Anxiety in children: what is it, Phillips test,correction

Update: October 2018 Did you know that a multitude of diseases can be
would be avoided if parents paid attention to the level
anxiety ребенка? And the fact that her symptoms are easy to take for
�”Capriciousness”, “spoiled” or hyperactivity? Do you know,
what is most important in dealing with increased anxiety is
providing the child with confidence that parental love will
constant, and does not depend on his academic performance and behavior in
society?

If you know little about the concept of “anxiety,” but
you are disturbed by the behavior of your own child, our article is for
you. In it we consider the causes of this condition, its danger, and
also ways to allow a child to get rid of such constant
internal stress.

What is anxiety and how is it different from fear

Anxiety is when a child experiences such a negative
emotional state that can be described as strong
excitement and anxiety. Moreover, the apparent cause of such anxiety is often
just not very significant: the answer at the blackboard, test,
performance or concert

Increased anxiety – this is a feature of the psyche of the child,
when anxiety arises in response to the slightest irritant. She is
differs from fear in that the child himself cannot name
reasons for their condition. He is tense, like a spring, he is experiencing
a lot of emotions, including fear, but does not connect it with any
with height, neither with a closed space, nor with darkness or other
some obvious situations. That is, if he can say what
he is afraid, then this is fear (phobia), if he cannot, then this is
anxiety.

What is the danger of increased anxiety?

Increase the pace of adult life, change in life
adult values ​​and the rising cost of various goods
only on our emotional state, but also on our psyche
children. So, compared to the 80s of the 20th century, the number
children with persistent increased anxiety increased by more than 7
time. And this figure continues to grow.

Scientists have found that such emotional instability,
self-doubt and anxiety worsen considerably
child’s intellectual development: he begins to be afraid
experimenting, exploring the world around us experimentally, and waiting
ready solution.

Increased anxiety affects the immunity of the baby. By
adrenal hyperstimulation suppressed normal operation
hypothalamus, which increases susceptibility to infections, and
violates the overall hormonal balance. And since hormones play
leading role in the regulation of body function is a violation
gradually leads to an increase in blood pressure, followed by
may result in deterioration of the internal organs.

Long existing anxiety due to arterial
hypertension impairs the functioning of the kidneys. This leads to
changes in the chemical composition of the blood, because of which all suffer
internal organs, but to a greater extent – the heart, the walls of blood vessels and
work of the nervous system.

Исходя из этого, осложнениями постоянной anxiety
become:

  • vegetative vascular dystonia;
  • cardiopathy;
  • neurosis;
  • psychosis and psychopathy;
  • gastritis;
  • peptic ulcer disease;
  • migraine.

What is anxiety?

There are such varieties of this state:

  1. Ситуативная anxiety. She is возникает только при ожидании
    certain situations or when hit by them. Such situations
    are stressful only for a certain child, are associated with
    his negative life experiences.
  2. Личностная anxiety. It occurs in certain situations
    which do not cause alarm in most children, or it does not
    so pronounced. Personal anxiety associated with the features
    child’s personality: his temperament, character, intellectual
    development. She is влияет на самооценку, социальную роль в классе и
    communication of the child with the teachers.

Причины повышенной anxiety

Основной корень anxiety у детей и подростков – это отношение
to them by parents. This condition can cause
hyperopic when every step of the child is monitored and corrected.
But the lack of time spent on the baby also provokes
anxiety. Most often, such chronic stress occurs in children
whose parents are busy with active career building: every time they
react differently to the child’s success, pushing him away from him,
then bringing closer. As a result, the child has an internal conflict,
at the heart of which is a lack of understanding how to treat parents,
fear that parental love may be impermanent.

Другими причинами anxiety become:

  • anxiety in parents (for example, due to dismissal, constant
    lack of money, divorce);
  • relocation;
  • change of school or kindergarten;
  • different requirements from parents and educators (teachers).
    For example, parents teach that you need to stand up for yourself, and caregivers
    – that you need to endure or complain to them;
  • Inflated demands for the child: the desire to give it to
    �”Decent” school, for the maximum number of clubs, requirements
    some positive assessments all lessons;
  • inadequate, contrary to the morality of the child, the requirements:
    �“Pass” a friend, hide what he saw, lie.

Of course, in the first place, anxiety in children will manifest itself in
if they have certain features of the nervous system.
But if the stimulus is pretty strong, then even a healthy child,
who are loved in the family (or, conversely, friends and
caregivers) can become alarming.

Anxiety in preschool children more often develops in
boys: they are afraid of punishment. In girls, their deterioration
Mental well-being, basically, is observed later – closer to
adolescence. They have this to do with the relationship with
peers, teachers, boys from high school.

How to notice that a child is anxious

The manifestations of fear and anxiety of the child depend on his
age

Anxiety in children under 1 year

Such small children can also be anxious. It is in
mainly due to birth trauma, pathologies of the nervous system
or developed acute illness. Anxiety is manifested:

  • restless behavior that often causes a child
    wear on hands;
  • crying often;
  • bad sleep;
  • loss of appetite.

This condition is rarely treated separately from its cause.

Anxiety in preschool children

This condition in young children is usually associated with the first
socialization attempts – in developmental activities, in kindergarten.
If the child is difficult to find contact with peers, he begins
act up, often crying, fall asleep badly, begins to bite his nails,
pull or twist hair (and not always yours).

Anxiety in children of preschool age, mainly
associated with the fear that mom will forget them to pick them up from kindergarten.
The second reason is conflicts with peers and educators,
the third – fears caused by viewing individual cartoons,
video.

At this age, the symptoms are not always noticeable: the child behaves
very roughly, does not make noise or scream, does not stick with questions and
speaks quietly. As an option – he can cry all day in
waiting for mom.

Anxiety can be suspected by the fact that he is fearful
looks around, does not look adults in the eyes, sits down on the edge
the chair. He does not have (or reappears) enuresis or even
недержание the chair. Kids with increased anxiety resist
learning new games don’t want to do some new things
(help mom with cooking). You can hear from them that they are stupid,
ugly or awkward.

School anxiety

The first anxiety in children of school age is associated with the
entering a school – there is a new team, new rules,
completely unusual daily routine. He is no longer standing up for him
the teacher, on the contrary, he has to go to the blackboard and answer the lessons
in the face of the whole class. Parental behavior changes: if
before they allowed him to take a walk and demanded almost nothing, then
now they are allowed to walk and play only after everything is done
lessons

Obvious symptoms of anxiety in younger students can be noticed.
approximately 1.5 months after the start of studies (after summer or winter
holidays). They are about the same as in the older preschool.
age:

  • low self-esteem;
  • fast fatiguability;
  • timid behavior;
  • anxiety;
  • poor concentration on the tasks performed;
  • bad dream, nightmares;
  • embarrassment;
  • often complains of headaches, abdominal pain;
  • frequent indigestion;
  • there may be nausea or vomiting – before attending school, especially
    if a test is planned, or after what happened in
    school incident;
  • increased sweating during anxiety;
  • loss of appetite.

In older age, school anxiety is described by a teenager.
as a feeling of own tension, increased emotional
sensitivity, poor appetite. Teen easily embarrass and
upset, he is afraid of difficulties and cannot complete tasks
requiring mental effort and concentration. Teenage
anxiety is associated with changes in hormone balance, the appearance
changes within the team, the desire to achieve recognition and respect
from peers.

Who is engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of elevated
anxiety

Выявление anxiety – это удел специалистов, занимающихся
child’s psyche. It:

  • psychologist: he works in kindergartens and schools, should
    conduct routine interviews and testing of children, identifying signs
    anxiety, депрессии, агрессии и других состояний. He can
    cope with mild anxiety if parents become at home
    fulfill his requirements;
  • psychotherapist. This is a doctor whose task is
    немедикаментозное лечение anxiety;
  • A psychiatrist is a severe physician.
    повышенной anxiety, которая осложнилась психозом, неврозом,
    depression or other serious conditions.

Диагностика anxiety

To understand what level of anxiety a child can
testing that will lead him to any of these specialists
(mainly a psychologist or a psychotherapist does this). These are tests.
Dorki, Phillips, CMAS, Spielberg Hanina.

Phillips test

По тесту anxiety Phillips is judged on the level and character
anxiety у ребенка младшего и среднего школьного возраста (3-7
classes). At first, it is conducted by a school psychologist for everything.
class, most often non-anonymous. According to the study
specialist evaluates:

  • how great is general school anxiety;
  • how much school children are under stress;
  • how much students want good grades;
  • the amount of fear associated with self-expression;
  • how terrible the papers are for children;
  • how much children have difficulty in dealing with
    a teacher;
  • how important is it for children to meet expectations from
    classmates and teachers.

The test can be carried out individually – to re-check
those students who showed medium and high level
anxiety. So the psychologist can reveal exactly where are localized
child’s problems: in relationships with a teacher, with peers,
or maybe he is afraid not to meet the expectations of his parents, or he has
low level of resilience to stress, or – fear
self-expression.

Phillips test состоит из 58 вопросов. Children are asked to answer
monosyllabic – “yes” or “no.” Further answers are compared with the available
keys, and if it was spelled “no”, and the child answered
positively or, on the contrary, answered yes to a negative question,
это считают проявлением anxiety.

Questions about the following:

  1. Does it ever happen that you start trembling when you are asked
    teacher?
  2. Do you dream that you are at school, but to answer the teacher’s question
    can not?
  3. Do you get the marks that your parents expect from you?
  4. Are you satisfied with the attitude of teachers to you?
  5. Do you dress to school as well as others
    classmates?
  6. Do classmates laugh at you when you play different
    games?
  7. Does it scare you when a teacher says that he will do
    knowledge test?

Методика anxiety Филипса предполагает такую оценку
results:

  • if there is a mismatch from 29 to 43, this is an increased anxiety in
    student;
  • if – more than 43, then anxiety is regarded as
    high.

In addition, numbers of incorrect answers are compared with
a special table of 8 factors, where each of them shows
separate problem. For example, about the fear of a situation test knowledge
They say questions number 2, 7, 12, 16, 21, 26. If it is on them a child
answered incorrectly (more than 3 incorrect answers), this suggests that
that he has such fear.

Test Dorki

По результатам этого теста проводится диагностика anxiety у
children under 12 years old. It consists of 14 questions, some of them
attached situational pictures of characters in which there are no faces.
The child himself must answer what person will be in place of the space –
sad or happy.

Examples of questions:

  1. The child goes next to the mother who carries the stroller with the younger
    brother. What is the face of an older brother (sister) – sad or
    fun?
  2. The child eats and drinks alone. What will he have
    mood?
  3. Mom makes the child take away the toys. It is sad
    or fun?
  4. The child washes himself – without the help of mom or dad. What’s his
    will there be a face

Result = (number of sad emotions / 14) * 100%.

Если он – более 50%, то уровень anxiety – повышенный,

from 20 to 50% – the average level

the result is less than 20% – a low level.

CMAS test

Это тест переводится как «Шкала явной anxiety для детей»
(The Children’s Form of Manifest Anxiety Scale). She gives
the ability to identify anxiety in children, analyze
emotional problems of the child, to prevent nervous breakdowns,
related to exams, competitions. It is used for
determine the optimal class schedule and decide on
expediency of visiting the extended day group.

The test is used for children 7-12 years. For 7-8-year-olds spend it
individually, from 9 years of age group
testing.

The test consists of 53 questions that need to be answered “correctly”
or “wrong” (more precisely, put a plus in the corresponding column).
Примеры вопросов по шкале anxiety детей:

  • You want to be the best at everything.
  • You worry about what your parents will tell you.
  • You fear a lot in your heart.
  • You are easily offended.
  • Often sweat hands.
  • Often there is a feeling that the heart is beating strongly.
  • The stomach often hurts.

When evaluating postponed those forms, where everything is “true”, “wrong”,
both answers are underlined or there are a lot of fixes like
implausible. Next is a comparison of the answers with the keys on
двум субшкалам – anxiety и «социальной желательности». Then
both of these scores are compared to standards for a specific gender and
age, and already on the basis of this, an assessment is made whether
anxiety in the normal range, it is slightly increased, clearly increased
or very high.

Spielberg-Khanin scale

It is designed to assess situational and personal
anxiety самим ребенком (подростком). Here you need to answer 40
questions, circling the desired option. Further points are summed up – and you can
оценить оба вида anxiety.

Other scales

Для определения anxiety и конкретных ее источников у детей
other tests and scales may apply. It may be copyright.
sets questions, drawing test, child observation during
perform some tasks that require concentration.

Лечение anxiety

What to do if your child has increased anxiety?
Various methods are used for this.

Correction of the day regimen and family relationships

Here are some general guidelines:

  • work on themselves parents – in order to reduce their
    собственной anxiety;
  • control over the ridicule, withdrawal, criticism of the child.
    Adults need to understand that he is the same person and also has the right
    to mistake. In addition, it is more vulnerable, and much more necessary
    community and parental support;
  • increase the time of communication between parents and children – including
    walks, holidays, picnics in nature;
  • a work of motivating tales, where the hero was worried, but he
    everything worked out. In such cases, pre-installed
    eye contact: an adult leans toward the child so that it
    his eyes were level with the eyes of a child;
  • stroking massage;
  • frequent bodily contact with the child;
  • home theater performances;
  • paper tearing games;
  • games with dough, clay;
  • writing stories with drawings and objects;
  • pet facility, which will take care of itself
    child;
  • performing breathing exercises in the form of a game aimed at
    muscle tension relief. It could be an imaginary puff.
    balloon, playing an imaginary pipe, launching a ship
    in swimming on water

An anxious child cannot be punished for his fears, he cannot
compare with other children. All new games are introduced gradually,
starting with the elements familiar to the kid. Those games that
require eye closure, can be applied last,
when he is ready for it.

Also, you can not use the competition for speed. Parents should
reduce their demands on the baby, give him a good own
example, reduce the number of comments.

Коррекция anxiety силами воспитателей детского сада или
school psychologist

In kindergarten and elementary school are possible:

  • fixing the child’s daily achievements in a place accessible to
    parents so that they can familiarize themselves with them and once again praise
    your baby;
  • reading motivating tales;
  • role-playing games, the plot of which is the main fear of the child.
    Such stories can be drawn: the tutor says what to draw,
    and the child draws;
  • outdoor games, but not for speed.

Psychotherapy

Если тревожность выражена, correction anxiety у детей
necessarily includes classes with a psychotherapist. Depending on the
conditions of the child, the doctor may apply one or more
following methods:

  • group psychotherapy – group classes;
  • individual psychotherapy;
  • family psychotherapy – classes with all living with a child
    family members;
  • art therapy – various types of creative activities with
    a specialist;
  • Kanis-therapy – treatment by communication with specially trained
    dogs;
  • training of the child and parents in various relaxation
    technicians;
  • psychoanalysis;
  • hypnosis.

Drug treatment

In some cases, if anxiety existed for a long time and
assumed a threatening character, special
medications: antidepressants, sedatives, tranquilizers.
Such appointments are made only by a psychiatrist, and parents must
remember yourself and warn school teachers that taking such
drugs will be accompanied by some lethargy or
more calm reaction to ordinary stimuli. Teachers should
forgetting perhaps a personal dislike for the child, help keep him from
ridicule peers.

Автор: Кривега Мария Салаватовна врач-реаниматолог

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