ARVI – causes, symptoms and treatment in adultsprevention of acute respiratory viral infections

ОРВИ (острая респираторная вирусная инфекция) – это
respiratory disease caused by entering
into the body of a viral infection.  Virus Transmission Path –
airborne People with a weakened immune system
most susceptible to contracting acute infection in cold
period of time this happens especially often.

To provide the patient with quality care, the doctor prescribes
complex spectrum drugs. Next, consider what it is
for the disease, what causes and symptoms in adults, as well as what
treat ARVI for rapid recovery of the body.

What is ARVI?

ОРВИ у взрослых

ARVI is an airborne infection caused by viral infections.
pathogens affecting mainly the respiratory system.
Outbreaks of respiratory viral infections occur year-round, but
the epidemic is more common in autumn and winter, especially in the absence of
quality prevention and quarantine measures to identify cases
infection.

During peak periods, the incidence of ARVI is diagnosed in 30% of the population.
planets, respiratory viral infections are many times greater than
the incidence of other infectious diseases.

Разница между ОРВИ и ОРЗ на первый взгляд
irrelevant. However, the causative agent of ARD can be a virus (flu) or
bacterium (streptococcus), the causative agent of SARS – only a virus.

The reasons

ARVIs are caused by a variety of viruses related to
different genera and families. They share a pronounced affinity for
epithelial cells lining the airways. Sharp
респираторные вирусные инфекции могут вызывать различные типы
viruses:

  • flu
  • параflu
  • adenoviruses,
  • rhinoviruses,
  • 2 серовара РWITHВ,
  • reoviruses.

Getting into the body through the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory
путей или конъюнктиву глаз, вирусы, проникнув в клетки
эпителия, начинают размножаться и разрушать их. In places
the introduction of viruses causes inflammation.

The source of infection is a sick person, especially if this person
is in the initial stage of the disease: feeling unwell and
weakness until the moment a person realizes that he is sick is already
highlighting a virus, it infects its environment – the work team,
fellow travelers in public transport, family.

Основной путь передачи инфекции воздушно-капельный, с
small particles of mucus and saliva, which stand out during the conversation,
coughing, sneezing.

For развития ОРВИ большое значение имеет концентрация вируса в
environment. So, the fewer viruses get on
mucous membranes, the lower the percentage of probability of development
diseases. A high saturation of viruses persists in conditions
enclosed space, especially with large crowds.
The lowest concentration of viruses, by contrast, is noted in the fresh
the air.

Risk factors

Provocative factors contributing to the development of infection:

  • hypothermia;
  • stress;
  • poor nutrition;
  • unfavorable ecological situation;
  • chronic infections.

Лучше всего определить, чем лечить ОРВИ сможет врач.
Поэтому в случае появления первых симптомов необходимо вызвать
district therapist or pediatrician.

Incubation period

Incubation period ОРВИ у взрослых может продолжаться от 1 до
10 days, but mostly 3-5 days.

The disease is very contagious. Viruses fall on mucous membranes
by airborne droplets. You can get sick through the touch of hands,
dishes, a towel, therefore communication with the patient should be strictly
to limit.

In order not to infect the rest of the family, the patient should:

  • wear a special gauze bandage;
  • use only their personal hygiene items;
  • systematically process them.

After an illness, the immunity does not produce resistance to
ARVI, which is caused by a large number of different viruses and their
strains. Moreover, viruses are subject to mutations. This leads to
the fact that an adult can get ARVI up to 4 times a year.

Если у больного диагностируется забоелвание, ему назначают
antiviral drugs and bed rest up to
full recovery.

The first signs of acute respiratory viral infection

Usually, the common cold begins with a minor ailment and
sore throat. Some people at this time occur
обострение хронического герпеса, сопровождающееся появлением
characteristic bubbles with fluid in the lips.

The first signs of acute respiratory viral infection
will be:

  • pain in the eyes;
  • increased body temperature;
  • ситуация, при которой слезятся глаза и runny nose;
  • sore throat, dryness, irritation, sneezing;
  • an increase in the size of the lymph nodes;
  • sleep disorders;
  • bouts of coughing;
  • voice changes (if mucous larynxes are inflamed).

WITHколько заразно ОРВИ для взрослого? WITHпециалисты установили, что
the person who caught the virus becomes infectious 24 hours before
the moment of detection of the very first symptoms of the disease.

Thus, if signs of respiratory infection appear
2.5 days after the introduction of the pathogen into the body,
to infect others a sick person could starting from 1.5 days
after talking with the previous carrier of the virus.

WITHимптомы ОРВИ у взрослых

Common features of ARVI: relatively short-term (about a week)
incubation period, acute onset, fever, intoxication and
catarrhal symptoms. WITHимптомы ОРВИ у взрослых развиваются
rapidly, and the faster the response to
the invasion of infection and treatment is begun, the easier the immunity will cope
with a disease.

Main symptoms:

  • Malaise – weakness in muscles and aching joints, I want
    lie down all the time;
  • drowsiness – constantly sleepy, no matter how long a person
    did not oversleep;
  • runny nose – initially not strong, just like a clear liquid
    from the nose. Most blame it on a sharp change in temperature.
    (went from a cold to a warm room, and made a nose
    condensate);
  • chills – discomfort when touching the skin;
  • sore throat – it can be expressed as a sore throat, and
    tingling sensation or even cutting in the neck.

Depending on the state of the immune system, the symptoms of ARVI can
add or decrease. If the protective functions of the organs
respiration is high, the virus will get rid of
very simple and the disease will not cause complications.

In addition, if the usual symptoms of SARS do not go through 7-10
days, this will also be a reason to contact a specialist (most often
becomes an ENT doctor).

Kinds WITHимптомы у взрослого человека
Adenovirus infection
  • High temperature that holds from five to ten
    days;
  • severe wet cough, worse in horizontal
    position and with increased physical exertion;
  • swollen lymph nodes;
  • runny nose;
  • sore throat when swallowing.
Flu Occurs:

  • Very high temperature;
  • dry cough, causing chest pain;
  • sore throat;
  • runny nose;
  • dizziness and sometimes loss of consciousness.
Parainfluenza Incubation period длится 2–7 дней. This form of ARVI
different acute course and increasing symptoms:

  • Body temperature up to 38 degrees. It lasts for
    7–10 days
  • Rough cough, hoarseness and change in voice.
  • Chest pain.
  • Runny nose
РWITH- инфекция Its symptoms are generally similar to parainfluenza, but its danger is
that as a consequence of late treatment may develop
bronchitis.

If a patient has a chronic illness, then this
может привести к обострению. During the period of exacerbation develop
diseases: asthma, bronchitis, antritis, laryngitis,
tonsillitis They worsen a person’s condition and make it harder.
treatment.

WITHимптомы при ОРВИ, требующие неотложной помощи врача:

  •  temperature above 40 degrees, almost or unresponsive
    taking antipyretic drugs;
  • disturbance of consciousness (confusion, syncope);
  • intense headache with inability to bend the neck, leading
    chin-to-chest appearance of a rash on the body (asterisks,
    hemorrhage);
  • chest pain when breathing, difficulty breathing or
    exhalation, feeling of lack of air, cough with sputum (pink
    stains – more seriously);
  • long fever for more than five days;
  • appearance of airway secretions green, brown
    colors mixed with fresh blood;
  • chest pain, independent of breathing, swelling.

Complications

If with ARVI does not take the necessary measures for its treatment,
develop complications that are expressed in the development of the following
diseases and conditions:

  • острые синуситы(воспаление пазух носа с присоединением
    purulent infection)
  • lowering the infection down the respiratory tract with
    формированием бронхитов и пневмоний,
  • spread of infection to the auditory tube with
    формированием отитов,
  • the addition of a secondary bacterial infection (for example,
    развитие ангины),
  • exacerbation of chronic infection foci in broncho-pulmonary
    system, and in other organs.

Particularly susceptible to this are the so-called “adult” adolescents,
who can’t sit at home for a minute. Need to talk
with them because complications after ARVI can not only spoil
life, there have been cases of death.

Diagnostics

Which doctor will help? In the presence or suspicion of the development of ARVI
should immediately seek the advice of such doctors
as a therapist, infectious diseases.

For диагностики же ОРВИ обычно используют следующие методы
surveys:

  • Examination of the patient;
  • Immunofluorescent express diagnosis;
  • Bacteriological research.

If a patient has developed bacterial complications, then his
send for consultation to other specialists – pulmonologist,
otolaryngologist. При подозрении на пневмонию проводится
radiography of the lungs. If there are pathological changes with
side of the ENT organs, the patient is assigned to
pharyngoscopy, rhinoscopy, otoscopy.

Как лечить ОРВИ у взрослых?

When the first symptoms of the disease requires bed rest.
You need to call a doctor to diagnose, determine the degree
тяжести diseases. Light and moderately severe ARVI is treated in
home conditions, severe form – in the infectious hospital.

Главные рекомендации при лечении ОРВИ у взрослых:

  1. Mode.
  2. WITHнижение интоксикации.
  3. Impact on the pathogen – использование противовирусных
    funds for ARVI.
  4. Elimination of the main manifestations – runny nose, sore throat,
    cough

Drugs for the treatment of SARS

It is necessary to treat ARVI with the help of antiviral drugs.
drugs, because the main cause of the disease is a virus. WITH
the first hours of the onset of symptoms of ARVI, no later than 48
часов, начинают принимать один из препаратов по 2 раза в
day:

  • Amiksin;
  • rimantadine or amantadine – 0.1 g;
  • oseltamivir (Tamiflu) – 0.075 – 0.15 g;
  • zanamivir (Relenza).

Take antiviral drugs need 5 days.

Нестероидные противовоспалительные препараты. In this
category includes:

  • Ibuprofen
  • Paracetamol
  • Diclofenac.

These drugs have anti-inflammatory effects, reduce
temperature indicators, stop pain syndrome.

Можно принимать препараты комбинированного типа, в составе
which have paracetamol – for example:

  • Ferwex,
  • Teraflu
  • Coldrex.

They have the same efficacy as normal paracetamol, but
they are easier to use and reduce the intensity of other symptoms
ARVI due to the presence in the composition of phenylephrine and chlorphenamine.

Антигистаминные лекарства нужны для уменьшения признаков
inflammation: nasal congestion, swelling of the mucous membranes. Reception is recommended
�“Loratidin”, “Fenistil”, “Zirtek”. Unlike drugs
the first generation they do not cause drowsiness.

Против заложенности носа и насморка при ОРВИ у взрослых
use vasoconstrictor nasal drops Vibrocil, Nazivin, Otrivin,
WITHанорин.

Do I need antibiotics?

The prognosis for ARVI is mostly favorable. Deterioration of the forecast
occurs when complications occur, more severe
often develops when the body is weakened, in children of the first year
life, persons of senile age. Some complications (pulmonary edema,
encephalopathy, false croup) can be fatal.

The main indications for taking antibiotics for colds
The following are considered:

  • chronic middle ear inflammation;
  • purulent otitis media;
  • laryngotracheitis;
  • purulent sinusitis;
  • quinsy;
  • sinusitis;
  • abscess;
  • phlegmon.

Advice for adults with SARS

  1. An important action is to isolate the patient from society, because
    the infection will then spread. Being in places
    crowds of people infected will endanger them.
  2. It is required to follow a number of rules regarding the room where
    is sick. WITHюда входит его влажная уборка, обязательное
    airing (every 1.5 hours), temperature conditions (20-22 °),
    Well if the humidity inside the room will be
    60-70%.
  3. You need plenty of drink, it should only be warm.
    In fact, this is any drink: tea, decoctions, compote, just warm
    water, etc.
  4. Прием ударной дозы витамина WITH. В первые
    дни ОРВИ нужно принимать аскорбиновую кислоту до 1000
    milligrams per day.
  5. Warm your legs and arms with hot baths. Warming up
    the procedure can be performed if the patient does not have
    temperature
  6. Gargling. Throat must be rinsed so that the infection does not
    spread. Полоскание горла способствует облегчению cough
    For rinsing throat suitable soda-saline solution, decoctions of
    chamomile, calendula, sage.
  7. Rinse the nose regularly with saline solutions. WITHамый дешевый
    option – saline, you can use and
    modern preparations Dolphin or Aqua Maris – their effectiveness in
    Compared with normal saline is absolutely identical.
  8. Inhalation. Данная процедура направлена на облегчение cough Of
    folk remedies, for inhalation, you can use pairs of potatoes “in
    мундире», а также отвары из ромашки, календулы, мяты и других
    medicinal herbs. Of современных средств, для ингаляции можно
    to apply a nibulizer.

In the acute stage of the disease, the person fever,
severe condition, apathy, loss of appetite, pain in the joints, muscles
etc. As soon as the virus begins to “pass”, it normalizes
temperature balance – there is perspiration, pale skin
covers turns into a blush, the patient wants to eat, pulls to
sweet

Nutrition

Food during the treatment of ARVI should be light, quickly
digestible. It is important to respect the balance of fat, protein and carbohydrates. For
An early recovery is worth limiting the amount consumed
fat But from digestible carbohydrates do not need to give up.
They will replenish energy reserves.

What should be included in the diet with SARS: Delete:
  • fresh berries and fruits;
  • fresh, boiled and steamed vegetables;
  • boiled lean meat and fish;
  • any dairy products (for example, cottage cheese and sour cream);
  • boiled soft-boiled chicken eggs (not more than two per day);
  • chicken bouillon;
  • various porridges.
  • alcoholic beverages (alcohol);
  • fried foods (meat, meatballs, fish);
  • fatty foods;
  • very cold drinks;
  • carbonated mineral water;
  • spicy food (pepper);
  • smoked products;
  • preservation.

Depending on the stage
выздоровления, питание пациента с ОРВИ можно выстраивать
in the following way:

  • On the first day of illness – baked apples, low-fat yogurt,
    ryazhenka.
  • On the second or third day – boiled meat or fish, porridge in milk,
    dairy products.
  • In the days of complications of the disease – boiled or steamed vegetables,
    нежирные dairy products.

Folk remedies for ARVI

It is possible to treat ARVI with the help of the following folk remedies:

  1. Brew in a glass of boiling water for 1.l.L. ground ginger powder
    cinnamon, add ground black pepper on the tip of a knife. Insist under
    lid 5 minutes, add 1ch. l. honey Take a glass every
    3-4 hours
  2. WITHовременные целители рекомендуют лечить простуду с помощью
    special blend of juices. You will need: juice from 2 lemons, 1
    crushed garlic clove, 5 mm of fresh ginger root, 1 apple with
    peel, 1 pear with peel, 300 gr. воды, 1 столовая ложка honey
    If the juice is for adults, you can add
    radish slice 2 cm thick. Drink the mixture 2 times a day
    until full recovery.
  3. You can do inhalation over a container with hot water. For
    increase the efficiency of the liquid add a clove of garlic extract
    needles, oil of fir, eucalyptus. Also based on these oils make
    nasal drops.
  4. For дезинфекции воздуха в помещении, стоит поставить в комнате
    container with onions or garlic. They are rich in beneficial phytoncides,
    that destroy viruses.
  5. Loss of smell is one of the most unpleasant symptoms.
    colds (especially for an aromatherapy specialist!) your distress
    chervil oil, geranium oil and basil may help. Use them when
    taking baths and during inhalations.

Prevention

For preventive methods of ARVI include:

  • limited contact with a sick person;
  • use of protective gauze mask;
  • humidification of the air to avoid drying out of the mucous membranes;
  • quartz treatment of the premises;
  • airing the premises;
  • good food;
  • playing sports;
  • the use of vitamins and fortifying drugs in
    off-season;
  • personal hygiene.

You will get the maximum result if you
проводить комплексное лечение ОРВИ, принимать все назначенные
doctor drugs and remember about bed rest.

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