Update: October 2018
As long as you have this parameter within the limits
rules, you do not think about it. Interest in this parameter
appears from the moment when his failures become discharged
tangible health problems. At the same time there is a folk and
a scientific approach to assessing this indicator is blood pressure,
for brevity, abbreviated as AD.
What is blood pressure
Another immortal hero of Petrov and Ilf Ostap Suleiman Berta Maria
Bender-Zadunaysky subtly noticed that “he is pressing upon every citizen
a pillar of air by force of 214 kilos. ” To this scientific medical
the fact did not crush a person, atmospheric pressure is balanced
blood pressure. It is most significant in large arteries,
where is called arterial. Blood pressure level determines blood volume
pushed by the heart per minute and the width of the vascular lumen then
there is resistance to blood flow.
- With a contraction of the heart (systole), blood is pushed into large
arteries under pressure, called systolic. In the people it
called the top. The magnitude of this determines the strength and frequency
cardiac contractions and vascular resistance.
- Pressure in the arteries at the time of cardiac relaxation (diastole)
gives an indicator of lower (diastolic) pressure. This is the minimum
pressure, completely dependent on vascular resistance.
- If we subtract the diastolic blood pressure from the systolic blood pressure,
get a pulse pressure.
Blood pressure (pulse, top and bottom) is measured in
millimeters of mercury.
The very first devices for measuring pressure were “bloody”
the devices of Stephen Gails, in which a needle was inserted into a vessel,
attached to a tube with a scale. Italian Riva Rocci put
end the bloodshed by proposing a mercury meter to be attached to
cuff applied to the shoulder.
Nikolai Sergeevich Korotkov in 1905 proposed mercury
Attach the monometer to the cuff over the shoulder and listen
ear pressure. From the cuff pear pumped out the air, blood vessels
compressed. Then the air slowly returned to the cuff, and
pressure on the vessels weakened. With a stethoscope on the vessels
elbow beaten tones of the pulse. First strikes indicated
to the level of systolic blood pressure, the latter – diastolic.
Modern monometers are electronic devices that allow
do without a stethoscope and fix the pressure and frequency
How to measure blood pressure
Normal blood pressure is a parameter that changes in
depending on the activity of the person. For example, with physical
load, emotional stress, blood pressure rises, with a sharp rise
may fall. Therefore, to obtain reliable parameters of his blood pressure
need to be measured in the morning, without getting out of bed. At the same time the tonometer
should be placed at the level of the patient’s heart. Cuffed arm
should lie horizontally at the same level.
Such a phenomenon as “white coat hypertension” is known when
the patient, regardless of the treatment, bravely gives an increase in blood pressure in
the presence of a doctor. It is also possible to raise blood pressure by running
on the stairs or straining during the measurement of the muscles of the legs and thighs.
To have a more detailed understanding of the level of blood pressure given
the person, the doctor may recommend keeping a diary where it is recorded
pressure at different times of the day. Also use the method of daily
monitoring when using an apparatus attached to
the patient, pressure is recorded for a day or more.
Pressure in adults
Since different people have their own physiological features,
then fluctuations in blood pressure levels in different people may differ.
There is no concept of the age norm of blood pressure in adults. Healthy people in
Any age should not step over the threshold of 140 to 90
mmHg. Butрмальные показатели HELL – это 130 на 80 mmHg.
The optimal numbers “like an astronaut” – 120 to 70.
Upper pressure limits
Today, the upper limit of pressure, after which
диагноз артериальная гипертензия, является 140 на 90 mmHg.
Higher numbers are subject to identification of their causes and
- First practiced lifestyle changes, quitting smoking,
feasible physical exertion.
- When the pressure rises to 160 by 90, the drug begins
- If there are complications of arterial hypertension or
comorbidities (coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus), drug
treatment begins at lower levels.
During the treatment of hypertension, the norm of blood pressure, which
пытаются достичь – это 140-135 на 65-90 mmHg. In persons with
severe atherosclerosis, pressure is reduced more smoothly and
gradually, fearing a sharp decrease in blood pressure due to the threat of a stroke or
heart attack. With renal pathologies, diabetes and those who are less than 60
target numbers – 120-130 by 85.
Lower pressure limits
Нижние границы HELL у здоровых – 110 на 65 mmHg. With more
low numbers worsen the blood supply of organs and tissues (first
turn, the brain is sensitive to oxygen
But some people live all their lives with BP 90 to 60 and feel
excellent. Former athletes with
hypertrophic heart muscle. For the elderly is not desirable
have too reduced pressure due to the risk of brain disasters.
Diastolic pressure in those over 50 should hold in
пределах 85-89 mmHg.
Pressure on both hands
Pressure on both hands должно быть одинаковым или разница не
should exceed 5 mm. Due to asymmetric muscle development
on the right hand, as a rule, the pressure is higher. 10 mm difference
indicates a probable atherosclerosis, and 15-20 mm
testify to a stenosis of large vessels or their anomalies
Black rectangles are the pulse pressure in different sections.
heart and large vessels.
Pulse pressure в норме составляет 35+-10 mmHg. (up to 35
25-40 years old Art., in older age up to 50 mm. Hg). Downgrade
it can be caused by a fall in the contractility of the heart
(heart attack, tamponade, paroxysmal tachycardia, atrial fibrillation
arrhythmia) or a sharp jump in vascular resistance (for example,
High (greater than 60) pulse pressure reflects
atherosclerotic changes of arteries, heart failure.
Может встречаться при эндокардите, у беременных, amid anemia
By simply subtracting the diastolic from systolic pressure
experts do not use, more diagnostic value is
pulse pressure variability in humans and it should be in
within 10 percent.
Blood pressure table
|20 years||123 to 76||116 to 72|
|30 years||126 to 79||120 to 75|
|40 years||129 by 81||127 80|
|50 years||135 to 83||135 by 84|
|60-65 years old||135 to 85||135 to 85|
|Above 65||135 to 89||135 to 89|
Blood pressure, the rate of which varies by age
slightly reflects the table above. HELL several
less in women at a young age on the background of less muscle mass.
With age (after 60) the risks of vascular catastrophes are compared in
men and women, therefore, blood pressure standards are equalized in both sexes.
Pressure in pregnant women
In healthy pregnant women, blood pressure up to the sixth month of pregnancy
is changing. Blood pressure is normal for non-pregnant
Further under the influence of hormones some
increase, not exceeding 10 mm from the norm. When pathological
pregnancy, gestosis can occur with irregular blood pressure, lesions
kidney and brain (pre-eclampsia) or even the development of seizures
(eclampsia). Pregnancy with arterial hypertension may
worsen the course of the disease and provoke hypertensive crises or
persistent increase in blood pressure. In this case, a correction is shown.
drug therapy, observation by a therapist or treatment in
Butрма артериального давления у детей
For a child, blood pressure is higher, the more
age. The level of blood pressure in children depends on the vascular tone, conditions
heart function, presence or absence of malformations, condition
nervous system. For a newborn, normal pressure is considered
80 to 50 millimeters of mercury.
What is the norm of blood pressure corresponds to one or another
children age, can be seen from the table.
|From birth to 2 weeks||60-96 / 40-50|
|3-4 weeks||80-112 / 40-74|
|2 month – year||90-112 / 50-74|
|2-3 years||100-112 / 60-74|
|3-5 years||100-116 / 60-76|
|6-10 years||100-122 / 60-78|
Butрма давления у подростков
Adolescence begins at age 11 and is not characterized.
only the rapid growth of all organs and systems, a set of muscle mass,
but also hormonal changes that have an effect on
cardiovascular system. В 11-12 лет у подростков HELL колеблется
between 110-126 at 70-82. From 13-15 years it comes nearer, and then
it is equalized with adult standards, making 110-136 on
Причины высокого HELL
- Essential arterial hypertension (hypertensive
disease, see drugs with elevated pressure) gives persistent
pressure increase and hypertensive crises.
- Symptomatic hypertension (adrenal tumors,
renal vascular disease) gives a clinic a similar
- Vegetative dystonia is characterized by episodes of leaps
HELL, не превышающими 140 на 90, которые сопровождаются вегетативной
- Isolated elevated lower pressure inherent in renal
pathologies (developmental abnormalities, glomerulonephritis, atherosclerosis
renal vessels or their stenoses). If diastolic pressure
превышает 105 mmHg. for more than two years, brainstorming risk
catastrophes grows by 10, and heart attack five times.
- Systolic pressure often increases in older people, individuals with
pathologies of the thyroid gland, patients with anemia and defects
- Increased pulse pressure is a serious risk of development
heart attack or stroke.
Causes of low pressure
Low pressure is called hypotension and its causes lie in
weak heart work or the characteristics of the vegetative vascular
tonus (see how to increase pressure). HELL стойко снижено при:
- myocardial infarction and subsequent cardiosclerosis
- vascular dystonia,
- amid anemia
- prolonged fasting and lack of mass,
- adrenal insufficiency,
- diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary system.
With a little hypotension, people live quite fully. When
upper arterial pressure drops significantly, for example, when
shock, lower blood pressure is also very low. This leads to centralization.
blood circulation, multiple organ failure and development
disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Thus, for a long and fulfilling life, man
you should watch your pressure and keep it within