Update: October 2018
The furuncle is an acute purulent inflammation of the hair follicle.
Boils occur only on the skin that has hair, they never
there are on the palms and feet, as well as on the lips (red border
The most common pathogens are staphylococcus
(Staphyllococcus albus and aureus), which in large quantities
are present on human skin, and in particular, under the nails, from where
они и проникают в места inflammation. Sometimes the only small
a scratch left by the nail can lead to the development of severe
Factors contributing to the development of furunculosis in any area
The main precipitating factors for the development of inflammatory
The process in the hair follicle are:
- Trauma to the hair root, for example, when plucking or damaging
nail, abrasions, scratches – the main cause of penetration
- Low immune system activity – depressed,
stress, diabetes, debilitating disease weaken
immunological protection of the body.
- Грязная кожа — проникновение infections в потовые железы
(especially under the arm).
- Наличие хронической infections в организме, интоксикации
- Hypovitaminosis, fasting, diet, nutritional errors
Во многих частях bodies гнойники образуются из-за недостаточного
intake of nutrients to individual areas of the skin. TO
- Фурункулы на ягодицах — часто возникают из-за нарушения
blood circulation caused by prolonged tissue compression. it
the result of a long sitting in one pose.
- Boil on the back may occur for the same reason. it
it is typical, for example, for truck drivers or passengers
buses traveling long distances, as well as for
passenger airliners. If you can, make periodic
breaks, get up, warm up.
- The boil under the arm – dermatologists noticed the following fact:
There is a connection between patient use of roller antiperspirats
and frequent recurrences of armpit furunculosis, which suggests
contamination (blockage) of sweat and sebaceous glands with these
- Boil in the nose — чаще возникает в условиях сухого климата,
when mucous discharge dries out, forming crusts, causing
irritation inside the nose. Such crusts a person usually seeks
remove improvised means, and most often – with a finger.
After such an intervention, the skin in the area of the harvested crust
inflamed with the development of pain and quickly
Symptoms of boils
Furunculosis has no favorite sites for localization, usually
occurs in areas of problem skin prone to fat, usually
this is the face, buttocks, the back of the neck, the forearm. With
the patient does not suffer from a single element, it does not interfere
вести обычный образ жизни, температура bodies остается
Elements of rash with furunculosis look like a cone
congestive hyperemic node that rises above
Correctly recognize the disease can be on characteristic
the sequence of its development.
- The first symptom is a local inflammatory reaction, which
развивается в ответ на попадание infections в ранку, образовавшуюся
after hair removal or damage.
- The initial sign of inflammation is swelling, which causes
obstruction of the lymphatic ducts, which leads to an increase in edema in
other neighboring areas.
- Infiltration formation – then formed
purulent-inflammatory infiltrate of small size around
- Inflammation of the entire hair follicle – in a few days
the entire hair follicle is involved in the inflammatory process.
- Suppuration – suppuration develops in the infected area,
growing puffiness, pain jerking, pulsating nature.
- Прорыв the abscess — впоследствии гной прорывается наружу,
the inflammatory process gradually passes, and the patient
Boil of neck or face
If a boil occurs on the face or neck, then swelling around
infiltration becomes extensive. На 3-4 день в center инфильтрата
there is a fluctuation zone (springy movement of pus with
pressure on the follicle), and a fistula forms around the hair.
After opening the boil a little thick pus is released, it
accumulates on the surface, forming a small ulcer. Bottom sore
contains a necrotic greenish rod – this is
явным симптомом furunculosis. Спустя несколько дней этот
pivot rejected with purulent masses and a small amount
After the rod is removed, the inflammatory process
subsides, swelling subsides, pain decreases. In place of the boil
rather deep crater-like ulcer with a small
amount of necrotic masses and pus, which must also
reject, otherwise chronic furunculosis is formed.
Gradually, in place of the ulcer, a retracted scar is formed, the size and
whose depth depends on the size of the zone of necrosis in center
Boil in the nose
If the area of the wings of the nose, the auditory meatus is affected, the area
nasolabial triangle even with a single element in a patient
The following symptoms appear:
- High body temperature
- Headaches, symptoms of intoxication
- Pain and induration of the nose or ear
- Swelling of the tip and side of the nose
- The skin becomes purple, tense
- Attempts to independently squeeze the element, injury to
washing or shaving, the work of facial muscles – increase the risk
spread of staph infection to internal organs,
the occurrence of thrombophlebitis of the face veins
As the edema develops, it increases and spreads to one or
both nostrils, cheeks, upper lip. Due to severe edema in a patient
may have difficulty breathing. When the abscess sears, from
nasal congestion appears copious, usually red,
as the nasal mucosa is well supplied with blood and occurs
vascular injury. After an ulcer breaks out, the patient’s condition
improves significantly, the temperature decreases, the pain subsides (if
does not develop any complication).
Heavy for furunculosis
In severe cases (in debilitated patients or in the development of
осложнений) могут отмечаться более pronounced симптомы:
- Increased regional lymph nodes
- Compaction along the affected veins (thrombophlebitic strands)
- Eyelid swelling, redness of the eyes
- Conjunctival hemorrhage
- Disturbance of eye movement (defeat 3, 4 and 6 pairs
- Blurred vision or complete loss of it (due to swelling
- Fever with chills (especially with cavernous thrombosis
Any of these symptoms can be fatal to
patient, therefore, the treatment of boils should begin as soon as possible.
When should I see a doctor?
Do not self-medicate, for diagnosis and
treatment should definitely contact a dermatologist.
Especially you can not be treated independently and only folk
- The boil occurs again in the same place. For treatment can
need to remove the sweat glands that cause development
- Attenuated patient – patient has severe concomitant
a disease (oncology, diabetes, etc.) or it takes
drugs that suppress the immune system.
- Severe – in cases where a boil causes serious
pain and accompanied by fever, severe swelling,
headache and other symptoms of severe infectious
What not to do with furunculosis?
- You can not squeeze the boil
As the boil is filled, its surface begins to
become thinner and for faster recovery the patient can
try to poke him with a needle or other sharp object to
release pus. This can not be done, because with inaccurate
or a deeper puncture, infected pus can penetrate
adjacent tissues or into the bloodstream, spreading throughout
to the body. It is also possible that the rod will partially remain inside,
which lead to a chronic process and frequent relapses
furunculosis. The boil should be filled and burst.
on their own. This usually occurs within 1 to 2 weeks.
- Use Vishnevsky ointment should be only after opening
Self-treatment with this ointment at the beginning of the process is dangerous.
spreading process and to phlegmon, so the Vishnevsky ointment
applied at the stage of granulation.
- Before going to a doctor, do not treat the lesion with coloring solutions.
– iodine, green paint, fucarcinum
This lubricates the clinical picture and is difficult for the doctor to establish.
the true dimensions of the seal – infiltrate. That is, the risk increases
late diagnosis, process neglect, development
- When the boil has opened and dressings are made – swim and
you cannot wet the wound
It should either completely eliminate or limit water
procedures, it is better to wipe healthy skin is not aggressive
antiseptics such as furatsilina solution or salicylic
What can a doctor do
- While the furuncle ripens – obligatory processing by antiseptics,
the doctor may hold around the affected area with a solution
antibiotic and novocaine.
- Physiotherapy – the doctor may prescribe electrophoresis with
antimicrobial agents to prevent complications –
abscesses and phlegmon. УФО и УВЧ-терпия применяется на всех
- To enhance the immune response, the doctor may prescribe –
gamma globulin, ozone therapy, autohemotransfusion and tonic
- When a fluctuation zone is formed – the doctor imposes an application with
crystalline salicylic sodium in the center of the furunculosis elements,
fixes it with a dry dressing, it promotes rapid rejection
- After opening both surgical and self-wound
washed with 3% hydrogen peroxide, then dressings are applied
(change every other day) with Levomikol, Vishnevskiy ointment, Ihtiolova,
Syntomycin or Erythromycin ointment.
- With an abscess – an autopsy is performed under local anesthesia.
furuncle removed purulent-necrotic masses.
- Antibiotics inside – appointed only by a doctor. Their
the use of mandatory for multiple furunculosis, with abscess,
with chronic furunculosis. With a reduced immune status,
a weakened patient is prescribed intramuscular antibiotics.
How to treat boils
Although the boil causes a lot of pain and looks unpleasant, his
treatment does not cause serious problems and can be carried out in
home conditions, and the recommendations should be strictly followed.
doctor and follow the following guidelines:
The main rule – personal hygiene
- During treatment, wash and wash your hands with antibacterial
- Congestion of sweat and other potentially dangerous liquids around.
hair follicles can be removed using a special brush or
sponge for washing.
- Frequent change of bed and underwear.
- Any cuts and wounds must be washed and processed.
�”Green paint”, bacteria can enter the body through open wounds
and subsequently accumulate around hair follicles, causing
развитие boil. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully process
antiseptic cuts with a clean bandage to prevent
Do not use the patient’s personal hygiene items.
Although the boil is not a contagious disease, the bacteria,
which caused it, can spread to surrounding objects.
Therefore, care must be taken not to use.
towels, linens and clothes used
sick. Wash them thoroughly before use.
Enrichment of the diet with protein products, natural
fortified food (see myths about synthetic vitamins),
eliminate spicy, fatty, fried foods – it helps to improve
If a patient has a boil, antibiotic treatment is
main stage on the road to recovery from infection:
- Macrolides – Sumamed, Rulid, Klacid
- Penicillins – Amoxiclav, Ampicillin
- Cephalosporins – Ceftriaxone, Cefazolin
- Active drugs against staphylococcus pathogen
are also Vancomycin (1 flak. 260 rubles), Linezolid, Metatsillin
and other penicillin derivatives. These drugs are used in the form of
injection and have a systemic effect, preventing the occurrence
new foci, but these antibiotics are quite expensive.
- In order to avoid complications, antibiotic therapy should
проводиться с первых дней появления симптомов boil.
If you are receiving antibiotic treatment, but do not mark
condition improvement, or a boil appeared again in the same place,
Be sure to tell your doctor. Perhaps the disease is caused
microorganism resistant to standard antibacterial
One of these pathogens is community-acquired
methicillin-resistant staphylococcus S. aureus. For the treatment of this
infection, the doctor needs to be analyzed to find out which
antibiotic most effectively affects this type
After diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe the following
- Antiseptic treatment – regular lubrication of the boil
solution of aniline dye (fukortsin, brilliant green,
furatsilina solution, salicylic alcohol or calendula tincture).
This method is quite effective in the very early stages.
minor inflammatory process.
- At the stage of infiltration (increase of redness and swelling
surrounding tissue) you can use UFO home appliances for
exposure to ultraviolet rays or sunbathing under the sun.
- Pain relief – if a person experiences severe pain, then
painkillers are prescribed: local dressings with 1%
silver nitrate solution, inside the NSAID – Paracetamol,
- Для ускорения вскрытия the abscess 2 раза в день можно
использовать Theirтиоловую мазь, которой смазывается фурункул и
covered with cotton wool. Drying, it is formed like ichthyol flatbread,
которая легко смывается water Powder can also be used.
- После вскрытия the abscess рану обрабатывают 3%-ным раствором
- На стадии заживления ежедневно делают перевязки с
hypertonic solution (for example, sodium chloride) or in folk
medicine for these purposes are used honey, as well as boiled and
cooled to room temperature salt solution.
- Dressings after opening – impose with Vishnevsky’s ointment,
Levomecol and, when granulations appear, with fat-containing
ointments (syntomycin emulsion, sterile vaseline oil and
High efficiency demonstrates the treatment of boils.
Levomekol. This is an ointment containing an antibiotic.
chloramphenicol, active against many pathogens, including
and staphylococcus. In addition, the second active component of the ointment
is methyluracil stimulating tissue regeneration and
contributes to the development of a more pronounced local immune response
на внедрение bacteria.
Antibiotic absorption into the bloodstream is minimal, so it can
apply even to children and pregnant women, avoiding the possible
the development of severe side effects (dysbiosis, pronounced
allergic reactions, hearing loss, etc.).
Treatment of a boil with Vishnevsky’s ointment allows significantly
speed recovery through powerful anti-inflammatory
action that helps reduce swelling and induration in the area
boil. Castor oil, which is part of the ointment, is used
even as part of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer.
Boil in the nose – apply ointment on a gauze napkin and place
in the nostril on the affected side. Due to the unpleasant smell of turunda with
Vishnevsky ointment is very difficult to tolerate, but to achieve the effect
the napkin must be left for several hours. This method is more
suitable for purulent infections of other localization.
Boil in the ear – Vishnevsky ointment or Ihtiolovoy ointment will not cause
unpleasant sensations due to the smell, and apply healing compresses
can for a long time, providing resistant
anti-inflammatory and anti-edema effect.
Features of the treatment of boil in the nose
Before the breakthrough abscess
Apply a hot compress for 10 minutes. The earlier start
treatment with hot compresses, the less likely the development
complications. Just wet the towel with hot water, squeeze,
removing excess fluid and apply hot tissue to the sore spot
for 10 minutes. Repeat the procedure 3 – 4 times a day.
If the treatment is supported by the application of hot
compresses, quickly filled with pus and breaks, therefore,
the patient recovers faster.
- First, heat improves blood circulation in the area
impact. Due to this, the site of inflammation comes more
leukocytes and antibodies that can inhibit the growth of infection.
- Secondly, heat pulls pus to the surface of the skin,
contributing to his breakthrough.
- Third, heat helps relieve pain.
If the boil is on the back, on the buttocks, on any part
body, instead of a compress, you can simply use warm irrigation
water A good alternative is a warm bath (only up to
What to do after breaking the abscess
- Treatment of a boil after opening – flush the area around
boil 3% hydrogen peroxide solution. Rinse until
remove all the pus. Be sure to wash your hands with antibacterial soap.
before and after any manipulation to prevent
spread of infection.
- Then you can treat the skin with antibacterial cream. In the pharmacy
such creams and ointments are available without a prescription.
- Keep applying hot compresses until the boil
will pass completely.
- Acceptance of broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs
or a specific drug with sensitivity
- Symptomatic treatment (anti-inflammatory and analgesic
NSAIDs – Ibuprofen, Paracetamol).
Complications of a boil in the nose
For a furunculosis in a nose the frequent development of complications in
deformations of the tip of the nose or its side wall; and
penetration of the infection into the deeper layers of the skin and spread
on neighboring tissue. The area on the face above the upper lip, and especially in
the area of the nasolabial triangle is dangerous for infectious
diseases, as infection from this zone easily penetrates into
the brain, causing severe or even fatal complications.
Therefore, you should never squeeze the boil, otherwise the patient
can commit a kind of “suicide” – disease-causing
bacteria will enter the bloodstream and begin to multiply, subsequently causing
severe diseases of all internal organs, and death will come
due to multiple organ failure.
Unfortunately, in some cases (weakened patient, low
body resistance, diabetes) there is a high risk
- Abscess nasal septum;
- Inflammation of the cartilage tissue (perichondritis);
- Thrombophlebitis (inflammatory disease of the veins);
- Cavernous sinus thrombosis;
- Pyemia (getting pus in the bloodstream);
- The spread of inflammation to other areas of the face (boil on
cheeks, near the mouth).
Treatment of folk remedies
If the patient does not have any complications, then
allowed to carry out the treatment of boils at home
folk remedies. For this purpose it is allowed to use
several effective drugs available in the pharmacy or even in
- Tea tree oil is a natural antiseptic used
for the treatment of many skin infections, including
- Compress with English salt – just dissolve the salt in warm
water, blot the soft tissue in the solution and apply in place
inflammation. This will stretch the pus to the surface and accelerate
- Turmeric and Apple Cider Vinegar – for the treatment of purulent nose diseases
they will not work, but if the patient has a furuncle on his legs or
other parts of the body (not on mucous membranes), then these substances
can also be very helpful.
Автор: TOоробов Никита Александрович врач-анестезиолог