Biteы змей и пауков: первая помощь, что нельзяdo what you need, the trail of a snakebite

Update: October 2018

Content:

  • Snake Statistical Facts
  • How to distinguish the bite of a venomous snake from a non-poisonous
  • Characteristics of the bites of poisonous snakes of our latitudes
  • Symptoms of a snakebite bite
  • What not to do if you are bitten by a snake
  • First aid for snake bites
  • Snake Bite Prevention
  • Biteы пауков
  • Bite черной вдовы
  • Bite тарантула
  • Bite птицееда
  • Hermit spider bite
  • Bite крестовика и черного домашнего паука
  • What to do when a spider bite?

The mere sight of a crawling snake inspires terror and fear. But,
contrary to the opinion of many people, even the most venomous snake never
will attack a person with the intention of intentionally biting. Attacking
human snake protects itself from danger. Only here is a man
rarely steps on a snake in order to crush it.

Thus, a snake bites a person gets carelessly,
accidentally stepping on an animal or disturbing its habitat,
the snake attacks human beings because the natural
the instinct of self-preservation. This is another reason to show a special
Vigilance when visiting forests and marshes!

Snake Statistical Facts

  • В мире насчитывается около 2 900 видов snakes;
  • All snakes are carnivorous;
  • About 2 million cases of poisonous bites are recorded annually.
    snakes;
  • About 120 thousand people die annually;
  • Snakes are most aggressive during the mating season and at the moment
    moulting;
  • Attacking, the snake overcomes a distance of 3.5 m in 1 second;
  • Most often, a snake bite falls on the lower limbs;
  • The most severe snake bites occur in children, women and individuals in
    alcohol intoxication;
  • Snake poisons are a unique blend of
    several toxic components. Snakes cherish their poison because
    a lot of strength and energy is spent on its production;
  • Snakes have two rows of teeth on the upper jaw and one row on
    bottom. In the process of life, teeth change.

How to distinguish the bite of a venomous snake from a non-poisonous

Слева - неядовитая змея, справа - ядовитая

Left – non-poisonous snake, right – poisonous

Snakes are a suborder of reptiles that has many
families, both poisonous and not, having a variety of colors and
drawings. In addition, there are individuals melanists (black).
Therefore, it is sometimes not easy to distinguish a poisonous individual from a non-toxic individual.
for example, the melanist viper from the melanist snake, etc.

Few of us can quickly identify a poisonous snake or
not. When a man accidentally disturbed a snake, and she defended himself, his
bit, not rarely, he does not even see it. And if you notice, it is difficult
быстро определить — опасен ее укус или not. However, it can be learned
on the left bite mark:

  • Bite venomous snake — видны следы ее клыков
  • Bite неvenomous snake — 2 царапины или мелкие тоненькие
    stripes

If you managed to make out a snake that bit you, try
remember its size, color, pattern, characteristic movements, etc., this
may be useful for the selection of the necessary serum.

Non poisonous snakes

  • Already ordinary

  • Patterned snake
e; vtkfybcn

  • Already melanist

  • Medyanka (spindle)

  • Medyanka (spindle)

Poisonous snakes

 Steppe Viper melanist        
  • Steppe Viper melanist

in the south of the European part of Russia, in the Caucasus, in Kazakhstan
steppes, floodplains of the Altai, Uzbekistan, in the foothills of Kyrgyzstan

  • Pallas the Mouthguard

in Azerbaijan, the steppes of Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, the Aral coast
Sea, Caspian Sea, South of Siberia, Northern Uzbekistan

  • Efa

in Central Asia (sandy areas)

  • Gyurza

in the Caucasus, in Central Asia and the Caucasus

  • Cobra

in southern Uzbekistan, in Turkmenistan, Tajikistan

 Characteristics of the bites of poisonous snakes of our latitudes

In our latitudes 14 species of venomous snakes from the families inhabit
already similar, viper and aspidovyh. Oh, and medyanka, representatives
can bite a person, but their bite is not dangerous.
It is possible only suppuration of the wound. But representatives
the two remaining families carry a real danger to life.

Vipers – Viper Aspidae – Central Asian cobra
Attack features When approaching a potential hazard, trying to crawl away or
calmly lies. Bites, if you step on it, pick up or
chase.
At the sight of danger takes a typical posture, hisses, with
the approach of a person jumps forward, but does not always bite in this
moment, can just hit the head with closed jaws.
Poison components
  • Hyaluronidase – destroys the capillaries, splits the connective
    tissue increases tissue permeability;
  • Phospholipase – causes hemolysis of red blood cells.
  • Neurotoxin – the main toxin that blocks sensitive
    skin receptors and the conduction of nerve impulses;
  • Cardiotoxin – has a toxic effect on blood vessels and
    a heart.
Where poison is accumulated In the head of a snake there are special poisonous glands, excretory
ducts which fall into the fangs. The release of poison is due to
contraction of the temporal muscles.
Poison action Destroys the walls of blood vessels, proteins, blood cells. Formed
blood clots inside the vessels, damage the function of the heart and liver,
water and mineral balance is disturbed.
Вызывает нарушение рефлекторной activities. Arise
paralysis, paresis of the limbs, heart failure and impairment
blood circulation.

Symptoms of a snakebite bite

After a snake bite, a certain develops quite
symptom complex, directly related to the hit and
the spread of snake venom in the body. Consequences of an attack
Cobras always flow harder than vipers. Severity of bite and
accordingly, the symptoms depend on several factors:

  • victim’s body mass – the smaller it is, the harder it is
    intoxication;
  • human health conditions – chronic diseases burden
    the course of intoxication;
  • bite sites: the most dangerous in the head, neck and poison
    blood vessel;
  • air temperature – the higher it is, the faster it develops
    intoxication;
  • snake-sized – larger individuals emit more venom;
  • the amount of poison that entered the body.

Surprisingly, a viper bite can be quite
safe in case she recently used her poison –
deadly liquid is produced slowly.

Common viper

Local Are common Symptoms of severe intoxication
  • Puncture of snake teeth on the skin – 1 or 2 small points
  • Soreness at the injury site (slight)
  • Burning, redness, swelling of the bite zone, which is formed
    within 10-30 minutes
  • Cyanosis of the skin
  • Rifle hemorrhages and bloody blisters
  • Perhaps the formation of areas of necrosis of the skin
  • Nausea
  • Tachycardia
  • Drowsiness
  • Dizziness
  • Lower body temperature
  • Confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Weakness
  • Pallor of the skin, cold extremities
  • Sweating
  • As symptoms increase, fever appears;
    breath. Further possible fainting and development of renal
    failure, circulatory disorders

Cobra среднеазиатская

Local симптомы Are common симптомы
  • Burning pain in the bite, decreasing only through
    several hours
  • Bloody ichor, some time standing out from
    wounds
  • Tissue swelling, less pronounced than viper bite
  • No change in skin color
  • Upward-spreading paralysis: starts with an affected
    limbs, then covers the torso and head. Drooping eyelids
    lower jaw, disturbed movement of the eyeballs
  • Weakness, беспокойство
  • Lack of coordination
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Nausea и рвота
  • Hiccup, swallowing disorder, hypersalivation
  • Disturbance and slurred speech
  • Cardiac Disruption
  • Involuntary urination and defecation

What not to do if you are bitten by a snake

  • Impose a tourniquet – a sharp violation of blood circulation increases
    degree of tissue damage and intoxication.
  • Cut tissue at the site of the bite, ostensibly to release blood with poison.
    It is fraught with infection in the wound, the ingress of poison into the vessels and
    damage to vital vessels and nerves.
  • Burn the wound.
  • Take alcohol that speeds up the spread of poison by
    to the body.
  • Peel off the area of ​​damage with anesthetics (novocaine,
    adrenaline).

First aid for snake bites

Если человек умер от укуса venomous snake, вероятнее всего, это
happened because of untimely first aid. Algorithm
providing first aid will help save a person from severe
the consequences of a snake attack, and sometimes death:

  • Call an ambulance. Even if objectively a person feels
    well, after a couple of minutes, dangerous
    life conditions such as impaired cardiac and respiratory
    functions.
  • Высосать яд из wounds как можно раньше (оптимально — в течение
    1-3 minutes after the bite):

    • open up the punctures of the teeth, slightly rubbing the damaged skin
      between the fingers;
    • grab the teeth near the wounds and suck out the poison, a little
      crushing the surrounding tissue with your hands;
    • the liquid that you managed to suck should immediately spit out –
      the risk of poisoning by poison in the stomach is minimal, but
      swallow a mixture of poison and blood is definitely not worth it;
    • actions must be clear and quick, procedure time –
      15-20 minutes

In the event that you are alone in such a situation, and
physically fail to suck the poison, try first
минуты хотя бы выдавить немного крови из wounds. But do it
It should be very carefully, pressing down the surrounding tissue, rather than
wound.

  • Disinfect the wound with an alcohol-free antiseptic
    (hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate solution, brilliant
    green) – gently wipe the wounded surface.
  • Apply a wound dressing to the wound.
  • Ensure the rest of the limb and the whole body – release
    a limb from clothes, watches, bracelets (if the bite came in the hand),
    fix limb tires and take horizontal
    position.
  • Apply a squeeze bandage on the limb – loosely wrap
    elastic bandage so that under the bandage calmly held
    finger.
  • Attach a cold to the bite – ice in a towel, hot water bottle with
    cold water.
  • Take antihistamines:
    • enter intramuscularly 1 ml of 1% p-ra dimedrol, suprastin;
    • or take an oral antihistamine (Suprastin,
      Loratadin, Fenkrol) and continue taking on instructions 3-5
      days;
    • or (with a strong reaction) enter intramuscularly 30-60 mg
      Prednisolone or take 1 tablet 5 mg orally.
  • Remove total intoxication:
    • drink 3-5 liters of fluid per day;
    • viper bite recommended warm alkaline drink
      (mineral water without gas, soda solution 1 tsp. per glass of water)
      in the amount of 1-2 liters;
    • take vitamins C and P;
    • intravenously: 400 ml of 5% glucose, 400 ml of reopolyglukine.
  • Stimulate cardiac and respiratory activity (with
    the need and availability of relevant symptoms): indirect massage
    сердца, искусственное breath.
  • Introduce antidote. This event is held medical
    an employee. Depending on what kind of snake bit man,
    Antiguir or Anti-Image serum is introduced. Serum action
    based on the destruction of the components of the poison. Most effective for
    introduction in the first hours after the bite, must be entered no later than
    first day.

Snake Bite Prevention

  • Do not provoke the snake to active actions, do not shout, give it
    quietly crawl away and hide;
  • Be careful in the forest and swamp, look at your feet, not
    walk in places where the deadwood is located;
  • When visiting forests, wear high boots and thick boots.
    clothes;
  • While moving through the forest, tap long in front of you.
    stick. When picking berries from small shrubs, also spend on it
    stick, and only a few minutes later pick berries;
  • Overnight in the forest, carefully check the tents and sleeping bags, not
    whether the snake crawled there. Close the tent door tightly.

Biteы пауков

The probability of encounter with spiders in nature is much higher than with
snakes. Spiders are not known to attack humans, the most
often a person gets bites due to his own negligence and
reckless curiosity, catching spiders and putting them on hand.
Like any other living thing, the spider protects itself, therefore
may bite when a person is disturbed by an arthropod that does not
noticing since their sizes are small.

Statistical facts:

  • В мире насчитывается около 30 000 разновидностей
    spiders;
  • Virtually all of them are poisonous;
  • The poison is produced by special glands and injected into
    through the canines, the chelicera;
  • The most poisonous for humans poison produces karakurt female –
    black Widow;
  • The larger the size of the spider, the more poison it produces.

How a spider bite looks and feels

  • The moment of the bite is similar to piercing the skin with a thin needle either
    completely imperceptible;
  • In place повреждения возникает пятно белого цвета с розовыми или
    red edges;
  • There is itchy skin, redness, numbness and tingling.
    bite area;
  • After some time, an ulcer may form at the site of the bite,
    the contents of which are gradually rejected;
  • Intoxication symptoms appear within 5–20 minutes;
  • Of the common symptoms may develop: headache, muscular
    weakness, chills, cramps, shortness of breath, palpitations, cramps
    GIT, urticaria.

South Russian tarantula

It lives in minks, in arid regions in the south of Russia. Wednesday
habitat – steppe, desert.

Bite — шарообразная припухлость бледного цвета с красноватыми
by edges которая в течение 1-2 часов лопается и превращается в
the ulcer

Hermit spider

It dwells from the south of the middle west of the USA to the Gulf of Mexico.

Bite — волдырь с синевато-пурпурной, красной или белой каемкой,
outwardly looks like a target. Increases in size and bursts with
ulcer formation

Karakurt – black widow

Lives in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, Astrakhan, Rostov,
Volgograd, Saratov, Azov and the Black Sea region, Altai Territory,
even in Novosibirsk. They love the slopes of ravines, wormwood virgin, coast
arykov and where hot summer, warm autumn.

Bite — визуально незаметен – может сформироваться маленькое
red speck that quickly disappears

Black Widow

The phrase black widow is the second name of the female karakurt
since after mating she devours the male. This black spider
deadly to humans, with symptoms that develop
только через several hours. A biting, black widow brings a man
discomfort in the form of pain, but the wound itself is almost imperceptible
on the skin.

Bite symptoms – развиваются через 1-2 часа, стихают в течение
1-3 days:

  • Pain and erythema at the site of injury;
  • Excitement, anxiety;
  • Headache and dizziness;
  • Sweating;
  • Nausea и рвота;
  • Hypertension;
  • Increased drooling;
  • Erythematous rash, itching;
  • Ptosis;
  • Swelling of the limbs;
  • Muscle cramps; cramps;
  • Spastic abdominal pain.

Paresthesia, convulsions, weakness and anxiety may persist
for a few weeks.

Lethal outcomes are rare, the risk group consists of children, the elderly
people and patients with chronic diseases. Most dangerous
outcome – the development of DIC: disseminated intravascular
platelet coagulation, which quickly leads to death.

Tarantula

Tarantula обитает в степной и пустынной местности, охотится по
nights The idea of ​​a tarantula, as a deadly
arthropod, greatly exaggerated. Bite этого вида паука
extremely rarely leads to the death of a person and only with the development
severe allergies in the form of anaphylactic shock. Tarantula может
bite a person, and can protect themselves in another way –
shedding thin hairs that pierce the skin:

Bite тарантула Tarantula hairs in the skin or eyes
Pain, burning, local swelling with reddish by edges
which without proper processing can burst with
ulceration, headaches, general weakness
Pseudoaphylactic reaction: urticaria, angioedema,
bronchospasm, pressure drop

Bird tarantula

The tarantula, a colorful representative of spiders, often becomes
pet and can bite his master. They do not carry
mortal danger. Biting a person, it only damages the skin, but
does not inject poison. Therefore, a typical
swelling that goes away after a few days. However if
the wound cannot be treated, infection and suppuration are possible
affected area.

Hermit spider bite

The hermit is common in the United States and Australia. On the back
arthropod has a masking pattern in the form of a violin,
therefore it is difficult to notice him in places where he likes to hide –
old boxes, crevices of walls and floors, niches under the beds. Bite
the hermit is not palpable for man, but deadly
symptoms are formed only on the second day:

  • severe itching, induration and swelling at the site of injury;
  • ulceration of the skin at the site of the bite;
  • necrosis of tissues to the deep layers of the skin, difficult to
    treatment;
  • high temperature;
  • muscle and joint pain;
  • cough, runny nose.

Fatal outcome is possible with the development of severe intoxication –
arachnosis: necrosis of the skin and surrounding tissues, diffuse myalgias and
convulsions, falling blood pressure, red blood cell hemolysis, cardiac depression
activities.

Cross spider and black home spider

  • Krestoviki – this is the most common type of spider in our
    terrain They weave their cobwebs around a person’s home and even
    inside the house. Reach sizes up to 1-2 cm.
  • The black home spider is smaller, settles inside
    home and outside it.

Human bite only when it falls into his hands and then, if the spider
trying to hold on. Deadly danger bites domestic spiders do not
present. Epeirotoksin, the main component of the poison, can lead
to the occurrence of cold symptoms – aching joints,
weakness and headache, which is present for about a day. In place
damage is formed by slight swelling.

What to do when a spider bite?

First aid helps to avoid unpleasant bite complications
the spider. If the damage is not a concern, these events
quite enough, but to be safe and visit the doctor is not superfluous
will be:

  • Wash the bite with cold water and soap, the sooner the
    it is better.
  • Treat the wound with an existing antiseptic: chlorhexidine,
    hydrogen peroxide solution of potassium permanganate.
  • Immobilize the bitten limb.
  • Bandage the limb with an elastic bandage above the injury site,
    tight but not too tight.
  • Attach to the bite cold.
  • Drink as much liquid as possible.
  • With the development of common symptoms – take a pill
    paracetamol.
  • With the development of a mild allergic reaction, take
    antihistamine drug – Loratadin, Suprastin, Fenkrol.

When you need to see a doctor

If there is a suspicion or you know for sure that you have been bitten by a spider,
need to see a doctor. Differentiate which kind of spider
attacked, a simple man in the street is difficult, but to lose precious time
definitely not necessary.

If you have symptoms described below, delay with
calling ambulance can not:

  • Rash all over;
  • Numbness of the area of ​​damage;
  • Muscle cramps and cramps;
  • Pain in the right hypochondrium, similar to appendicitis;
  • Hyperthermia;
  • Headache;
  • General weakness;
  • Pink urine.

What should I do if I have been bitten by a poisonous spider?

In this case, you should immediately visit a doctor or call
an ambulance Of course, first aid measures will help reduce
intoxication, but they should be carried out on the way to the hospital or waiting
ambulance i. without medical care is not enough.

  • Biteы черной вдовы лечат при помощи введения специальной
    serum and antihistamine therapy. In severe cases, held
    intravenous infusion of cardiac breathing drugs
    Analeptics, muscle relaxants, hormone therapy is indicated.
  • Biteы отшельника лечатся долго из-за развития специфического
    tissue necrosis. Dead skin and tissue is surgically removed,
    hormonal and antibacterial therapy is prescribed.
  • Detoxification therapy in the form of intravenous administration
    salt solutions and glucose allows you to cope with the common
    симптомами укуса the spider.

Spider Bite Prevention

  • Do not pick up and do not try to catch spiders – active actions
    human provoke spiders to attack. This recommendation applies to
    domestic spiders, especially exotic, which has become fashionable
    breed in apartments.
  • Be careful when visiting attic, street
    buildings, parsing old things.
  • Exclude the creation of favorable conditions to justify
    spiders: carry out cleaning in a timely manner, especially in hard-to-reach
    places: under and behind cabinets, eaves, etc.
  • When visiting a place where poisonous spiders are found,
    put on thick shoes and wear closed clothes.
  • Try not to show excessive curiosity and not to stick your hands in
    chinks, under stones, etc., teach this and your children!

Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог

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