Blood creatinine: elevated, normal, loweredcauses in adults, children, women, men

Update: December 2018

Content:

  • What is creatinine
  • Norm
  • Reasons for raising
  • Creatinine increase in children
  • Reasons for the decline
  • Preparation for analysis
  • What is creatinine used for?
  • Creatinine Reduction Techniques
  • FAQ


AT настоящее время вся медицина принимает стандартизованный
character itт показатель имеет первостепенное значение для оценки
renal filter work, diagnosing chronic diseases of this
organ and the choice of method of therapy.

Even 20 years ago, to check the work of the kidneys, doctors should
were to conduct complex tests and take a large number of tests:
urea, creatine, uric acid, etc. However, after the development
methods for determining creatinine levels
the past. For a modern person, this indicator is enough
to make a conclusion about the state of the functions of the kidneys.

What is creatinine

креатинин кровиAT организме безостановочно протекает огромное
number of chemical processes. Their result is to get
not only useful for human substances, but also various side
products. Creatinine also belongs to such “natural waste”. is he
is obtained from creatine (more precisely, creatine phosphate), after it
use to power muscle energy. When creatine phosphate
realizes its beneficial effect, it turns into creatinine,
which is easily removed from the body.

Almost 100% of this substance is eliminated through the kidneys along with
urine. If it accumulates in excess, tissue
humans begin to suffer from this toxin. Besides that
This compound directly poisons cells that are elevated in the blood.
Creatinine changes its normal acid-base balance.
By acidifying body fluids, it disrupts normal metabolism.
substances in each organ, which can lead to a serious condition
sick and even death. The greatest danger is
damage to the brain, respiratory and circulatory systems.

With a significant excess of normal indicators, it is necessary
timely reduce the concentration of elevated creatinine.

Norm

Although creatinine is the end product and not
used in chemical reactions, normally its amount in the blood
not equal to zero. The organism constantly keeps certain
the concentration of the compound, not allowing it to all displayed
no residue. What for? it позволяет поддерживать необходимый
acid-base balance and adequate metabolism in the tissues.

AT различных лабораториях могут отличаться нормы креатинина, что
associated with the features of the equipment, its calibration and opinion
specialists. As a rule, on a sheet with the result of the analysis
additionally print reference (normal)
values.

Population group Norm в мкмоль/л Norm в мг/дл
Children Newborns (up to 28 days of life) 27-88 0.3-1
Child up to one year old 18-35 0.2-0.4
1-12 years old 27-62 0.3-0.7
12-18 years old 44-88 0.5-1
ATзрослые мужчины 73-110 0.7-1.4
ATзрослые женщины 61-100 0.5-1,1

Any deviation from normal indicators – a reason to repeat
analyze and find out the cause of this condition. It is very important to do this.
as early as possible so that when pathology is detected in a timely manner
initiate therapy and prevent such deadly complications
as chronic / acute renal failure.

Reasons for raising

In any population, there are two main reasons
creatinine enhancement – excess intake
веществ-предшественников  и нарушение удаления токсинов из
organism. AT первом случае, изменение показателей носит временный
nature and, as a rule, not associated with the presence of kidney disease.
Insufficient creatinine excretion is always a satellite
any renal pathology.

Excessive creatinine intake

Before тем, как искать у человека заболевание, необходимо
exclude this particular group of causes. Where can get into the blood
precursors of this substance?

A source Creatinine precursors
High protein foods:

  • any kind of meat;
  • seafood;
  • dairy products;
  • nutritional mixes for bodybuilders (concentrated animal
    protein, gainers, creatine) and others.
Amino acids – any proteins and complex compounds with proteins
(glycoproteins, proteids, nucleoproteins, etc.) in the digestive
system break down to amino acids. ATсасываясь, они сначала
are converted in the liver to creatine, then in the muscles to creatine phosphate and
break up to creatinine.
Injured muscle. Creatine and creatine phosphate – a large amount of these substances
located in muscle tissue. When damaged, they fall into
кровеносное русло и break up to creatinine.
Muscles or connective tissue with severe hyperthyroidism.

The presence of one of the listed factors may cause
high creatinine. AT этом случае, показатель не отражает работу
kidney and usually quickly returns to normal – during
a few days. To confirm the absence of pathology is enough
hand over repeated analysis in 7-10 days.

Causes of impaired excretion

Damage to the kidney filter and insufficient excretion
toxic substances is the main cause of increased creatinine.
If the patient is properly prepared and tested, or
repeatedly found excess standards for this indicator –
the probability of damage to the body is extremely high.

There are a large number of diseases that can
lead to creatinine retention. Find them is enough
difficult, as pathologies often flow latently and the first
signs are found only in the urine analysis. Most
common of these diseases and their characteristic symptoms:

Kidney disease Brief description of the disease Characteristic features
Glomerulonephritis

Chronic disease that develops due to persistent
inflammation in the kidneys. Exact cause of its occurrence
not known to date.

Unfortunately, this pathology is incurable. The main thing is that
the patient has to do – slow her down with medication and
lifestyle changes.

In some forms, the symptoms may be completely absent –
changes are determined only in the urine (the appearance of protein, blood cells
and other pathological elements).

However, the following signs of kidney damage are often observed.
fabrics:

  • The appearance of edema on the face, on the legs. In the later stages of the liquid
    may accumulate on hands, in the stomach and other parts of the body;
  • Constantly increased pressure that a person can
    almost no feel;
  • The appearance of blood in the urine.
Damage to renal tissue in hypertension

All human organs suffer from hypertension, but in
first of all, the heart and kidneys.

Due to persistent hypertension, the kidney tissue begins
wrinkle, be replaced by connective fibers and lose their
functions.

  • Having a diagnosis of “Hypertensive disease” before problems with
    excess of creatinine in a man or a woman;
  • Any signs of organ damage listed above.
Diabetic Nephropathy

Increased blood sugar is dangerous because it starts to be postponed.
in small vessels that feed human tissue.

With their significant damage, irreversible events begin to occur.
changes, and organs lose their ability to perform their function.

The presence of diabetes of any type, until signs of chronic
kidney disease.

In the absence of a diagnosis of “diabetes,” attention should be paid to
Symptoms characteristic of elevated glucose:

  • Periodically feeling “crawling creeps” or
    �”Tingling” in the arms / legs;
  • Feeling sick after taking a large amount
    sweet / flour food;
  • Frequent and abundant urination (up to 5-10 liters per day);
  • The presence of relatives with a confirmed diagnosis of “diabetes”;
  • The development of frequent infectious diseases, including purulent
    skin lesions.
Amyloidosis of the kidney, including:

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus;
  • Goodpasture Syndrome;
  • Rheumatoid arthritis;
  • Scleroderma.

Amyloidosis is a chronic disease with an unknown cause.
occurrence. It is known for certain that it is frequent.
companion of any prolonged inflammation.

With this pathology, the person is educated and
accumulation in the organs of atypical (abnormal) protein – amyloid.
It is the one that damages the kidney filter and causes an increase in
blood creatinine levels.

The risk group for the presence of amyloidosis includes all people with
chronic poorly controlled inflammatory
diseases.

Unfortunately, there are no characteristic signs of this disease. With her
there are the same symptoms as with glomerulonephritis or
diabetic nephropathy. The final diagnosis can be made
только после выполнения биопсии – изучения части  органа под
microscope with special staining.

Coronary artery disease (with renal constriction / damage
arteries)
The kidneys produce a biologically active substance that
able to significantly increase blood pressure. Its quantity
increases with their “oxygen starvation”, which occurs on
background clogged arteries.
Ischemic kidney disease is characterized by a combination of the following
symptoms:

  • Hypertension resistant to treatment with high diastolic numbers
    pressure (lower figure in the testimony of the tonometer);
  • The appearance of blood in the urine, up to its staining in
    pale pink color. Figuratively, it can be compared with the appearance
    meat slops;
  • Characterized by the development of frequent crises – the rapid increase
    pressure on the background of poor health (severe headache,
    nausea, vomiting, weakness, disorientation, etc.).
Nephrotoxic poisoning There is a whole group of compounds that can damage
renal cells and cause acute renal failure with
a significant increase in creatinine.
This condition can be suspected only when used
nephrotoxic substances. These include:

  • Mercury and any of its compounds;
  • A number of antibiotics (aminoglycosides, cephalosporins,
    tetracyclines);
  • Barbiturates (Phenobarbital, Thiopental, etc.);
  • Preparations of male sex hormones;
  • Cimetidine;
  • Sulfomethoxazole.
Infections with kidney damage:

  • HFRS (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome);
  • Omsk fever;
  • Crimean fever.

Contrary to popular opinion, these diseases are in Russia
and constantly circulate among rodents (mainly in rats and
mice).

Often the disease begins as normal SARS. And only later
some time a person develops characteristic signs
pathology.

  • Acute onset of illness, often after contact with
    rodents or their feces;
  • Signs of damage to the renal tissue precede
    various catarrhal phenomena: runny nose, sore throat, watery eyes
    etc.;
  • Сопровождается высокой температурой 38-39оС;
  • Often there are point bleeding on the skin (petechiae),
    mucous membranes of the mouth and eyes. Blood may also appear in the urine.

Creatinine increase in children

The presence of this change in the analysis of a child requires
thorough diagnosis. First of all, to eliminate the false
the result is recommended to explain the algorithm to the parents again
preparation before blood collection and re-conduct research.
If the laboratory again detects an excess of the norm, it means
there are clear signs of a pathological process.

Creatinine in children rarely increases due to acquired
chronic diseases such as glomerulonephritis, diabetic
or hypertensive nephropathy, amyloidosis, etc. In most
cases, the reason for its delay are the following conditions:

  • Гипертиреоз. This disease is not
    a rarity among young patients. Excess hormones
    thyroid leads to the breakdown of proteins throughout the body,
    which leads to an increase in the activity of the enzyme creatine kinase. AT
    the result is an increase in product concentration
    metabolism;
  • Синдром Альпорта (синоним «наследственный
    nephritis”). It is a congenital disease in which there is
    predominant lesion of two organs: kidney and auditory
    apparatus. At the same time, the child develops glomerulonephritis and
    hearing loss;
  • ATрожденные аномалии почек. These include
    pathologies such as insufficient development / absence of an organ
    (respectively hypoplasia or aplasia), polycystic, presence
    solitary cysts and others. In most случаев, для постановки
    diagnosis is enough to conduct an ultrasound.

Reasons for the decline

Low creatinine does not harm the human body, but such
the data makes it possible to suspect the presence of a pathological condition or
wrong lifestyle. The presence of such a connection is due
simple enough:

  1. AT органах и тканях постоянно поддерживается определенный баланс
    between chemical processes, various substances and exchange
    energy;
  2. To maintain it requires a certain number of different
    substances: amino acids, glucose, fatty acids, trace elements and
    of vitamins. Their number can be judged by the well-being of a person and
    «побочных продуктов» metabolism;
  3. Creatinine is a product of amino acid metabolism. Reducing it
    concentration, in most cases, indicates
    insufficient amount of protein (amino acids) or lack of muscle
    masses.

There are not many conditions in which a person has
low creatinine is determined. These include голодание, строгая
vegetarian diet or muscular dystrophy (pathological condition
muscles in the body). Also reduced values ​​in the analysis can
determined by heavy drinking or intravenous fluids
solutions, due to the “dilution” of the blood. Other causes are found.
rarely.

Preparation for analysis

To get an adequate result, a person needs to
try to exclude all factors affecting this indicator.
Standard preparation for analysis includes:

  • Исключение приема пищи. It is recommended to take
    blood for research not earlier than 4 hours from the last meal.
    A prerequisite is a small intake of protein in the body. it
    means that a person should not consume a large amount
    meat, fish or dairy products before the examination (not more than
    100-200 g);
  • Ограничение физической нагрузки. Any power
    Exercise with sufficient load leads to microtraumas of the muscles.
    it может повлиять на результаты исследования, несколько увеличив
    indicator;
  • Ограничение питьевого режима. Before
    diagnostic procedure is not recommended to use large
    the amount of fluid (more than 1.5-2 liters for several
    hours). it может привести к ложным результатам в виде пониженного
    creatinine in the blood.

What is creatinine used for?

Glomerular filtration rate (abbreviated GFR) – the most important
kidney performance indicator. He demonstrates how good
detoxifies from the body and accurately reflects
condition of this body. Only by SCF can not only determine
the presence / absence of chronic kidney disease, but also to clarify it
power.

To calculate this indicator, it is enough to know your level.
creatinine and some elemental data such as age, gender
and race. Calculated glomerular filtration using complex
formulas that are in almost any online service or
urinary system program. Exists
several calculation options, but at the moment, the most
relevant The formulas are MDRD and CKD-EPI.

To interpret the results, just use
table below. The presence of chronic kidney disease (or
CKD) – a reason to contact your doctor in order to conduct
additional diagnostics and determination of further tactics.

CKD Stage GFR level, ml / min Additional risk of heart and vascular disease
Lack of pathology More than 90 with no signs of kidney damage, such as:

  • Changes in urine tests;
  • The pathological conditions of the organ found in
    instrumental examination (ultrasound, CT, MRI, biopsy, etc.).
Virtually absent
CKD I More than 90 in the presence of adverse prognostic factors and
markers of kidney damage.
Exists небольшой риск
CKD II 60-89 The risk is above average
CKD IIIa 45-59 ATысокий
CKD IIIb 30-44 Extreme likelihood of disease or complications
on the part of the cardiovascular system.
CKD IV 15-29
CKD V Less than 14

Creatinine Reduction Techniques

When pathological changes are found in the analyzes, people are asked
the question “How to reduce blood creatinine?”. However, exceeding the norm
This substance is not the main problem for a person – it is only
�”Tip of the iceberg.” An increase in its concentration indicates
As a rule, a serious renal pathology, which for a long time
left without proper treatment. Therefore, the main thing is not to get rid of
high creatinine, and slow down / stop the course of the main
diseases.

How to do it? Only the treating person can answer this question.
doctor. Tactics will be determined by the type of disease from which
the patient suffers. However, general approaches to therapy can be called.
used in these pathologies:

  1. Изменение образа жизни. The main thing at this point
    – отказ от курения и алкоголя, ограничение приема препаратов НПATП
    (Paracetamol, Ketorol, Citramone, Coldrex, Antigrippin and
    others), gradual weight loss. These activities help
    slow down damage to the kidney cells and have a principled
    value in treatment;
  2. Коррекция водного режима. This nuance
    is determined individually for each patient. In the early stages
    diseases and in the absence of significant fluid retention
    предлагается стандартная схема – «объем потребляемой жидкости =
    the amount of fluid excreted in the urine of the last day + 500
    ml “;
  3. Диета с ограничением соли (как правило, до 5
    g / day) and protein (up to 300-400 g / day);
  4. Лекарственная терапия. Medicines that
    must be taken sick, determined individually. However the circuit
    treatment, in the absence of contraindications, should include
    �”Drugs defenders”, slowing the progression of CKD. To them
    There are two main groups: ACE inhibitors and Sartana (synonym –
    angiotensin receptor inhibitors).

The need for surgery and dialysis is determined in
depending on the type of pathology and human condition. In the presence of
significant narrowing of the renal arteries is recommended operative
intervention that will expand their clearance and restore
nutrition organ. With low GFR, in some cases, the only
output remains hemodialysis. Therefore, the question “how to reduce
creatinine? “the best answer is to adequately treat your core
disease.

FAQ

ATопрос: Что делать, если в крови обнаружен
elevated creatinine level, but in the urine and on the ultrasound, doctors are not
found pathological changes?

AT первую очередь, рекомендуется пересдать анализ в другой
laboratories. With the re-detection of pathological changes,
further diagnostic search should be carried out and
need to contact a nephrologist.

ATопрос: Как часто следует проверять данный
indicator of a healthy person?

It is included in screening standards for all.
patients over 39 years old. In the absence of pathologies, diagnosis
held once in 6 years.

ATопрос: Нужно ли обратиться к нефрологу, при
increasing creatinine concentration?

To begin with, this problem should be addressed to the district
a therapist who will conduct the necessary diagnostics. AT случае
if necessary, he will refer the patient to a nephrologist or other narrow
to specialists.

ATопрос: Может ли менструальный цикл влиять на
female creatinine level?

At the moment, there are no studies that would prove
connection of these two states.

Like this post? Please share to your friends:
Leave a Reply

;-) :| :x :twisted: :smile: :shock: :sad: :roll: :razz: :oops: :o :mrgreen: :lol: :idea: :grin: :evil: :cry: :cool: :arrow: :???: :?: :!: