Basic reflexes of newborns:unconditioned and conditioned reflexes

Twenty-eight days – exactly the period lasts
newborn during which the child’s body experiences
adaptation to completely new conditions for him now
extrauterine life, so the reflexes of a newborn baby are played
here is the main role.

Рефлексы новорожденных детей

рефлексы новорожденного ребенка

Объясняется это тем, что совсем недавно рожденный малыш пока еще
devoid of many useful skills – nature takes care of him.

Basic reflexes

В этом периоде у малыша развиты только безусловные
рефлексы
– то есть, те, которые заложены как бы по умолчанию.
Gradually, some of them disappear, giving way to conditional.

Условные рефлексы еще можно назвать «личным опытом»
child as they are acquired in the process of further
development and maturation of the brain.

What are unconditional (innate) reflexes for?

Clinically significant unconditioned reflexes in the baby as much
Fifteen – and their “fate” is very different: some are needed only
in order to survive the difficult process of birth (so they
disappear quickly after birth), others – to give
impetus to the development of new, and still others remain for life.

Pediatric neonatologists divide inborn reflexes
newborns into several groups:

  1. Providing the general normal activity (respiratory,
    sucking, swallowing, and spinal reflexes)
  2. Aimed at protecting the child’s body from external
    effects of bright light, cold, heat and other irritants
  3. �”Temporary” reflexes – for example, a breath hold reflex,
    necessary to advance through the birth canal of the mother.
рефлексы новорожденного ребенка

Клик для увеличения (Basic reflexes)

Оральные рефлексы

The ability to suck the maternal breast or the nipple on the bottle with
искусственным питанием называется сосательным рефлексом, а
способность проглотить съеденную пищу – глотательным.

Сосательный рефлекс возникает в первые часы жизни и
lasts up to a year: the baby wraps his lips around the nipple
bottles and rhythmically sucks them – something like this in terms of
Physiology looks like a normal feeding process. Details about
sucking reflex

Глотательный рефлекс остается на всю жизнь.

Хоботковый рефлекс – еще одна разновидность оральных
reflexes. If it is easy to touch the lips of the baby, they are ridiculously bulging
into a tubule – just like a baby elephant’s trunk, because at this moment
involuntarily contracted circular muscle of the mouth. Proboscis disappears
рефлекс к  двум-трем месяцам.

Рефлекс Бабкина (ладонно-ротовой) – смешанная
a kind of reaction of the child, in which he opens his mouth,
if you gently press with your thumbs at the same time on both palms.
Best expressed in the first two months of life, the third begins
fade away and then disappears altogether.

Рефлекс Куссмауля (поисковый) – попытка найти еду: если
touch the corner of the child’s mouth, he turns his head to an irritant.
Disappears quickly enough – three to four months after
of birth. In the future, the search for food occurs visually – the baby sees
breast or bottle.

Spinal reflexes. Looking around baby
immediately after birth and during the entire neonatal period,
pediatrician pays attention to spinal reflexes – set
reactions responsible for the state of the muscular system.

Upper protective reflex. One of the most
important unconditioned reflexes starting in the first hours
life, – the upper protective reflex. It manifests itself if
put a newborn baby on the belly: immediately to the side
the head turns, and the baby tries to lift it. It –
protection against possible respiratory failure: the child is thus
restores access of air to the respiratory tract. Disappears
рефлекс спустя полтора месяца после of birth.

Grasp reflexes

Рефлексы Янишевского и Робинсона у
newborn baby show up when it clutches tight
with both hands on the fingers of the mother (the doctor) and is able to hold them
so strong that it can even be lifted in this way.
They are expressed up to three to four months, then weaken.
Preserving these reflexes at a later age is evidence
existing neurological problems.

Рефлекс Бабинского – его еще называют подошвенным
reflex: lightly stroking the edges of the soles outside causes
opening of the fingers in the form of a fan, while the legs are bent from the back
parties. Evaluation criteria are energy and especially –
symmetry of movements. One of the most долгоживущих врожденных рефлексов
– it is celebrated up to two years.

Other motor reflexes

Рефлекс Моро – двухфазная реакция, при которой ребенок
responds to a rather loud knock on the changing table or any
another harsh sound.

  • The first phase – the baby spreads his arms to the side and unclenches
    fingers, straightening with the legs.
  • The second phase is the return to the previous position. Sometimes a child with
    this may even be like a hug – so the Moro reflex still has
    one name is “hug reflex”.

Pronounced before the age of five months baby.

Рефлекс Кернига – реакция тазобедренного и коленного
joints on trying to force them apart after flexing. OK this
can not do. Disappears completely after four months.

Рефлекс «автоматической» походки, являющий собой весьма
A funny sight is the attempt of the newborn to be the most genuine
step, if you raise it and slightly tilt the body forward.
The evaluation criterion is the degree of completeness of the support when “walking” to the full
the foot. Reliance on fingers and foot clinging to each other is a sign
disorders requiring observation of a pediatric neurologist.

Рефлекс опоры – попытка малыша встать на стопы, когда
he, carefully holding, put on a flat surface (on the table,
eg). It – двухфазный рефлекс: сначала малыш, почувствовав
a touch of support, sharply bends the legs at the knees, and then –
It becomes both feet and firmly presses the soles to the table.
Well pronounced reflexes of support and “automatic” gait
persist for one and a half months.

Рефлекс Бауэра (спонтанное ползание) можно наблюдать,
putting the baby on his stomach and putting his palms to his soles: he
begins to crawl, starting from the created support and helping
yourself hands. Appearing for 3-4 days, this reflex disappears later
3-4 months.

Рефлекс Галанта – реакция позвоночника на внешний
stimulus. If you hold your finger across the length of the ridge, then
the child arches his back, while bending the leg from the side
irritant.

Существуют также позотонические рефлексы
newborns – attempts to redistribute muscle tone when
body position changes in the absence of the ability to hold the head, sit and
walk

Рефлекс Магнуса-Клейна – реакция разгибающих и сгибающих
muscles of the shoulder, forearm and hand, in which the child takes the “posture
fencer. This happens if the baby’s head is turned in
the side. You can observe how the arm and the leg are straightened.
side where the baby’s face is. From the opposite side they are
on the contrary, bend. This reflex lasts up to two months.

рефлексы новорожденного ребенка безусловные и условные


Weak reflexes or when you need to sound the alarm

It so happens that some of the baby’s reflexes are included with
late or do not appear very clearly. It may be
due to trauma from childbirth, illness, and
prove to be an individual response to certain medications.

Also, the weakness of oral and spinal reactions is usually noted in
premature babies and those born with mild asphyxia.

Interestingly, weak reflexes in a newborn baby,
associated with the search for food and its absorption (sucking and swallowing),
can be explained only by the fact that the baby is simply not hungry.
Most clearly they appear before feeding.

Most frightening is the situation when there are no reflexes.
altogether.
Complete lack of reflexes in the newborn
child – a reason for immediate resuscitation, which should
carry out only specialists.

The reasons for this are different – intrauterine malformations, severe generic
injuries, deep asphyxia (asphyxiation of the umbilical cord).

However, it should be remembered: the reserves of the children’s body are enormous,
therefore, in many cases, it is quite successfully restored, and
baby grows up healthy.

Updated:

Часто задают вопрос: что такое рудиментарные
reflexes?
These are reflexes that disappear with time (until
one year of life), i.e. это: Хватательный рефлекс, Рефлекс
Моро, Рефлекс опоры, Рефлекс автоматической
походки, Рефлекс ползания, Рефлекс
Галанта, Сосательный рефлекс, Поисковый
рефлекс, Хоботковый рефлекс, Рефлекс ладонно —
oral.

We also read:

  • 15 abilities (reflexes) of a newborn helping him
    survive and develop
  • Child development up to a year по месяцам
  • Daily and weekly child care from birth to
    of the year
  • How to start hardening a newborn baby. Rules and
    hardening methods
  • Massage baby in 1 month

Видео консультация: Рефлексы новорожденных

Olga Celekhovich – doctor of the highest category tells
what basic unconditioned reflexes should be normal in infants
children

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