ОРЗ (острое респираторное заболевание) – это группа
diseases of infectious nature, a characteristic feature
which is a person infected with airborne droplets
by. Among all known infectious pathologies of acute respiratory infections
occupies leading indicators in frequency of occurrence, and
This pathology is equally common as in social
developed countries and in countries with reduced levels
social protection of the population.
Most often, the disease is transmitted by airborne droplets, but
possible infection and through everyday objects. In rare cases
other modes of transmission are noted.
Let’s consider what causes and symptoms of acute respiratory infections in adults
people and how to treat a disease to prevent
complications for the body.
What is a cold?
ОРЗ — это собирательное понятие, характеризующее все
possible diseases of the respiratory tract – viral,
viral microbial and pure microbial as well as caused
A distinctive feature of all acute respiratory infections – symptoms that indicate
about the defeat of the epithelium of the upper respiratory tract. Right here
accumulation of pathogens, their primary deposition and
reproduction. In the future, the activity of viruses leads to the development of
inflammatory processes and all sorts of complications associated with
disruption of the vital systems of the body.
Every year in our country acute respiratory infections
carry up to 40 million people. Для риновирусной
инфекции т. н. �”Entrance gates” are mucous membranes
nose and conjunctiva. According to statistics, an adult person suffers more
or less severe acute respiratory disease on average to
2-3 times a year.
This group of diseases manifests itself seasonally – often pathologies.
arise when the seasons change (in the autumn-winter period). Important
time to do prevention of acute respiratory infections so that in the midst of an epidemic
ARI has a synonym – ARI, or acute respiratory infection.
In common ODR it is customary to denote a more familiar word.
�”cold”. Also, due to colds and flu,
You can often hear the abbreviation SARS.
Viruses – pathogens of ARD affect the respiratory mucosa
ways. An inflammatory process develops in the underlying tissue.
Toxic products of viruses act on various parts of the nervous system.
system. The severity of the disease is associated with the virulence of the virus and
the state of the patient’s immune system. Viral infection
causes a decrease in immunity, which contributes to
secondary bacterial infection and the emergence of complications.
Depending on the involvement of different departments in the process
respiratory truck allocate:
- ARD of the lower divisions with the localization of the process below the level
vocal cords – laryngitis, bronchitis, tracheitis;
- ARI of the upper parts – rhinitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis and
The main reasons for the development of illnesses from this group are
over 200 different viruses:
- PC virus;
- Bocaruvirus and others.
Let’s look at the main factors that lead to
weakening of immunity in adults:
- lack of organism necessary for its normal
функционирования витаминов и микроэлементов, особенно
vitamin C (ascorbic acid);
- stress, mental strain;
- adverse environmental conditions in places of frequent
human stay – gas, dust, fungi on
walls, etc .;
- the presence in the body of non-treated chronic diseases.
Infection of acute respiratory infections in adults occurs by the method of airborne
spread of the pathogen from a sick person or carrier to
healthy. The main place for the replication of the virus ARD are
epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, which resulted in
there are thousands of virions that spread over a large
stretch, accompanied by necrotization and desquamation
the surface layers of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract.
Incubation period, т.е. the time between contact with the patient and
the onset of the disease, lasts from 12-48 hours with the flu to 1-14
дней при other colds. The pathogen penetrates through the upper
respiratory tract, is fixed on the mucous membranes and multiplies,
damages mucous membranes. At the same time, primary
signs of acute respiratory infections – swelling and inflammation in the nose and pharynx.
A person becomes a carrier of the disease when the pathogen
enters his body. Adults are carriers
disease even in the latent period of incubation, not knowing about it.
The threat spreads not only during these periods of illness,
infection occurs all the time of the disease, until the presence of rhinitis,
cough or fever will not decrease.
Symptoms of acute respiratory infections in adults
Usually the first symptoms of acute respiratory disease appear 2-3 days after
infection, but deviations from these numbers are possible. So y
weakened people, elderly people and children first signs of illness
may appear several hours after contact with sick
An acute respiratory disease begins with discomfort and
discomfort in the nasopharynx and throat. Also appears
sneezing, runny nose, malaise, weakness, dizziness and pain in
In the early stages of the disease, the temperature usually remains in
within normal limits or slightly increased. Nasal discharge
appear 2-3 days after the onset of the disease and are watery
Signs of acute respiratory infections in adults are as follows:
- General weakness.
- Болезненные ощущения в head.
- Muscle and joint aches.
- Raising body temperature to 37.5 degrees.
- Decreased appetite.
- Runny nose
- Sore throat, pain and cough.
Symptoms that indicate severe illness or
development of possible complications of acute respiratory infections:
- the disease does not go away within two weeks;
- temperature rise above 40 degrees. Receive antipyretic
drugs has no proper effect;
- chest pains;
- a cough during which a brown secretion occurs,
green or red sputum;
- severe headaches;
- chest pain during breathing;
- the appearance of vascular stars on the skin.
In most cases, the above symptoms
joins conjunctivitis, headache, muscle and joint pain,
inflammation of lymph nodes, there is hoarseness
или «стреляющие» боли в ушах.
Fever with acute respiratory infections in most cases begins with chills or
chilling. The body temperature in the first day reaches
maximum level (38-40 ° C). The duration of the fever is different in
depending on the etiology of the disease and severity.
These symptoms occur not only in acute respiratory infections, but also ARVI and
flu It is quite difficult to diagnose the disease on your own,
as colds have similar symptoms.
One type of acute respiratory disease is
flu. Manifestations of the disease by this virus are very different from
other colds. Flu is characterized by a sharp onset of the disease with
- high temperature (up to 39-40 degrees), persisting in
for 3-4 days;
- pain and pain in the eyes;
- intoxication of the body (reaction of the eyes to light, sweating,
- slight nasal congestion, sneezing.
Important: В качестве проявлений ОРЗ также могут
Acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis are treated, but only
if these pathologies are accompanied by lesions of the upper
As soon as the first signs of acute respiratory infection appear in adults (runny nose,
pain or simply discomfort in the throat), you need to immediately on them
to react. Dealing with a disease at the beginning is easier than curing.
numerous complications from penetrating “deep into” the infection.
As a rule, acute respiratory disease lasts for
6-8 days and passes without consequences, if properly treated.
If an acute “respiratory disease” does not give a proper “answer”,
it can lead to the development of various more serious
- Синусит (к насморку
присоединяются гайморит, фронтит, этмоидит и сфеноидит);
- Pneumonia (pneumonia);
- Empyema; pleura;
- Viral encephalitis;
- Liver damage.
So that acute respiratory disease does not develop into
the consequences for the body, then be sure to contact your health care provider.
врачу для назначения лечения.
In the presence or suspicion of the development of acute respiratory infections should
immediately consult with such specialists
as a therapist, infectious diseases. Additionally, the attending physician may
assign the following diagnostic methods:
- consultation of the ENT doctor;
- general blood analysis;
- immunological studies (especially relevant when the disease
diagnosed in infants or children 2–6 years old);
- x-ray of the chest;
- if atypical infections are suspected, bakposev is performed
If the following symptoms appear, you should immediately
See a doctor:
- The temperature is above 38.5 ° C for more than 2 days.
- Cough is accompanied by discharge of purulent sputum.
- There were pains in the chest when coughing or inhaling, shortness of breath, headaches
pain, pain in the forehead, in the ear.
- It is imperative to consult a doctor when an acute respiratory disease appears in persons sick
chronic bronchitis or heart disease.
How to treat ARI?
For the treatment of adult patients suffering any
etiopathogenetic form of acute respiratory infections, are used medicinal,
organizational, hygienic measures, the action of which
aimed at isolating the carrier pathogens, reducing the activity
reproduction processes of pathogens in the body, stimulation
individual protective capabilities of the patient, as well as on
relief of the main symptoms of the disease.
For a start, a few mandatory rules:
- Bed rest, at least the first two days of the disease, in
- If the body temperature does not rise more than 38 degrees, shoot down
its not worth it.
- Do not take antibiotics unless prescribed by a doctor. Vs
viruses, they are powerless. Their main strength is antibacterial.
- When the body temperature rises above 37.5 degrees, thermal
procedures are prohibited! Can damage the heart and blood vessels.
- Do not get carried away vasoconstrictor. Drying the nasal mucosa, she
open the way to viruses.
- Do not take expectorants and cough drops together. They
stop the action of each other.
How to treat ARD medications?
The proposed drugs in the treatment of acute respiratory infections in adults are used
only symptomatically. No need to take them several times in
day or drink certain cycles. The attending physician is required
selects the necessary antipyretic drug with all
contraindications and determine when and how to take the medicine. TO
Unfortunately, many products are toxic and require competent
If the causative agent of the disease is a virus, prescribe
TOогда температура поднимается выше 38 градусов, без нестероидных
anti-inflammatory drugs not enough such a temperature
need to reduce. It is worth noting that the simultaneous reception
different types of anti-inflammatory drugs can cause
increased side effects so you need to take either drugs
containing ibuprofen or paracetamol.
To reduce the temperature of acute respiratory infections prescribed:
- acetylsalicylic acid;
- Upsarin Upsa;
- Cefecone H (candles);
- Efferalgan with Vitamin C.
A sore throat is treated with sprays and lozenges:
With active inflammatory processes in the bronchi, lungs and
larynx with sputum formation, adults are prescribed
Antibiotics are prescribed for the treatment of infections: bacterial,
microplasma and chlamydia. In severe condition and possibility
the development of complications the patient is subject to hospitalization. In these cases
antibiotics and hormones are prescribed.
Assign a complex of vitamins (multivitamins, roars, hexavit,
undevit 2 tablets, decamevit 1 tablet 2-3 times a day),
ascorbic acid up to 600-900 mg / day and vitamin P up to 150-300
mg / day
Irrespective of whether the throat hurts or not, it is necessary to wash out
nasopharyngeal mucosa from germs. Even a slight runny nose.
on the back wall, is a pharyngeal irritant. Good effect
give rinsing with ordinary sea salt. Half a glass of warm water
take 1/3 tsp of salt. Gargle 3 times a day.
Call a doctor to determine what to treat correctly.
a patient with an acute respiratory disease and which drugs to prescribe. Isolate him from
others so that he could not infect anyone else.
Nutrition to support the body
For the correct treatment of acute respiratory disease it is first necessary to reduce
load on the body. Exclude from the diet fatty, fried, spicy,
high-calorie meals. Drink more beneficial fluid, dissolve honey
under the tongue until it is completely dissolved.
The diet of a sick person should be gentle – not worth it.
starve, as well as overload the body with food. The diet should be
complete in composition and include products that are easy
digested. TOулинарная обработка пищи также не должна создавать
excess load on the digestive system.
To increase the body’s resistance to infection and
restore the content of vitamins, eat foods:
- rich in vitamin C (citrus, kiwi, dogrose and
- vitamins of group B (eggs, vegetables, poultry meat retinol (green
and yellow vegetables, egg yolk, cottage cheese, butter).
In the absence of appetite, you should not force the patient to take
food. At this time, all the forces of the body are aimed at combating
infection, so food should be as light as possible.
– broth, porridge, fresh vegetables and fruits, fermented milk
products. TOак только больной пойдет на поправку, аппетит появится и
it will be possible to return to the old diet.
Patients with acute respiratory illness need as
you can drink more fluids, because ailment is almost always
accompanied by general intoxication of the body.
However, you can not use any drinks, it is best in this
- cranberry juice;
- weak warm tea with milk or lemon;
- mineral water (preferably non-carbonated);
- juices that are better prepared by yourself, not
Treatment of acute respiratory infections in adults folk remedies
In most cases, the treatment of acute respiratory infections in adults is carried out in
home conditions, and there are widely used folk
- Linden flowers are prepared in the form of infusion: 2 tablespoons
crushed lime netts for 2 cups boiling water insist 30
minutes, filter, take 1/3 cup after a meal 4 times a
- Sore throats are very good for inflammation of the tonsils.
warm decoction of herbs such as sage, chamomile and calendula.
- When hoarseness effective eggnog – 2 egg yolks
grind with sugar until white and add butter, take in
breaks between meals.
- Rosehip – a champion on the content of vitamin C – what you need
with this case. Hundred grams of dry rose hips pour in
half-liter thermos and pour boiling water. After six hours, drain,
mix with half a liter of pomegranate juice and drink a glass several times a
- Coughing will effectively help radish. In a radish with a “tail”
cut off the top and choose the core. This “cup” is half
filled with honey and put in a glass of water so that the “tail” was
immersed in water. Сок пьют по чайной ложке 4-5 раз в day. Radish
use no more than 2 days.
- Chamomile – the constant ingredient in many popular recipes
medicine. One spoonful of flowers pour a glass of boiling water and
put for half an hour in a water bath. Add boiling water to the volume
one litre. Cool slightly and breathe over the steam for a quarter of an hour.
- The most popular inhalation for adults with acute respiratory infections is
inhalation of vapors from potatoes cooked with garlic and dill. Breathe
above the potato steam you need, covering your head with a towel,
so that the steam does not go out. At the same time you need to make sure that the steam is not
too hot and will not burn the mucous of the throat and nose.
- Expectorant. Raspberry and oregano mix in a ratio of 2: 1
and brew a glass of boiling water. Drink hot 3 p. / Day and
half a cup.
- Pour into a basin of hot water and put your hands up to the elbow.
Hold for 20-30 minutes. At the end of the hand, wipe dry, put on
yourself a warm sweater and mittens (preferably downy). In this form
need to go to bed, at least for one hour.
- Rub a garlic clove and mix with vegetable oil,
about 50 ml. After waiting a few hours to oil
infused, and bury in the nose.
Prevention ОРЗ включает изоляционные,
regime-limiting and sanitary-hygienic measures.
Certain perspectives have recently been associated with
antiviral emergency prophylaxis as well
stimulants of immunity and general resistance.
Prevention ОРЗ у взрослых состоит из следующих
- quitting smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages;
- flu vaccination;
- taking multivitamin complexes;
- immunomodulatory and antiviral drugs prevention
- reception of products containing essential for the body
the amount of vitamins and nutrients;
- good rest;
- wearing a mask during the epidemic;
- exclusion of contacts with sick people.
If ARI (acute respiratory disease) is still visited
organism, do not rush to run to work or to college. It is better
to cope with the disease within a week than to reap sad fruit
complications, and then bed rest is guaranteed for more