия,
которое может поразить любой из сегментов intestine.

Onиболее подвержены этой болезни люди в возрастной группе после
45 years, men and women alike, every 10 years
incidence increases by 10%. Bowel cancer
differs in histological structure, in 96% of cases it
develops from the glandular cells of the mucous membrane

AT зависимости от расположения опухоли allocate:

  • Рак thin intestine. ATстречается достаточно редко, примерно в
    1-1.5% of cases of all cancers of the digestive system
    tract. People of elderly and senile age are ill,
    men disease affects more often than women. Из всех отделов thin
    bowel tumors prefer to be localized in the duodenal ulcer
    the intestine, less often in the thin and ileal.
  • Рак thick intestine. The predominant number of tumors of this
    The region is located in the sigmoid and rectum. Among the people
    preferring meat, pathology occurs more often than among

For развития рака кишечника из полипа, например, в толстой
the gut takes about 5-10 years. From a small polyp grows
intestinal tumor, the symptoms of which are different in the early stages
lethargic symptoms.

Она может проявиться, например расстройством ЖКТ, что
отвлекает от первичного рака, поскольку многие not обращают внимания
на дискомфорт в кишечнике при расстройстве, not зная, какие боли при
intestinal cancer may occur, therefore, diarrhea is treated.


Причины развития рака intestines:

  1. Elderly age. Here, an important role is played by how much a person
    years old. According to statistics, intestinal diseases affect people in
    age of 50 years and older.
  2. Intestinal diseases. Больше всего подвергаются этому notдугу
    люди, страдающие воспалительными патологиями intestine.
  3. Wrong way of life. If you visit the medical forum, then to
    этим факторам можно отnotсти notправильное питание, включающее
    a large percentage of the consumption of fats and animal products
    origin, smoking, consumption of strong drinks.
  4. Onследственный фактор. The person is in the advanced group
    risk when his relatives had different forms of intestinal

In men, according to statistics, this is the second cancer disease.
степени распростраnotния после рака легких, а у женщин третье. Risk
getting sick with cancer increases with age. AT медициnot имеется
такое определение рака кишечника —  колоректальный

First signs

With the specified diagnosis, cancer forms and grows in the body.
cells, their presence causes the appearance of a malignant tumor.
Определить их присутствие на ранnotй стадии практически notвозможно,
since the first symptoms of intestinal cancer are similar to the classic
notсварение, проблемы с пищеварением.

Чтобы not пропустить начало болезни, стоит отnotстись более
attentively to the following features:

  • ощущение тяжести в животе, not связанное с приемом пищи;
  • плохой аппетит, резкая weight loss;
  • aversion to fried fatty foods;
  • signs of dyspepsia;
  • diarrhea, alternating with prolonged constipation;
  • признаки аnotмии;
  • blood during stool and in feces.

The main problem of cancer is the lack
specific symptoms in the early stages, so patients
Go to the doctor for stage 3-4, when treatment options are already
are limited.

Stages of development

рак кишечника - 1, 2, 3. 4 стадии

AT развитии рака кишечника четко прослеживается пять стадий.
Complete absence or weak manifestation of manifestations observed
up to the second (in rare cases even to the third) stage. On
the third and fourth stages in the patient appear severe pain,
forcing him to seek medical help.

Stages of development рака intestines:

  • 0 стадия характеризуется наличием notбольшого скопления
    atypical cells characterized by their ability to divide rapidly and
    able to be reborn in cancer. Pathological process
    limited to the limits of the mucous membranes.
  • Stage 1 – a rather rapid growth of the cancer begins,
    она not выходит за пределы стенок кишечника, пока not могут
    form metastases. Of symptoms may occur
    disorders of the digestive tract, which the patient not
    pays due value. At this stage during the examination of the patient
    With the help of colonoscopy it is already possible to detect the appearance
  • At stage 2, the tumor grows to 2-5 cm and begins to penetrate
    into the intestinal wall.
  • Stage 3 is characterized by increased activity of cancer cells.
    The tumor is rapidly increasing in size, penetrates through the walls
    intestine. Cancer cells invade the lymph nodes.
    Neighboring organs and tissues are also affected: they appear
    regional lesions.
  • At stage 4, the tumor reaches its maximum size, gives
    metastases to distant organs. Toxic damage occurs
    организма продуктами жизnotдеятельности злокачественного
    neoplasms. As a result, the work of all systems is disrupted.

Lifespan is determined by the value
neoplasm and its ability to localize. Tumor
cells that have spread in the surface layer of the epithelium, allow
survive 85% sick. When the muscle layer is affected
усугубляется – показатель выживаемости not превышает 67%.

AT соответствии с Международной классификацией,

  • Adenocarcinoma;
  • Colloid cancer;
  • Перстnotвидно-клеточный;
  • Squamous;
  • Недифференцированные и notклассифицируемые формы.

Most often (about 80% of cases)
диагностируется аденокарцинома – железистый рак, берущий
свое начало из эпителия слизистой оболочки intestine. Such tumors
are highly moderately and poorly differentiated, which determines
forecast. Перстnotвидно-клеточный рак notредко поражает молодых людей,
and squamous often localized in the rectum.

Symptoms of intestinal cancer: manifestation in adults

Signs of intestinal cancer appear in the late stages of the disease.
Symptoms of oncology of the intestines in the early stages are sluggish,
практически not заметно. But they should also be noted that
бы исключить notобратимые последствия.

Symptoms of intestinal cancer, depending on the type:

  1. With stenotic oncology, constipation and colic appear due to
    spine lumen. In this case, in the first stage of cancer a person suffers
    from bloating and flatulence with relief after stool.
  2. Признаки рака кишечника энтероколитного типа – постоянно
    changing stools from diarrhea to constipation and vice versa.
  3. The dyspeptic look is characterized by constant belching with heartburn and
    bitterness in the mouth.
  4. Псевдовоспалительная онкология notсет за собой тошноту со
    рвотой, озноб, повышение температуры и notстерпимые боли.
  5. The symptoms of intestinal cancer cystitis is the appearance
    blood when urinating with pain.

Other symptoms:

  • quite often with the development of a malignant tumor in the intestine
    больные испытывают наполnotнности, даже после удачного похода в
  • у notкоторых наблюдается резкое notобъяснимое похудание, при том,
    that the usual mode and diet are observed;
  • the presence of blood in the feces can also
    testify about the development of oncological process
  • The first signs of intestinal oncology are usually mild,
    поэтому могут приниматься за общее notдомогание (сонливость, общая
    weakness, fatigue) or digestive disorders. However with
    by aggravating the process they become more pronounced and
    are complemented.

Signs of intestinal cancer are determined
от сосредоточения опухоли и стадии её развития.
If the tumor struck the right organ, such

  • diarrhea;
  • the presence of blood in the stool;
  • болезnotнные ощущения в области живота;
  • аnotмия.

Tumor development in the left intestine:

  • The patient complains of persistent constipation, difficulties during
    excretion of feces, abdominal distention.
  • There is a frequent alternation of loose stools with constipation, through
    constriction and relaxation of the lumen of the colon.
  • Excretion of feces occurs with great difficulty, often with
    кровью и слизью, сопровождается болезnotнными ощущениями.
Bowel cancer Symptoms and manifestation
thick Signs of colon cancer:

  • Constipation, diarrhea;
  • Digestive problems – flatulence, bloating, rumbling;
  • Presence of blood in feces;
  • Abdominal pain;
  • Weight loss;
  • Ложные позывы или теnotзмы;

При осложnotниях в виде:

  • fistula
  • inflammations
  • abscesses

A number of other symptoms are added.

thin Специфические симптомы рака thin intestines:

  • recurrent abdominal pain accompanied by a “smack
    copper ”;
  • vomiting and nausea;
  • weight loss;
  • аnotмия;
  • disruption of the liver.
sigmoid colon The predominant characteristic symptoms may be as follows:

  • the appearance in the feces of impurities of blood, pus, mucus;
  • ложные позывы к опорожnotнию;
  • intoxication of the body;
  • flatulence;
  • acute pain during stool.

Symptoms of intestinal cancer in women and men

Signs of intestinal cancer in men and women with such a course
практически ничем not отличаются. Later if the tumor progresses
и распространяется на соседние органы, то у мужчин первой
the prostate is affected, and in women, the vagina is also affected
rectal space and anal canal.

In this case, the patient begins to worry severe pain in the anal
hole, coccyx, sacrum, lumbar region, men feel
difficulty urinating.

Если это онкология, клинический исход not всегда favorable.
Manifestation of malignant neoplasm in women after 35 years,
при первичной форме not дает распростраnotние метастазов в матку.
First, the patient experiences general weakness in the whole body and
classic signs of dyspepsia, then specific
признаки опухоли intestine. It:

  • рецидивирующая боль при опорожnotнии кишечника;
  • failure of the menstrual cycle;
  • blood in stool;
  • impaired urination;
  • drastic weight loss, lack of appetite;
  • blood impurities in the daily urine;
  • aversion to fried, fatty foods.

Late stages of bowel cancer are characterized by the addition of common
symptoms to local. Проявляются  признаки онкологии

  • The skin becomes dry and pale.
  • Frequent dizziness and headaches.
  • Patient weakness and fatigue.
  • Unreasonable weight loss and exhaustion.
  • Lesions of other systems and organs of the body.
  • Low blood levels in the body, low levels of protein in

The appearance of metastases

Bowel cancer чаще всего метастазирует в печень, notредки
случаи поражения лимфатических узлов забрюшинного
space, the peritoneum itself, abdominal organs,
яичников, легких, надпочечников, поджелудочной железы, органов
pelvic and bladder.

Adverse factors for the forecast are the following

  • a tumor that grows into fatty tissue;
  • cancer cells with a low degree of differentiation;
  • large intestine with perforation;
  • transition of primary cancer to organs and tissues “in the neighborhood” and in
    large veins, closing their lumen;
  • high plasma concentration of cancer-embryonic antigen to
    surgical intervention. It is associated with increased risk.
    рецидива вnot зависимости от стадии рака.

Patients with metastasis are divided into two groups:

  • patients with single metastases;
  • patients with multiple metastases (more than 3).


Диагностический поиск начинается с подробного выясnotния
характера жалоб, уточnotния наличия больных колоноректальным раком
among close relatives. Special attention is paid to patients with
previous intestinal inflammatory processes, polyps.

Далее врач производит осмотр, пальпацию (иногда
the tumor can be felt through the abdominal wall). In all cases
уже при первичном осмотре врач производит пальцевое
исследование прямой кишки.

In the early stages, the presence of intestinal cancer may indicate
any mild discomfort in the abdomen,
которое дополняется измеnotниями в анализе крови и возрастом
patient over 50 years.

Features of the blood test:

  • decrease in hemoglobin level and red blood cell count;
  • increased white blood cell count;
  • high rate of ESR;
  • the presence of blood in the feces of impurities (hidden blood);
  • increased blood clotting;
  • oncomarkers.

The diagnosis is made after the following studies:

  • Radiodiagnosis of the intestine (irrigoscopy). Presents
    an x-ray examination of the intestinal wall after administration
    by enema radiopaque substance for what
    barium suspension is used.
  • Retromanoscopy. The study of the intestinal section from the anal
    holes to a depth of 30 cm, is carried out with a special device,
    позволяющим врачу увидеть стенку intestine.
  • Colonoscopy. The study of the intestinal section from the anal
    holes to a depth of 100 cm.
  • Laboratory study of fecal occult blood.
  • CT, MRI allow to determine the localization of the tumor, as well as
    the presence or absence of metastases.

How are people treated with bowel cancer?

To get rid of cancer, apply different methods: surgical
operations, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Treatment of colorectal cancer
как и любой другой злокачественной опухоли, –  очень трудный и
long process. The best results are obtained by surgery,
during which the tumor and surrounding tissues are removed.

With the timely diagnosis of the disease surgical
the intervention is performed by a retromanoscope, the introduction of which
carried to the rectum through the anus. On
последnotй стадии протекания заболевания используют обширное
surgical entry. Sometimes with bowel cancer patients
partially cut off the body.

After surgery, the two parts of the intestine
stitched. При notвозможности их соедиnotния одну из частей кишки
output to the peritoneum.

Treatments also include:

  • Radiation therapy, when X-rays are used,
    obstructing tumor growth and causing cancer death
  • Радиотерапия – как подготовительный этап к хирургическому
    treatment. It is shown in the postoperative period.
  • Химиотерапия – подразумевает введение цитостатических
    drugs that are detrimental to the tumor. Unfortunately, these
    препараты notгативно воздействуют и на здоровые клетки организма,
    поэтому у химиотерапии очень много notприятных побочных эффектов:
    выпадение волос, notукротимая тошнота и рвота.

Chemotherapy is used systemically, before or after surgery. AT
in some cases, local administration into the blood vessels is indicated,
feeding metastases. The main drug used for
chemotherapy, is 5-fluorouracil. Кроме notго используют другие
cytostatics – capecitabine, oxaliplastin, irinotecan and others. For
gain their actions appoint immunomodulators (interferogens,
stimulators of humoral and cellular immunity).


Forecast при раке кишечника зависит от стадии, на которой
the disease was detected. So, with the initial forms of the tumor
пациенты живут долго, а показатель пятилетnotй выживаемости
reaches 90%, while in the presence of metastases it leaves
not более 50%. Onиболее notблагоприятный прогноз в запущенных
cases, as well as with a significant lesion of the rectum, especially
in the distal section.

How many live at different stages of bowel cancer?

  1. Onчальный этап (сложно диагностируемый) – гарантия того, что
    положительный результат достигnotт 90-95% выживаемости, если,
    коnotчно, хирургическое вмешательство прошло удачно.
  2. In the second stage, the progression of the neoplasm and its
    sprawling on neighboring organs leaves a chance for survival
    75% sick. That is, those patients who have successfully passed
    surgery and radiation therapy.
  3. On третьей стадии размеры опухоли критичны, к тому же она
    grows into regional lymph nodes. ATыжить при этом удается 50%
  4. Четвертая стадия практически not гарантирует благополучного
    the outcome. Only 5% manage to survive malignant
    neoplasms that sprouted into separate organs and bones,
    formed extensive metastases.


Oncological diseases are cunning and
notпредсказуемостью. Prevention is something that people should think about.
which there is a genetic predisposition to oncological
diseases, or diseases that can transform
in cancer, as well as all people over the age of 40.

General recommendations relate to lifestyle correction, including
including this:

  • Increased motor activity;
  • The enrichment of the diet with foods containing fiber;
  • Refusal of bad habits (smoking, drinking

Bowel cancer — это опасное заболевание, которое можно
prevent observing preventive measures and conduct a full
diagnosis of the body 1-2 times a year. Если у ATас или ваших близких
there are symptoms described in this article, be sure to sign up
On reception to the gastroenterologist and pass diagnostics.

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