Update: November 2018
Oblique atherosclerosis of the leg vessels is called pathology,
in which on the walls of the arteries of the lower extremities are formed
atheromatous plaques. As the disease progresses
atherosclerotic deposits increase in size that
leads to obstruction (blockage) of blood vessels and impaired blood flow in
In advanced cases, the blood supply to one or both
legs completely stopped, which requires radical measures
Atherosclerosis of the leg vessels is considered to be fairly common
but a very serious pathology among other diseases of the vascular
channel of the lower extremities:
- The largest percentage (5–7) of patients is found among people.
- In the age category 50 – 60 years, pathology is 2 –
- In forty-fifty years old – 1%.
- It is noted that this disease is 8 times more common in
men than women.
Causes and mechanism of development
Identified 3 main etiological factors of vascular atherosclerosis
- high blood cholesterol levels (increased overall
cholesterol, lipoproteins), which has been noted for many
- genetic predisposition – the disease took place in
- impaired metabolism, mainly fat.
TO предпосылкам возникновения болезни
- smoking causes a spasm of the arteries that disrupts blood flow;
- addiction to alcohol – violates the metabolism, in particular
fat in the liver;
- excessive consumption of animal fats;
- hormonal disorders: diabetes (provokes
the occurrence of atherosclerosis of the leg vessels even in adolescence)
imbalance of sex hormones, hypothyroidism;
- arterial hypertension;
- regular stresses (promote adrenaline rush, which
- age (the risk of developing the disease increases after
- belonging to the Negroid race;
- regular hypothermia of the legs;
- arteritis of the lower extremities;
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The pathogenesis of the disease consists of several stages:
At this stage – lipoidosis on the vascular walls are deposited.
fats in the form of spots and streaks, which somewhat slow down the blood flow and
lead to vascular micro-damage.
- The second
It is called liposclerosis. In body fat starts
proliferate young connective tissue. Atheromatous data
plaque consists of fat and connective tissue fibers. They bye
liquid and can dissolve with adequate therapy.
The walls of the vessels change: at the location of the plaque wall
becomes brittle, cracks, with the further formation of micro-ulcers.
This leads to the formation of blood clots.
Stage atherocalcinosis, in which plaques are compacted, in them
begin to deposit calcium salts. With a stable and gradual
the growth of plaques the lumen of the arteries is deformed, gradually narrowing. These
changes cause increasing chronic blood supply disorders
legs. In the event of a blockage of a vessel with a thrombus or a detached plaque
necrosis of the lower extremity (gangrene) develops.
Atherosclerosis of the leg vessels is manifested by a triad of characteristic
symptoms, the severity of which depends on the stage of the pathology:
Leg pain and other sensations
The pain is usually localized in the calf muscles. Like
the location of the pain is due to the distribution of physical activity,
the maximum part of which falls on the legs. TOроме того, в
calf muscles the minimum number of arteries that when
obstruction of any vessel provokes the occurrence of pain in them.
the development of pathology pain occurs only in the case of significant
load (running or walking). Also patients
disturb other sensations: coldness, coldness or numbness of the feet,
night cramps. In advanced cases, patients complain of strong
pains in the vessels of the legs that extend to the feet. Such pains
are permanent, occur at rest, do not stop
The stronger the arteries are, the more intense the pain and the more often
arises. Patients are forced to stop while walking, wait,
so that the pain subsided. As the disease progresses and progresses
begins to disturb and at rest, especially lying down. Such
night pains make it difficult to sleep and in order to lower their sickness is forced to lie
hanging his legs out of bed.
This clinical sign is an obligatory criterion.
diseases. According to it, you can judge the degree of violation of functionality
leg muscles. Patients complain of significant weakness in the legs,
which is accompanied by pain when walking (distances are different: from
1000 to 20 meters). After overcoming a certain distance
the patient needs a stop and a short rest. After
man continues to walk again until a new attack
weaknesses. This phenomenon is called intermittent claudication.
Появляются в результате нарушения структуры мышц кожи ног,
due to impaired blood circulation in them.
- TOожа ног приобретает бледность, холодная на ощупь.
- Begin to fall out hair.
- Calf and femoral muscles thin, lose volume and weight
- On the skin, in the subcutaneous tissue, in the muscle fascia arise
ulcerations that transform into nonhealing
- Because of the violation of trophism (nutrition) and oxygen starvation
тканей может развиться гангрена пальцев feet.
- There is a fungal disease of the toes and nails.
- Чувство «чужих ног»- неуправляемость движений, потеря
control in the knees, ankle.
- Perhaps the appearance of cyanosis of the skin, and then the death of the fingers
legs, later feet, legs, thighs.
Stages of the disease
The disease occurs in 4
- the first – pain, weakness of the lower limbs are observed with
significant physical exertion;
- the second – pain occurs when the distance in
200 – 1000 meters;
- the third – the pain starts to bother after 50 – 200 meters on foot
- the fourth – the inability to overcome short distances
(less than 50 meters), there is gangrene of the toes or feet.
It is difficult to diagnose pathology at an early stage. Primary
The patient’s referral may be to a doctor of a different specialty (surgeon
or vascular surgeon, neurologist, general practitioner, angiologist). Doctor
carefully collects patient complaints, examines the history of life
(identification of risk factors) and disease, conducts physical examination.
Physical examination reveals:
- weak pulse in the vessels of the legs or lack thereof;
- auscultation of arteries – determination of systolic murmur;
- low blood pressure in the legs;
- pallor and cyanosis of the skin of the feet, legs, blue fingers under
TOак проверить сосуды ног на атеросклероз самостоятельно? For
This requires a simple test. The patient must lie on
a hard surface and lift your legs, without bending your knees, at an angle to
45 degrees. If the exercise causes blanching of the feet and
the appearance of weakness in the legs, this indicates the presence
atherosclerosis of vessels of the lower extremities. The more neglected
disease, the faster the symptoms listed.
If you suspect a pathology of blood vessels, the doctor will prescribe the following
- complete blood count (excluding anemia, inflammatory
- biochemical blood test (determination of liver enzymes,
cholesterol, bilirubin, homocysteine, triglycerides, total protein,
LDL, HDL, fatty acids, glucose – identification of exchangeable
- coagulogram (platelets, prothrombin, prothrombin index,
clotting time, bleeding time – determining the propensity to
- urinalysis (density, sediment, uniform elements –
kidney work evaluation).
Laboratory research и изучение анализов помогает высчитать
atherogenic coefficient based on which judged
Treatment of atherosclerosis of the leg vessels depends on the data obtained.
instrumental research methods. Apply to:
- duplex vascular ultrasound – the arteries are displayed in red,
veins in blue;
- angiography – the introduction of contrast into the bloodstream and
- МР- и TOТ-ангиография;
TOак лечить атеросклероз сосудов ног? Medical tactics depend on
the severity of clinical manifestations, stage of the disease,
the presence of chronic somatic pathology, complications.
It is necessary to refuse or limit the consumption of animal fat.
origin. TO продуктам, содержащим холестерин в больших
количествах, relate: молочные продукты высокой жирности, яйца,
lard, fatty meats, poultry, offal, caviar. Not recommended
use confectionery, pastry, mayonnaise,
margarine, butter, sausages. In the diet you must enter
fresh and cooked vegetables, fruits, berries.
Consumption of cereals, nuts, seeds, sea fish is also recommended.
fatty varieties (herring, mackerel, salmon), vegetable oils.
Rejection of bad habits
TOурящему пациенту необходимо отказаться от привычки или хотя бы
reduce the number of cigarettes smoked, otherwise even
effective drugs will not slow down further progression
diseases. Alcohol affects the functioning of the liver, so its further
use only exacerbates the process.
It is recommended that you regularly perform physical
exercise with moderate exercise (swimming,
exercise bike, walking).
If possible, avoid stress. All are welcome
relaxation methods: aromatherapy, meditation, music.
Important отказаться от тесной, давящей обуви, изготовленной из
non-natural materials, as well as shoes with heels. Footwear
should be free, comfortable. Minor injuries must be avoided.
legs, timely treat cuts, cracks, corns, each
evening wash your feet, avoid hypothermia feet.
Correction of common diseases
Recommended weight normalization, compliance with therapeutic measures.
in the presence of chronic somatic pathology.
In the medical treatment of pathology used drugs
- Agents that reduce platelet aggregation (sticking):
аспирин, кардиомагнил, атеркард, коллоидные
растворы для внутривенных инфузий: реополиглюкин,
декстран 40, полиглюкин;
- препараты, улучшающие реологию крови: пентоксифиллин,
- agents that improve tissue trophism, have regenerating
действием: цилостазол, цинктерал, никотиновая
- спазмолитики и сосудорасширяющие: дротаверин,
папаверин, вазонит, агапурин;
- витамины: группы В, аскорбиновая кислота, витамин
РР – укрепляют сосудистую стенку, предотвращают отложение
fat and calcium in the vessels;
- anticoagulants (in case of thromboembolic
осложнений): гепарин, варфарин;
- antibacterial ointment (with the formation of trophic ulcers):
- fibrates (reduce the content of lipoproteins, cholesterol):
гемфиброзил, клофибрат, фенофибрат;
- тромболитики (при образовании тромбов): стрептокиназа,
- статины (снижают синтез холестерина): аторис,
- drugs that bind and remove bile acids from intestinal
трубки: холестерамин, колестипол.
Also prescribed courses of physiotherapy: electrophoresis with
medication, hyperbaric oxygenation, magnetic therapy,
darsonvalization, UHF. Has a positive effect
balneotherapy: reception of conifers, radon, pearl, hydrosulphuric
baths, ozone therapy.
Half the time
Atherosclerosis of the leg vessels is performed with surgical treatment. TO
operational methods include:
- эндартерэктомия – иссечение участка артерии с
- шунтирование – на место пораженного участка
artery is set shunt (prosthesis);
- поясничная симпатэктомия – иссечение нервных
nodes that cause arterial spasms;
- баллонная ангиопластика – в артерию вводится
a balloon that expands its lumen;
- стентирование – в пораженную артерию
a tubular strut is installed, preventing tapering
- ампутация ноги – выполняется в случае развития
Treatment by traditional methods of the disease can only be carried out.
with the permission of the doctor in parallel with drug therapy. Important
remember that it is impossible to get rid of atherosclerosis, all medical
measures only reduce the rate of disease progression, prevent
development of complications (gangrene, trophic ulcers).
- propolis tincture – normalizes protein and lipid
- hawthorn tincture with propolis tincture – dilates blood vessels,
restores fat metabolism;
- Thyme infusion – relieves spasms, has anti-inflammatory
and soothing properties;
- garlic tincture – dilates blood vessels, prevents
formation of atheromatous plaques;
- parsley tea – perfectly “cleans” the vessels (dissolves
- decoction of the roots of horseradish – prevents the formation of deposits on
- rosehip tincture – prevents plaque formation,
dilates blood vessels.