Borreliosis – photos, effects, symptoms andtreatment of tick-borne borreliosis in humans

Borreliosis, which is also defined as Lyme disease,
Lime borreliosis, tick-borne borreliosis and otherwise, is
natural focal disease transmissible type. Disease
affects the skin, nervous and cardiac systems,
musculoskeletal system, especially the joints. With early
identification and proper treatment with antibiotics in most
cases ends recovery.

What is tick-borne borreliosis: a description of the disease

Боррелиоз

Borreliosis is a transmissible type of infectious disease,
localized in natural foci, often prone to
chronicity and relapsing course.

The infection received the name “borreliosis” from the Latin
the names of the spirochete – Borrelia burgdorferi, which are its
pathogens. And the name Lyme disease was given by name
the city of Lime in Connecticut, in which in 1975 was
an outbreak of infection was first recorded and its main
symptoms.

The causative agent of borreliosis is able to penetrate into the cells
of the organism and there remain “in a dormant state”, without
manifesting itself for a considerably long time – about 10 years, this is exactly
causes chronic borreliosis and relapses of this pathology.
A patient with borreliosis for others is not dangerous and not contagious.

Classification

Forms Forms клещевого боррелиозалатентная – отсутствие симптоматики
with laboratory confirmed diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis;

  • manifest – the rapid development of the clinical picture.
Course of the disease According to the course of the disease, its following forms are distinguished. Acute
(disease duration up to 3 months) and subacute course (3-6
months):

  • erythema form (redness develops in the area of ​​the bite,
    increasing in diameter with time);
  • non-erythematous form (proceeds without redness in the area of ​​the bite,
    affected nervous system, heart, joints).
  • Chronic course:
    • continuous;
    • recurrent (recurrent episodes of the disease with
      primary damage to the nervous system, joints, skin,
      hearts).
The severity of a person According to the severity of pathological phenomena, 4 forms are distinguished.
course of the disease:

  • Easy;
  • Moderate;
  • Heavy;
  • Extremely severe form.

Causes of Borreliosis

Tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme borreliosis, Lyme disease) is called
natural focal infection with the transmission pathway.
It is established that the cause of tick-borne borreliosis is 3 types
боррелий — Borrelia burgdorferi,  Borrelia garinii, Borrelia
afzelii. These are very small microorganisms (length 11-25 microns) in the form
twisted spiral.

The disease usually begins to appear after about 7-14 days.
after an immediate bite.

Many animals are masters of the causative agent of borreliosis – this
sheep, birds, cattle, deer, rodents, dogs. But for man
the most dangerous pliers that have already been contacted with
masters or contracted otherwise, this is Ixodes damini, Ixodes
ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus.

The period from the end is especially dangerous for infection.
spring to the beginning of autumn. During this period, such ticks are particularly
are active. It is worth remembering that a patient infected with a tick is not
is contagious to other people around him.

Tick-borne borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis are two different
infectious diseases caused by ixodic
ticks.

Stage of the disease

Tick-borne borreliosis is a dangerous infectious disease,
which can develop imperceptibly for the patient. Especially if the bite
tick was not seen.

Early Borreliosis is considered to be stages 1 and 2. Characteristic of them
acute period of manifestations. Late or chronic is 3. For
this period is characterized by smoothing symptoms, intermittent
aggravation stage. There is a chronic form of the disease,
which lasts for several years.

Stage 1 tick-borne borreliosis

The first stage lasts up to 40 days and is characterized by development on
place of introduction of the pathogen of primary affect in the form of chronic
Afcelius – Lipschütz migrating erythema.

The main symptom of the disease of this stage is solitary (sometimes
several) a rounded red spot at the site of the bite, which over
several weeks, gradually growing centrifugally, reaches
15–20 cm or more in diameter.

On average, the duration of the first stage is one
a week The symptoms correspond to an infectious disease, while
skin damage is observed.

Stage 2

In the second stage of the disease, the pathogen spreads by
the whole body. When spreading borrelia throughout the body with
током крови или по лимфатическим сосудам боррелии  в первую
queue affect the heart, nervous system or joints. Symptoms
lesions of these organs develop in 1.5 months from the moment of
tick bite. The duration of the 2nd phase is about six months.

Lesions of the cardiovascular system manifest severe
arrhythmias up to complete atrioventricular block. Besides,
may occur myocarditis or pericarditis, one hundred manifests shortness of breath,
chest pain, palpitations and dizziness.

Stage 3 borreliosis

AT the third stage, the characteristic consequence of borreliosis is
inflammation of the joints. Untreated borreliosis can lead to severe
disability and even patient death. Late stages of borreliosis
treatable, but it is longer, less effective
и чревато серьезными осложнениями для организма.

If time to identify signs of borreliosis and start treatment with
antibiotics, the chances of a smooth recovery will be
quite high. If the diagnosis determines Lyme disease
Late stage and after that illiterate therapy will be carried out,
borreliosis can turn into intractable chronic form.

Symptoms клещевого боррелиоза у человека, фото

фото боррелиоза

Borreliosis begins to appear clinical after a bite
infected tick, although about 30% of patients cannot remember or
deny a bite in history. The infection proceeds in stages with
damage to the joints, the nervous system and sometimes the heart, and
undergoes a complete cure if antibiotic therapy is started in
for a short period after the onset of the disease.

AT случае проявления характерных для клещевого боррелиоза
symptoms, should immediately refer to
infectious diseases

So, the first symptoms of borreliosis are the usual
явления интоксикации, развивающиеся при любой другой инфекции,
such as:

  • Increased body temperature;
  • Chills;
  • Headache;
  • Body aches;
  • Joint pain;
  • Muscle pain;
  • General weakness;
  • Fatigue;
  • Malaise.

Redness spreads in all directions (see photo). The edges
more red than the center and slightly raised above the rest
skin

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  • enlarged regional lymph nodes;
  • itching or pain in the area of ​​erythema;
  • other skin manifestations. conjunctivitis;
  • in some cases, symptoms of meningitis may occur.

AT случае проявления характерных для клещевого боррелиоза
symptoms, should immediately refer to
infectious diseases

Stage 1 and Stage 2 are considered to be an early stage in the development of the disease, and 3
stage is defined as a late period. Moreover, this division
is conditional, since a clear moment of transition between them
not.

Stage of tick-borne borreliosis Description and Symptoms
Stage 1 Symptoms боррелиоза в первой стадии могут сохраняться от 3 до
30 days. The first and typical sign of borreliosis is
formation of a ring-shaped skin at the site of the tick bite
(annular erythema). The remaining manifestations may
absent.
Stage 2  Loss of reflexes and impaired sensitivity (loss of
reactions and sensitivity to pain, heat and other
irritants). Weakening of voluntary movements (i.e.
all kinds of movements regulated by centers of the brain such
such as the movement of limbs during walking, running).
Stage 3  After several months (or years) from the beginning
diseases develop late manifestations of tick-borne borreliosis.
Chronic borreliosis develops in a tenth of patients. AT этот
period developed arthritis and heart damage are often combined with
damage to the nervous system.

What is the risk of chronic borreliosis?

Chronic borreliosis is characterized by the following manifestations: frequent
catarrhal diseases, petechial rash or various sizes
erythema, other various skin changes, intense or
mild headache, various chest pains, significant
cardiac arrhythmias, arthritis and steady memory impairment.

Also, the patient often has osteoporosis, it can become thinner.
cartilage, degenerative processes rarely occur. Chronic
borreliosis often requires a repeated course of long and intense
antibiotic therapy.

The chronic form of tick-borne borreliosis in case of untimely
treatment may result in a person’s disability.

Complications and consequences for the body

If the disease is detected in stage 1 and carried out adequate
treatment, in most cases there is a complete recovery. 2
the stage is also cured in 85-90% of cases, without leaving behind
consequences.

So, we list the main complications of Borreliosis lime:

  • violation of higher mental functions, up to the development
    dementia;
  • peripheral nerve paralysis;
  • loss of hearing and vision;
  • severe cardiac arrhythmias;
  • multiple arthritis;
  • benign skin tumors at the site of tick infestation.

AT целом прогнозы для жизни благоприятны, осложнения возникают
with untreated borreliosis, arthritis, carditis and
multiple sclerosis. This leads to disability and reduced quality.
of life.

Diagnostics

анализы

Early diagnosis of the disease is carried out, meanwhile, based on
obtained clinical and epidemiological indicators. Availability
patient typical for borreliosis manifestation in the form of erythema
provides registration of the disease without the need for clarification in
laboratory confirmation, and without the need for
наличии специфических данных касаемо tick bite. Laboratory room
diagnostics in particular is made on the basis of serological
blood tests.

ATажен динамический лабораторный контроль: анализы должны быть
delivered 10 days after the bite and again 2-3 weeks later for
effectiveness determination therapy. In parallel with it being held
tick-borne encephalitis research, as tick bites can
carry both diseases at once.

An analysis of borreliosis should be done in the following cases:

  • when ticks are found on the body;
  • to confirm the initial analysis;
  • to differentiate from other diseases, especially
    неврологического характера (в т.ч. энцефалит, менингит и
    etc.);
  • during therapy to assess the effectiveness of treatment.

How is blood test for tick-borne borreliosis?

A blood test for borreliosis is performed by taking a sample from a vein.
Samples are taken in the morning on an empty stomach, while it is necessary not to smoke at least
1 hour before taking blood. Blood is taken from a vein, then
it is placed in an empty tube, sometimes using tubes with
special gel.

The task of the analysis is to identify immunoglobulins
class M and G proteins that the body produces to protect
from borreliosis virus.

If in the analysis of antibodies of class Ig M matter:

  • less than 0.8 U / ml – this means that the result is negative, then
    there is a person not infected;
  • from 0.8 to 1.1 U / ml – the result is doubtful, then the analysis
    taken again;
  • equal to or greater than 1.1 U / ml – the result is positive, that is, in
    An infection is present in the body.

Other diagnostic methods needed to determine
severity of organ-specific lesions:

  • Ultrasound;
  • ECG;
  • X-ray examination of the joints;
  • lumbar puncture;
  • EEG;
  • skin biopsy;
  • joint puncture.

Surveillance of persons who have had borreliosis, lasts 2 years.
The frequency of examination of patients is: 3, 6, 12 months and beyond
examination of the patient is made in two years.

Treatment of borreliosis

Treatment of tick-borne borreliosis should be carried out in infectious
hospital Sometimes the mild form is treated on an outpatient basis under
supervision of an infectious diseases specialist, rheumatologist, general practitioner, cardiologist and
a neurologist. Outpatient treatment is possible only in case of complete
exclusion of mixed infection, that is, infection also by virus
tick-borne encephalitis.

If borreliosis is suspected, a patient is immediately hospitalized.
Infectious Boxing Hospital. Терапия включает целый комплекс
therapeutic interventions with a leading focus on etiotropic
антимикробной therapy. With early своевременном подавлении развития
Borreliosis antibiotics have every chance to avoid complications.

The basis of the treatment of borreliosis is the effect on the pathogen
use of antibiotics to which borrelia has
sensitivity. Besides, необходимо патогенетическое лечение,
based on the stage of the disease, leading symptoms and the presence
complications.

Selection of drugs and the duration of their use in
pathogenetic therapy depends on variations in clinical manifestations
and their severity.

In case of general infectious diseases:

  1. intravenous and oral detoxification therapy –
    infusion of glucose, saline, vitamins, taking
    antipyretic.
  2. With the defeat of the joints: anti-inflammatory and analgesic
    терапия – Анальгетики, НПATС.
  3. For meningitis: intravenous dehydration therapy – trisol,
    ringer’s solution.
  4. In severe clinical course of the disease: hormonal
    therapy.

In the chronic course of the disease, penicillin treatment is
same pattern lasts 28 days. Seems promising
prolonged use of penicillin antibiotics
actions – extentsillina (retarpena) in single doses of 2.4 million AU 1
once a week for 3 weeks.

After complete attenuation of all symptomatic manifestations
the patient should not weaken the duration. When signs appear
re-deterioration is necessary to turn again to
to the attending physician and indicate the presence of a history of acute
borreliosis. With the recurrence of the disease again requires directional
antibacterial therapy and selection of remedies
symptoms.

Prevention

Specific prevention of tick-borne borreliosis has not been developed.
Proper use of personal protective measures is essential.
prevention of diseases caused by tick bites – tick-borne
боррелиоза и tick-borne encephalitis.

Nonspecific prevention of borreliosis includes
following:

  • fight against ticks;
  • knowledge of the danger of infection;
  • use of special means of protection (repellents, correctly
    matched clothes).

Prevention боррелиоза после укуса клеща

After tick bite for the prevention of borreliosis is necessary
take a combination of the following antibiotics:

  • Doxycycline – 100 mg 1 time per day for 5
    days;
  • Ceftriaxone – 1000 mg 1 time per day for three
    days

Taking these two antibiotics is an effective measure.
preventing the development of borreliosis after being bitten by an infected tick,
because it prevents Lyme disease in 80 – 95% of cases.

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