Baker’s cyst of the knee – symptomstreatment

Update: December 2018

Cystic Baker called education in the popliteal fossa, which
significantly reduces the mobility of the knee, it develops
due to the inflammatory process in the knee joint.

In the medical literature there are such names of this
заболевания как —  бурсит коленного сустава или грыжа
knee joint, as well as Becker cyst. With this ailment man
notices discomfort, especially when pulling or bending
the leg.

Often a cyst appears as a consequence of other problems with
knee joints, such as cartilage damage or arthritis. In this case
popliteal fossa filled with excess fluid, which is
triggers cyst growth.

What are the causes of Baker cyst?

Baker’s popliteal cyst develops in the background
metabolic and dystrophic changes in the joint, most often after
injuries, diseases of the meniscus, and also as a result of inflammations –
rheumatoid arthritis, arthrosis, knee injury, cartilage damage
tissues, psoriatic arthritis, excessive exercise,
osteoarthritis, etc. In some cases, a cyst occurs without a certain
the reasons.

That is, the main reason for the formation of hydra under the knee is
inflammation of the mucous membranes of dry tumors that are between
semi-membranous muscle and tendons of the middle gastrocnemius head
muscle. Moreover, these interstitial mucous bags exist in 50%
healthy people, and the disease develops only when
inflammatory process in it, manifested by the growth of bags, violation
movement and pain in the knee.

Since the mucous tendon bags are associated with the cavity
the knee joint through a narrow slit hole when
the inner lining of the joint becomes inflamed, fluid released from
inflammation from the joint cavity flows into the bag and accumulates
there. The most common cause of bag inflammation is disease
meniscus knee.

Among the diseases preceding the appearance of Baker’s cysts,

  •  cartilage damage
  •  osteoarthritis
  •  rheumatoid arthritis
  •  osteoarthritis
  •  knee damage
  •  chronic synovitis (inflammatory process in
    synovial membrane)
  •  degenerative transformation of the meniscus
  •  patellofemoral arthrosis

Symptoms of Baker Cyst

The development of Baker’s knee cyst can be judged by a special
symptoms. In the initial stage, the disease manifests itself by some
unpleasant sensations or completely disappears without symptoms. AT
further the cyst grows and squeezes nearby nerves. it
causes pain, numbness and tingling in the sole, which prevents flexing
knee joint completely.

The appearance of the popliteal fossa is also changing. AT частности,
a small tumor formation appears on palpation
there is its elasticity and density. AT большинстве случаев все
depends on the individual patient. Some not
feel nothing special, others suffer from intense
Symptoms, such as:

  • acute pain in the knee joint
  • decrease in its mobility
  • swelling on the back of the leg

With the development of these symptoms, Baker cysts should immediately
consult a doctor to recognize the disease in time. Happens
and so that the cyst does not arise by itself, but is a sign
dangerous ailments such as a tumor or aneurysm popliteal


How is Baker’s cyst diagnosed?

Of course, first of all a traumatologist or orthopedist on
Based on the clinical picture and patient complaints, it diagnoses
diseases. As a rule, this can be done during a simple
medical examination. If there is any doubt about the disease, then
magnetic resonance imaging is additionally prescribed or
ultrasound procedure. AT тяжелых случаях делается артроскопия
or arthropneumography of the knee joint.

A differential diagnosis for a Baker cyst is performed with
синовиомами (истинными опухолями) и аневризмой arteries. Synovioma
is a knot of irregular shape, having a dense
consistency. It develops from the synovial membrane. Aneurysm
determined by the presence of noise and pulsation during auscultation.

Baker cyst treatment

According to the results of the diagnosis, the doctor prescribes the appropriate
treatment. AT некоторых ситуациях киста Бейкера рассасывается сама
собой, treatment требуется лишь тогда, когда образование имеет
large size and is accompanied by severe discomfort. Physiotherapist
may recommend a set of special exercises in conjunction with
наложением холодных компрессов, чтобы ускорить изtreatment. AT
In the remaining cases, conservative and operational methods are used.
eliminate education. Baker’s cyst treatment tactics usually
determines the surgeon or orthopedist.

  • Conservative method

includes cyst puncture, excess suction
fluids using a syringe (drainage cysts), as well as
subsequent oral administration of anti-inflammatory steroid cysts
means, for example, diprospan, kenaloga or hydrocortisone. the main
The problem with conservative treatment is that it does not
always effectively and often provokes relapses.

If the knee joint is inflamed, it is necessary Firstly
cure the main ailment. In this case назначаются физиопроцедуры
(bioresonance therapy, pulsed), compresses, ointments and pills
(нестероидные противовоспалительные препараты см. список всех НПATС
in the article injections for back pain), medicinal blockade with
using hormone medications as well as complex
exercise, the purpose of which is to strengthen the knee
the joint.

With Baker’s knee cyst, folk remedies
can be used in complex therapy, these are such therapeutic
herbs like burdock (see burdock root – good and harm), celandine,
Golden mustache. If the patient has no allergic reactions to the data
plants, then with small size cysts, compresses have enough
good effect, you can also take infusions of these herbs inside.

  • Operative intervention

A much greater result comes from surgery.
Often, it is resorted to when the cyst reaches large
size and difficult movement of the joint, its flexion, squeezing when
This popliteal neurovascular bundle. Reason for the operation
может послужить и безуспешное консервативное treatment и
recurrent synovitis.

The operative method of removing Baker’s cyst is based on its
excision. As a rule, local anesthesia is applied (in children
general anesthesia), and the procedure itself lasts no more than a third of an hour.
The technology of the operation is the following – 3-4 is made in the place of the cyst
cm in length, the surgeon allocates education, and the junction of the cavity
коленного сустава с кистой перевязывается  и прошивается, а
the cyst is cut off.

Sometimes a similar operation is performed using an arthroscope, which
least traumatic because only 3 small
cut with the diameter of the injected tube. After surgery, the patient
It is restored in the hospital about 3-5 hours, the sutures are removed through
a week Walking the patient alone is allowed only after 5
days after surgery. AT послеоперационном периоде больной носит
tight bandage or plaster.


Следует знать, что treatment будет эффективнее, если его начать
as early as possible, since such a cyst of the knee joint may
give complications:

  • Cyst rupture

AT редких случаях она разрывается, а синовиальная жидкость
goes into the muscles of the back of the leg. it происходит в
result of increasing pressure due to the size of the cyst. AT
In a similar situation, the following symptoms occur: knee swelling or
whole leg, acute pain in the popliteal area due to squeezing
blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves, skin redness
covers on the affected area. These manifestations are very similar to
signs of disorders associated with the occurrence of blood clots in
leg vessels. A qualified physician should examine the patient and
eliminate illnesses such as thrombosis or thrombophlebitis
deep veins.

  • Squeezing of a vein, muscles, nerve endings of a shin

Baker’s cyst can exert pressure on the leg veins,
provoking blood stasis, the development of blood clots and inflammation of the walls of the veins.
It is known to all that the separation of a blood clot causes blockage of large
blood vessels and if it is a pulmonary artery, then this
instant death of the patient. Ruptured Blood Vessel
may be complicated by severe bleeding. With long squeezing
nerve endings, muscles, blood vessels appears
compartment syndrome whose consequences are very serious for
limbs in general. Necrosis of soft tissue may develop,
bone inflammation (osteomyelitis) and other complications.

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