ATетрянка у детей — как начинается, симптомы, какLooks at the photo, the incubation period and the treatment of chickenpox

ATетрянка – это заболевание, вызванное активностью вируса
herpes simplex varicella zoster (herpes type 3). Flows into
mild, moderate and severe forms. Typical symptoms –
fever and rash. Considered a typical childhood infection, although
adults also have chickenpox. Doctors say that
chickenpox is better in childhood, because at this age
the disease is much easier after recovery
sustained, lifelong immunity is produced.

ATсе предпринимаемые терапевтические меры направлены только на
relief of the patient’s condition and prevention of complications. Further
Consider how chickenpox starts and flows, what
incubation period, as well as the first symptoms and treatment methods
diseases in children.

What is chickenpox?

ветрянка у детей

ATетрянка у детей – это инфекция, которая вызывается определенным
kind of herpes, namely Varcella-Zoster. More than one and a half million
People get chickenpox every year, 90% of whom are children
until the age of twelve. Most often small fidgets
�“Catch” a viral infection in child care facilities – with
появлении хотя бы одного носителя ATATЗ в острой стадии избежать
infection is extremely difficult.

AT среднем инкубационный период от 10 до 21 дня — это время от
moment of contact with the mucosa to the first symptoms. ATирус ветряной
smallpox differs extraordinary volatility, spreads streams
air, wind (but still does not fly into the window), therefore
called “chicken pox”. You can get infected from a person carrier
only at arm’s length, but also within a radius of 50 meters.

Another interesting fact is that the pathogen can live exclusively in
the human body. ATне его он гибнет в течение 5-10 минут.

The reasons

ATетрянку вызывает вирус семейства герпесов. ATосприимчивость
population of this virus is very high, so 70-90% of people
have time to transfer the disease in childhood or adolescence.
As a rule, the child picks up the infection in kindergarten or
the school. The source of the disease is an infected person in the last
10 days of incubation period of the virus and the first 5-7 days since
appearance of rash.

Chickenpox is believed to be the only viral
болезнь, которая остается самым часто встречающимся
инфекционным заболеванием контингента детского возраста по
present day.

ATирус к внешней среде не приспособлен и практически сразу же
dies as soon as it leaves the human body. Source of
the infection will be only the person whose disease is in
active form, it begins two days before
появляются первые признаки ветрянки у baby

Breast children also suffer severely and only in very rare

  • with intrauterine infection (the mother falls ill last
    week of pregnancy);
  • in the absence of breastfeeding and, accordingly,
    protective antibodies mom;
  • with severe immunodeficiency states (including cancer
    заболеваниях и СПИДе).

How chickenpox begins: the first signs

ATсе родители должны знать, как начинается ветрянка у детей. So
they can start treatment as soon as possible and prevent development

  1. First, the virus enters the nasal mucosa, respiratory
    pathways, then actively reproduces in the epithelial cells, so flows
    latent period of the disease. Hidden, the initial period of the disease
    called incubation. it означает, что человек будет выглядеть
    healthy, but the infection is already spreading through the body.
  2. The onset of chickenpox proceeds as a commonplace ORZ, with typical
    признаками: повышенная температура тела, weakness, озноб,
    сонливость, головные the pains дети становятся более капризными,
  3. Then the virus enters the vessels of the lymph and blood, it accumulates there,
    spreads through the body, which causes the characteristic signs –
    fever and then rash.
  4. Further на теле образуется сыпь. Initially, it looks like small
    scattered red spots of various sizes (photo of windmill
     see below).

As a rule, the first morphological elements on the skin appear
in the area of ​​the head (its hairy part), as well as on the back. AT
subsequent rash can be detected not only on any
skin area, but also on the mucous membranes of the mouth or eyes. Foot Skin,
and also the palms are never affected by the pathological process.

Literally a few hours after the first rash appears
the specks turn into small bubbles filled with liquid.
ATместе с появлением пузырьков начинается их невыносимый зуд,
the baby starts to comb the rash.

A chickenpox rash does not appear immediately, its elements may
occur on the skin for about a week. Soим образом, у детей
skin rashes will be present in three different

When a rash appears, the skin itches and itches and parents need to
make sure that the baby does not comb the itchy areas. it поможет
avoid the addition of a secondary bacterial infection.

Incubation period

How many days is chickenpox contagious? AT течение 1-3 недель, именно
lasts so much incubation period, the chickenpox pathogen is not
bothers the child and does not manifest itself. Given the “volatility”
a virus that spreads easily to a distance of twenty
meters, you can even get through the vents.

The most contagious disease is considered to be in the active phase, which
begins 2 days before the appearance of the first characteristic rash. AT
the inactive phase of the disease passes five days after
last bubbles appeared on the body.

AT это время вирус прекращает распространение, высыпания
dry out and heal, and the child is recovering. Chickenpox treatment
must take place under quarantine conditions for the duration of the disease
the child is isolated from other children.

On the recommendation of doctors, quarantine lasts on average about 10
days since the first cutaneous manifestations.

AT течение всего инкубационного периода ребенок, заразившийся
chickenpox may look completely active and healthy. None
however, even without any external signs of the disease, he
carries a threat to others.

What does chickenpox look like? (Photo)

In order not to be mistaken with the diagnosis, do not miss the first
emerging symptoms, it is very important to know what looks like unpleasant
disease. In children, chickenpox outwardly manifests itself at the beginning
reddish spots on the surface of the skin, which then form
small blisters filled with liquid (see photo).

ATетрянка на разном этапе развития (1 и 4 стадия)

ATысыпания, возникающие в ходе ветряной оспы, обладают следующими
characteristic features:

  • their appearance resembles transparent drops;
  • the lower part is surrounded by a scarlet rim, often swollen;
  • fresh rashes coexist on the skin with the already dried
    brown crusts.

фото ветрянки на лице у ребенка

ATысыпания на коже появляются постоянно, одна волна сменяет
another one. The period of appearance of new lesions can last up to 9 days.
(usually it is 3-5 days). The child remains infectious 5 more days after
the appearance of the last rash.

ветрянка на спине

For babies up to 6 months whose mothers were ill as children
chickenpox, the virus is usually not dangerous, since in
their blood is still preserved by the mother through the placenta antibodies
to him. After suffering chickenpox, 97% of people form
lifelong immunity, so re-infection occurs

Symptoms of chickenpox in children

The period of rash lasts from 4 to 8 days, then begins
recovery. Yellow-brown bubbles appearing on the spot
the crusts disappear in about a week, leaving no trace. But this
only if the mother helped the baby survive the period of strong
itching – did not allow scratching and getting into the wound infection.

Premature tearing of the cortical layer can lead to
the emergence of “Ospinka”, which is able to stay for life.


Среди основных симптомов ветрянки можно выделить

  • Резко возрастающая температура тела (до 40 градусов
  • Pain in the head, limbs and muscles;
  • Раздражительность, плаксивость малыша, сильная слабость и
  • Unreasonable anxiety, sleep disturbance;
  • Decreased appetite and even refusal to eat;
  • The appearance on the entire surface of the body characteristic
    высыпаний пятен и пузырьков, которые не поражают лишь
    palm and foot surfaces.

These symptoms occur 1-2 days before a rash appears.
baby He may lose his appetite, there is a bad
mood. Sometimes this period is missing and parents simply
notice a rash on the skin.

ATсе стадии ветрянки у детей последовательно идут друг за другом
and are characterized by certain typical symptoms.

Itching is the most unpleasant sign of chicken pox. AT период
the formation, opening, growth of bubbles body itches, kids
suffer from unbearable itching. One year old baby is hard to explain
why not comb, rip off dried crusts.

A vicious circle appears:

  • the patient is actively scratched;
  • serous fluid pours out;
  • the virus spreads to new areas;
  • further infection occurs;
  • sometimes itchy bubbles on the body there are 100 or more

ATозьмите на заметку:

  • it is important to stop the itching, otherwise the child will surely scratch
    crusts. If the surface has not completely dried out, in place
    vesicle forming a deep scar;
  • gradually (not in one year), many of the depressions dissolve, but
    some pits remain for life.

Forms of the disease

Форма ветрянки у детей Symptoms
Easy It is characterized by single rashes, the lack of increased
temperature and feeling unwell. Herpetic acne
appear only 2 – 3 days. Doctors suggest that in mild
form of the disease occurs due to strong immunity or
hereditary resistance to the virus.
Average The body is covered with characteristic spots for chickenpox, in a patient
high fever and symptoms of intoxication.
In moderately severe chicken pox, body temperature is no more than 38 degrees
Heavy The temperature rises sharply to 40 ° C, and the whole body of the patient
covered by itchy rash. ATысыпания могут сливаться между собой в
continuous painful crust, intense itching leads to
psycho-emotional breakdowns and does not allow to fall asleep at night. Present
all symptoms of severe intoxication of the body:

  • head and muscle the pains
  • weakness,
  • fever.


With proper treatment and personal hygiene, complications in
результате ветрянки у детей встречаются seldom. Dangerous complications
sometimes occur when using certain medications. For example,
It is strictly forbidden to give children aspirin, this can lead to
dangerous liver damage (Reye’s syndrome). You can not combine wind
smallpox and hormonal, glucocorticosteroid drugs.

Among the most dangerous consequences are:

  • ATирусный энцефалит (мозговое воспаление);
  • Shingles is a serious chronic disease,
    caused by the same virus, but extremely rarely
    weakened patients;
  • Neurological effects of viral damage – are when
    early intrauterine infection, during organogenesis, when the mother
    gets sick in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Parents should be very careful and do not let the baby scratch
rash, because the wound can easily infect the infection.


The diagnosis of varicella occurs on the basis of
data of external examination. If there is a small patient on the body
liquid papules doctor differentiates them from the rash characteristic of
parasitic diseases, herpes zoster blisters, bites
insects and allergies.

To clarify the diagnosis, the doctor may issue a referral for
laboratory tests for chickenpox:

  • Light microscopy of elements with silvering reagents.
  • Serological blood tests to detect viral
    agent and determine the activity of antibodies to the pathogen.

Be sure to consult your doctor if:

  • A child has eczema, asthma, or a weakened immune system.
  • Лихорадка длится более 6 дней или превышает 39
  • Любые обширные участки выглядят красными, опухшими, и
    истекающими гноем.
  • У ребенка появился сильный кашель, рвота, головная боль,
    drowsiness, confusion, rigidity (inelasticity)
    затылочных мышц, светобоязнь или трудности при ходьбе или

How to treat chickenpox in children

Chickenpox treatment у детей проходит дома, лишь при возникновении
any complications the doctor may suggest hospitalization.
Parents should help the child cope with an unpleasant condition,
relieve suffering from an itchy rash.

First of all, for the prevention of possible complications
strict bed rest throughout
hectic period. If the child has lesions
oral mucosa, it must adhere to
sparing diet, avoiding salty foods, citrus and other products,
irritating oral cavity.

Standard therapy is the appointment of antihistamines.
means to get rid of itching, antipyretic drugs and
antiseptics (usually aniline dyes).

Children with chicken pox are recommended to take the following.

  • Recommended for reducing high temperature reactions
    antipyretic drugs in appropriate doses, except
  • To relieve severe itching, you can ask your pediatrician to appoint
    you antihistamine drug. To relieve and relieve symptoms
    itching prescribe antihistamine drugs for example
    Suprastin, Fenistil in drops, Zodak, Loratadin and others;
  • When localization of elements of the rash in the mouth recommended
    gargling with Furacillin solution several times during the day
    and always after meals;
  • If the eyes are damaged, a special laying is prescribed.
    eye ointment Acyclovir.

Prohibited: amidopyrine, aspirin (extremely dangerous for children with
chickenpox disease).

Antibiotic therapy is used exclusively in cases of development
bacterial infection, usually due to
scratching the vesicles. Therefore, in order to avoid complications
constant monitoring of the child’s behavior, kids best
wear light mittens. Overheating should be avoided because
sweating increases itching.

For the prevention of infection of vesicles are used the following
antiseptic disinfectants:

  • 1% alcohol solution of brilliant green (brilliant green);
  • Castellani liquid;
  • aqueous solution of fucorcin;
  • an aqueous solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate).

When processing elements of rash Zelenko, despite all her
disadvantages, you can easily and quickly determine when to stop
appear new rashes.

General care for children with chickenpox

  1. Meals should be complete and contain high
    количество белков и витаминов. Best to give
    preference for easily digestible food
    (молочно-растительная диета). With the defeat of the mucous membrane
    mouth should be avoided sharp and sour dishes.
  2. ATажное условие, необходимое для соблюдения при лечении ветрянки
    in children, giving the patient plenty of drink. On the background
    dehydration occurs most of the complications a disease can
    affect the nervous system. Drink plenty of fluids to help get food out
    disintegration of viruses, toxins. Need to drink boiled water, mineral water without
    gas, savory compotes, weak teas, herbal teas.
    Fresh juices diluted with water by half.
  3. When chickenpox possible treatment of folk means. To kid
    it is advisable to give fresh blueberries or blueberry juice.
    The active substances of the fruits of this plant have antiviral
    properties. It is also recommended that children drink infusion from a mixture
    lime blossom, raspberry, willow bark and aniseed fruit (brewed
    at the rate of 300 ml of water per 1 tbsp. l collection).

Is it possible to bathe a child with chickenpox?

For many years there were heated discussions about this. Now
most pediatricians believe that water treatments are allowed with
observance of certain conditions:

  • Swimming with chickenpox is allowed only in the absence of
    ulcerative-necrotic changes in the elements of lesions – to put it simply
    in the absence of wounds in which bacteria can freely
    to penetrate.
  • You can bathe already from the second or third day of the disease.
  • Температура воды не должна быть высокой — 38-40 degrees it
    will not allow formed after scratching at the site of rashes
    peel crust.
  • You can’t wash your baby using conventional products.
    bathing (soaps, shower gels, shampoos).
  • It is worth avoiding long water treatments. Frequently recommended
    receptions (about 5-6 times a day) short-term (from one to three
    minutes) shower with a slight pressure.
  • Не использовать мочалку во избежание сдирания прыщиков и
    the subsequent formation of scars on the damaged areas of the skin.
  • После приема ванны не следует обтираться полотенцем. Body
    it is better to gently dip it with the softest towel to avoid
    damage to inflamed skin.
  • Купаться при ветрянке не рекомендуется в первые два дня,
    when the disease progresses, and its main symptom is
    constant increased body temperature.
  • По окончанию водных процедур тело ребенка в местах
    rashes should be treated with green paint.

If the parents decide not to wash the child for the entire period of rash,
then the first bath should be carried out as carefully as possible, for
проведения дезинфекции заживающих везикуl For this, doctors advise
prepare a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Color solution
a pale pink, brighter shade will create a strong effect on
skin may cause burns.

Is it possible to walk with chickenpox?

Пока ребенок жалуется на weakness, у него появляются новые
pimples, it is with temperature, walking is strictly prohibited, so
as the virus is actively spreading. AT это время все силы иммунитета
go to fight with chickenpox, so the probability of
infection with another disease that will pass enough

If the baby does not have a temperature and new rashes, but on the street
very good weather, there are no contraindications to the walk.
Единственное, надо учитывать, что ребенок еще может быть
заразным и гулять в общественных местах (парках, детских
sites) is unethical. If you live in a private house, then
a small amount of fresh air just does not hurt.

If on the way to the exit with the patient in the active phase of the disease you need
go through the porch, it is better to give up the idea of ​​taking a walk so as not to
infect neighbors.


The only effective measure for the prevention of chickenpox disease
smallpox – vaccination. It is advisable to hold it to women who are not
had chickenpox, and are planning a pregnancy, infants, have
older brothers and sisters, children and adults with a defect
immune system, the elderly.

Guaranteed to protect against chickenpox virus only vaccination
– introduction to the body of a weakened virus. it и есть главный метод
disease prevention. Avoid airborne infection
another way is difficult. The best way to fight chickenpox is
stable immunity.

Also, you should always remember about personal protective measures in case of
diseases of any of the family members of chickenpox:

  • Mandatory isolation of the patient in a separate room;
  • ATыделение индивидуальной посуды и полотенца для больного, за
    the purity of which also needs to be monitored separately;
  • Mandatory daily ventilation of the room in which
    is sick with chickenpox;
  • Wearing a mask or gauze bandage when in contact with
    infected by

In children, repeated chickenpox is an exceptional case, because
Immunity after the disease is maintained for life.
But this актуально для тех малышей, чья защитная система укреплена и
functioning properly.

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