Update: October 2018
- The terms “anxiety”, “anxiety”, “fear”
- High anxiety and its types
- Types of anxiety
- Causes of anxiety by age
- Signs of anxiety
- Types of anxious children
- Anxiety Diagnosis
- Measures to help a child with increased anxiety
- Question answer
In the modern world, where social and
economic transformation, science strides forward by leaps and bounds
steps, it is very difficult to live an adult. What can I say
about kids? Children are very sensitive to the anxiety of their parents and
teachers, which is why the current level of children’s
anxiety is extremely high. Especially often increased anxiety
observed in children growing up in single-parent families or in families,
experiencing economic, psychological and material
Problems. Also high anxiety is observed in children who
единственные в семье и ощущающие гиперопеку parents.
The terms “anxiety”, “anxiety”, “fear”
Anxiety and anxiety are various conditions. Anxiety
called personal psychological feature, in the presence of which
a person experiences increased anxiety and discomfort in different
life situations, even when the situation is to occur
anxiety does not predispose.
Anxiety implies a one-time feeling of discomfort and
anxiety. For example, the excitement of a child before passing the exam or
on the eve of performance at a concert, holiday. That is, anxiety has
the place is not always, sometimes the child before a serious stage of life
can keep calm.
Anxiety is only an episodic phenomenon, and anxiety is sustainable.
state. If there is anxiety, the child is constantly worried and
in any, even minor situations (torn button, the answer
at the blackboard, a conversation with an unfamiliar adult). Anxiety accompanies
child / adult almost always and not associated with a particular species
Fear is the most dangerous human emotion that is based
on the fear of something concrete. it может быть страх высоты,
depths, darkness and so on. According to K. Isard –
anxiety is a set of negative emotions, in which one of them
is fear. Fear can develop at any age, and in childhood
especially often. Children’s fears are divided into categories by
- 1 year – 3 years (nightly fears);
- 3 – 5 years (fear of darkness, loneliness);
- 5 – 7 years (fear of death);
- 7 – 11 years old (fear of a “bad” child).
High anxiety and its types
Anxiety diagnostics is based on various
psychological tests. Anxiety is moderate and high
put a mark on the quality of life and may even lead to
development of mental disorders. Believed to be predisposing
factor of high anxiety is heredity. Other
risk factors are inadequate education and negative
life experience. Psychologists struggle with high anxiety, but
provided it is not a sign of mental
Types of anxiety
By this type of anxiety mean individual
the particular individual’s particular anxiety
when other people practically do not feel it.
This type of anxiety is associated with personality traits, character
and temperament, genetic predisposition. For people with a similar
anxiety is characterized by uncommunicity and isolation. Personal
anxiety leaves its mark on all aspects of communication with people
motivation and self assessment.
It makes itself felt only in difficult life situations of a person
но в другое время он не испытывает дискомфорта и anxiety.
Causes that cause situational anxiety:
- rapidly changing world around us (natural disasters,
economic problems, civil unrest, war);
- communication of the individual with their own kind can not do without
stresses, conflicts and quarrels;
- conflicts and problems with relatives and relatives;
- life negative experience.
Causes of anxiety by age
Anxiety can develop in a person in any
age, including newborns. Babies have anxiety
manifested as excessive anxiety, crying often without
causes, disturbed sleep and poor appetite. But with age
there is a formation of the nervous system and its complication, therefore
signs of anxiety acquire more complex traits.
For reasons of high anxiety in preschool children
General condition of the child
Risk factors are: a genetic predisposition to
nervous disorders, personal character traits, increased
sensitivity (anxiety of parents is transmitted to the child),
birth injuries, past infectious diseases and other
pathological conditions in the neonatal period. Also
predispose to increased anxiety in young children
diseases of women during pregnancy, ante-, intra- and
postnatal lesions of the central nervous system of the newborn.
These include family atmosphere and parenting methods.
baby it может быть чрезмерная опека (когда ребенок в семье
the only one, and he is deprived of independence and the right of choice) either,
on the contrary, the absence of at least some care and attention, since
High anxiety in children often turns into neurosis.
(hysterical, neurasthenic, phobic, and others).
To the development of school anxiety lead:
- significant school load;
- difficulties in overcoming the school curriculum;
- complete lack of understanding of individual school subjects;
- excessive demands from the parents (our child must
to be the best or, on the contrary, our child is the most talentless and
- negative attitude to the child of school teachers;
- poor relationships with classmates, conflicts and
- frequent school changes;
- frequent tests, tests and exams.
Increased anxiety in children – students may turn into
school neurosis (headache, digestive disorders
on the eve of attending school), school phobia (fear of attending school),
didactogenic neurosis (rejection of learning).
Adolescence in a child is the most difficult and crucial. In this
stage the child undergoes not only hormonal changes, but
and reconsiders attitudes towards oneself and other people. Reasons
increased anxiety in a teenager are:
- complex hormonal changes that affect all
organs and systems of the body, including the central nervous system;
- awareness of their own independence and the right to choose,
independent decision making;
- changes in the team (rejection of the “white crows”,
peer aggression, youthful maximalism);
- periodic activity, sharply replaced by depression and
apathy, sudden mood swings.
Anxiety in adults
In adults, predisposing to increased anxiety:
- certain life periods (male and female menopause,
middle age crisis);
- specific professions associated with constant stress,
overwork and irregular working hours (pilots, doctors
surgical specialties, emergency assistance to the population);
- difficulties in communicating with new people or in public
- sexual problems;
- personal unrest (divorce, death of loved ones, illness, loss
Signs of anxiety
A child with increased anxiety has a certain
portrait that experienced teacher catches the eye immediately. Such
the child with caution and tension enters the room (class, group
kindergarten), looking around restlessly, timidly and quietly
He greets and sits down on the edge of the near chair. Child
It looks like it expects trouble from everyone and everything. is he
characterized by excessive concern, for example, not waiting
events (call to the blackboard, public speaking), but only his
foreboding. These children are secretive, prefer not to share
your problems, and keep them to yourself. is heи ощущают свою
helplessness, afraid of new games and participation in them, new species
activities. On the other hand, such children are extremely self-critical and
make increased demands on themselves. Their self-esteem is low,
in all seriousness, they believe that they are worse than the other children (the most
ugly, clumsy, stupid). From adults they
constantly waiting for encouragement and approval.
Children with increased anxiety bother and somatic
disorders: abdominal and headaches, dizziness, cramps
muscle and throat, difficulty breathing and others. During
the occurrence of anxiety in these children appear dry mouth,
lump in throat, muscle weakness, tachycardia.
To identify a child with increased anxiety caregiver
more than one day is required. is he должен понаблюдать за малышом в разные
periods of activity and days of the week. How does a child behave when
training and recreation, during games and communication with peers.
- anxiety is excessive and persistent;
- difficulty concentrating;
- muscle tension (often facial and neck);
- sleep disturbed.
If at least one of the listed symptoms is observed
constantly, the teacher / parent should think about
тревожности у baby For this purpose, various
психологических тестов на anxiety.
Types of anxious children
Children – neurotics
У таких детей ярко выражены соматические Problems. They are distinguished
nervous ticking and stuttering, often similar children suffer from enuresis.
These children are distinguished by excessive activity and sensitivity,
that mask the fears. is heи стремятся быть хорошими в поведении и
learning, failures change tactics up to hooliganism. Can
to be recognized as “clowns” in a team, because such behavior
attracts the attention of other guys and teachers. It seems that similar
children do not respond to criticism and comments, but this is not true, they just
hide their insecurity deep in the soul. Disinhibited children
distinguished by problems with memory and attention, difficulties with petty
Extremely closed and unsure of themselves. Fully ignore
criticism, refuse to participate in common games, walks and communication
with peers. Have difficulty contacting adults, do not wish
learn due to lack of motivation.
These children are cute without exception, but lost in public.
performance (at the blackboard, in front of guests or at a party). Differ
diligence, diligence and commitment, but never
show initiative. Also у застенчивых детей имеются трудности в
communicating with unfamiliar and unfamiliar people. About these children
they say that “they have tears close.” Waiting for encouragement and praise from
Anxiety Diagnosis подразумевает проведение
Various psychological tests and questionnaires:
Questionnaire Lavrentieva, Titarenko
Parents are invited to choose from 20 signs those that
have a child:
- fatigue at work;
- difficulty concentrating;
- excessive concern with the new task;
- tension and stiffness in the performance of tasks;
- frequent embarrassment;
- talk about stressful situations;
- frequent flushing of the face;
- complaints of terrible dreams;
- coldness and humidity of hands;
- often upset stool;
- high sweating with agitation;
- poor appetite;
- restless sleep, difficulty falling asleep;
- heightened fearfulness, many fears;
- constant anxiety;
- inability to hold back tears;
- intolerance of expectation;
- fear of new affairs;
- lack of confidence in their abilities;
- fear of difficulties.
The number of positive answers allows you to determine the level
anxiety: 15-20 points indicates high anxiety, 7-14 –
about anxiety average level and 1 – 6 points – a child with a low
Anxiety Test by Templou, Amen, and Dorki
The child is offered to review some life situations,
marked on the pictures in a certain sequence (total
Figures 14). is he должен ответить одной эмоцией (радостью или
sadness) for each picture:
- you play with a small child, what is your face (sad
- you go with mom and younger brother (he is in a carriage) on
- you are attacked by the eldest, what is your face;
- you dress yourself, you are happy or sad;
- you play with children older than you, you are fun or sad;
- you go to bed alone and your parents are busy, you have fun or
- you independently wash your face;
- you are scolded by your mother, you are sad or happy;
- parents play with the youngest, not paying attention to you;
- you want to take the same age toy, it’s funny or
- Mom made to collect scattered toys, it’s fun or
- ровесники уходят по домам, тебе весело или sad
- you are in the photo with the whole family, you are sad or having fun;
- you eat alone, it’s sad or fun.
After viewing the pictures, a special table is filled in and
высчитывается уровень anxiety. In addition to the facial expression child
must accompany each drawing with his comment. Level
anxiety is calculated by the formula: UT (anxiety) =
(number of negative emotions / 14) * 100.
When UT 50% and above talk about high anxiety, UT, equal to 20 –
50% about average anxiety and UT less than 20% – about low
Тест anxiety phillips
In children of school age, anxiety is determined by Phillips.
This is done by the school psychologist who is testing the group right away.
schoolchildren (class). Philips questionnaire consists of 58 questions, answers
which allow to evaluate:
- level of anxiety of the whole class;
- the severity of stressful experiences in society;
- anxiety about possible success and positive
- fear of self-expression;
- fear of knowledge checks;
- fear about the opinions of classmates and teachers;
- level of resilience to stressful situations;
- fear about relationships with educators.
Questions with certain numbers correspond to the listed
higher criteria. Every positive answer counts as one point.
and summarized in groups, revealing the level of anxiety in this
The scale of anxiety Spielberg Hanina
According to this scale, the questionnaire of which consists of 40 questions
It is proposed to determine the level of anxiety on their own. First
20 questions give an assessment of situational anxiety, the second
половина вопросов позволяет оценить личностную anxiety.
Measures to help a child with increased anxiety
Independently neither the child nor his parents can cope
with this condition. The help of a certified psychologist is required, but
in some cases, and a psychiatrist. The work of a psychologist includes 3
- Increase self-esteem;
- Blockade of muscle spasms;
- The ability of the child to control themselves in difficult situations.
It takes a long time and includes: addressing a child by
name, praise for success, albeit insignificant, highlighting success
child among other children. It is important to praise the baby sincerely, and he
should know exactly what achievement he is praised for. Also для
increase self-esteem effective following games with other
children: “compliments” where one child says to another something
good, “I give you” – a game in which participants give each other
(на словах) something и прочие. Similar games allow disturbing
child to look at themselves through the eyes of peers and evaluate them
attitude to yourself.
Manage your own behavior
Anxious children hide their grievances and fears in themselves and for all
Adult questions answer that everything is fine. To child
revealed, should involve him in a collective discussion
any kind of problem (everyone has fears). In the kindergarten group
you can have a general conversation with the children sitting in a circle, what are they talking about
experiencing in some exciting situation. At school you can bring
examples from the literature, from the category: a brave man is not one that
has no fears, but one that knows how to overcome them. The essence
conversation should be reduced to the recognition of each child about what
he is specifically afraid. Then a child with increased anxiety can
understand that he is not alone, that the rest also have problems.
In no case is it allowed to compare a child with success.
other, it only reduces his self-esteem. Important to be able to parents
to see in the anxious child his personal, noteworthy,
qualities and strive to develop them.
Fighting muscle tension
To overcome muscle tension is recommended
games designed for physical contact and to train a child in various
exercises for relaxation, deep breathing, yoga and conduct
Recommendations to parents
First, reduce the requirements for the child,
Often parents want their baby to be able and achieve what
they themselves failed to reach. The child simply cannot understand, and
all the more to realize some unfulfilled dreams of their parents.
Failures cover him with his head, and the child is increasingly locked in
itself, worries and receives instead of love and care only
additional notes and hula. It only strengthens
Also, parents should constantly celebrate the slightest success.
his child, to do everything to prove his love, regardless of
success and reduce the number of comments. For this proposed
simple solution: try to parents write down all comments
child during the day and evening to reread them. From the diary will
it is clear that most of the comments could have been avoided.
Do not force the child to apologize for it
or other action. This will only embitter him and further isolate him from
parents. It is also necessary to abandon the impossible threats: “I’m in
In this case, I will refuse you! “,” I will kill you! “,” So that you disappear
forever out of my sight! ” Talking “heart to heart” will help bring together
parents and their baby, find out the painful problems and help them
solve by common forces.
Вопрос: Я считаю, что уровень тревожности у моего
baby is too tall. Maybe you should not spend time on psychologists,
and immediately contact a psychiatrist, let him prescribe medication
In no case. First of all – my child is disturbing – this
your personal opinion, not supported by experts. Let him
at least a school or child psychologist will communicate – this is both time and
money does not take. And only a psychologist will determine the level of anxiety.
your child and whether it is associated with some disease or
mental illness. All drugs, especially “mental”
have a lot of side effects and are addictive. Before
�”Put” the child on such a dope, it should be seriously
Вопрос: У моего ребенка нет друзей, он даже ни с
who does not communicate in social networks, but asks for a puppy or at least a kitten.
Can get a pet and it will help to correct the situation?
Of course, not only you can start, but you need. General how
consider all psychologists, doctors and teachers, caring for a pet
will help the child become a worthy member of society, attentive to
around and kind. But to consult with a psychologist is still not
Вопрос: Моему малышу 8 лет, психологи определили
level of high anxiety. We attend all classes, try and
you yourself talk and play with him, but he flatly refuses
there are complex dishes, and even more so from unknown products. it
ok and what to do?
Yes it is normal, children with increased anxiety have difficulty
perceive everything new. Until the child has overcome his condition,
do not cook and make it eat new dishes. Make a
easier menu for the child, it will help reduce its level