Update: November 2018
Sinusitis – inflammation of the mucous membrane of the accessory
maxillary sinuses. The occurrence of this common
diseases associated with human viral infections,
infectious diseases such as influenza, measles (see symptoms
measles in adults) scarlet fever as a complication of sore throat, otitis and
other diseases of the upper respiratory tract, as well as diseases of the roots
molar upper teeth.
In recent years, cases of allergic
sinusitis, as well as cancer after treatment,
with helminthiases (see signs of worms in humans) and other
chronic diseases that reduce the body’s defenses.
Treatment of antritis with antibiotics should be only according to indications, in
complex treatment and is prescribed only by a doctor.
In most cases, self-medication is not safe,
may worsen the condition and slow down the healing process. Before
In total, you should be examined by a doctor who will establish
accurate diagnosis, cause of the disease and prescribe a comprehensive
Symptoms of sinusitis
If after some improvement after the flu or
colds appeared re-raising body temperature, worsened
general condition, shooting pains appeared with bowed head
down, with a light tapping in the region of the maxillary sinuses, you can
suspect the beginning of sinusitis. Reason for contacting a doctor
otolaryngologist are the following symptoms of sinusitis:
Read also on the topic:
- Review of all drugs for sinusitis
- Sinuforte from antritis – effective or not?
- Dolphin at the maxillary
- Symptoms of sinusitis у взрослых
- Nose drops with sinus
- 11 rules – how to take antibiotics
- How to treat sinusitis at home
- Заложен нос постоянно или периодически,
reduced sense of smell.
- Выделения из носа могут быть как обильными,
purulent, yellow-green, and transparent, in rare cases
they may be absent, this happens in case the sinuses are already
filled with pus and the discharge is very thick.
- Чувство давления, распирания, напряжения в
- Головная боль, усиливающаяся при наклоне тела
forward, upside down.
- Сильные боли в области лба, в области
maxillary sinuses, cheekbones, cheeks, localized in only one
half of the face, or in a bilateral process – on the entire facial
surface. In the acute process, the pain can be pronounced,
and in chronic sinusitis is not as intense, sometimes people
just experiencing pain in the eyes or headaches.
- Температура, при остром гайморите она может
be quite high, above 38C, with chronic most often
low-grade or normal.
- Общее состояние слабости, повышенной
fatigue. Due to nasal congestion, headaches
a person is disturbed by sound sleep, appetite decreases,
feeling of apathy, lethargy, depression develops.
Diagnosis of sinusitis
Anamnesis of the patient. Before making a diagnosis
the doctor analyzes the patient’s history, finds out the diseases that
preceded sinusitis (influenza, acute respiratory viral infections, otitis media, angina, inflammation
teeth of the upper jaw), a tendency to allergic manifestations
(pollinosis, urticaria, bronchial asthma, etc.), intolerance
food, drugs. To the factors provoking the development
- Reduced immunity due to any chronic illness,
allergic reactions, helminth infections, metabolic disorders
- The curvature of the nasal septum, impeding normal
nasal breathing, congenital anomalies of anatomical structures in
- Vasomotor, hypertrophic, allergic rhinitis, adenoids in
- Inadequate treatment of flu, colds, acute respiratory viral infections, rhinitis.
- Diseases and removal of the teeth of the upper jaw.
Рентгенологическая диагностика. For today
day the most reliable method for the diagnosis of sinusitis is still
остается рентгенологический, а при современной контрастной
tomography diagnostic accuracy increased significantly. Snapshot can
give information about the size, volume of the sinuses, their fullness of pus,
by air. Sometimes the doctor recommends x-rays in several
projections – lateral, nasal-chin or fronto-nasal. With
antiseptic on the pictures is marked blackout of a different nature,
this is due to the delay of the rays in an environment that is denser than
air. However, it should be remembered about the dangers of X-rays and CT (increases
thyroid cancer risk, etc.), paranasal sinuses x-ray
it is enough, and the radial load is minimal.
Пункция гайморовых пазух — это информативный
diagnostic method, but an outdated method for the treatment of sinusitis. Due to
possible complications (emphysema of the cheek, abscess of the orbit, embolism
blood vessels), soreness of the procedure and transition of sinusitis
in a chronic inflammatory process, it is carried out sufficiently
In connection with the use of the latest technologies for the treatment of sinusitis –
use of sinus catheter “Yamik”, laser therapy, herbal
drug Sinuforte (enhancing local immunity and excellent
cleansing sinus), decreased frequency using the puncture method
nasal sinusitis for its treatment and diagnosis.
Бактериологический посев мазка из носа — как
independent diagnostic method for determining sinusitis is or
no – not important. Conducting this diagnosis
it is advisable only to select an antibiotic for antritis, to which
pathogenic microorganisms would be susceptible.
When antibiotics are not used for antritis
First you need to determine the true cause of
antritis, its pathogen. As with some provoking
factors that cause sinusitis, antibiotic therapy can
prove to be not only ineffective, but also able to aggravate
inflammation, delay the healing process.
- If sinusitis occurs as a result of allergic manifestations,
then in this case, the use of antibiotics is not justified.
- In chronic rhinosinusitis, antritis associated with
fungal infection, as well as the reception of broad-spectrum antibiotics
action only sharpens the process.
- With viral infections, when with mild sinus
washing, inhalation and immunotherapy may help;
antibiotics are also not worth it.
When can you not do without antibiotics?
But with an acute bright process, with a high temperature,
severe general intoxication of the body is not viral
of origin, severe pain in the sinuses, purulent discharge
from the nose – taking oral antimicrobials or
intramuscular antibiotic injections are necessary.
What antibiotics are most effective?
The best antibiotic for sinusitis is the one for which according to the analysis
smear is sensitive pathogen inflammation. If in
72 hours after taking the antibiotic, visible relief
has come, means either to this drug from the pathogen
Resistance has been formed, or the cause of sinusitis is not
bacterial and fungal or allergic.
If sinusitis is caused by banal streptococcus, staphylococcus,
hemophilic bacilli, the following groups are used
- Пенициллины — наиболее предпочтительны,
since they have fewer side effects, they are easily tolerated,
but in cases of severe inflammation caused by
resistant to penicillin infections may
ineffective. Among them are Amoxicillin – (Amosin,
Flemoksinu solyutab), Ampicillin, amoxicillin with clavulan
Acid (trade names Augmentin, Amoxiclav, Flemoklav
Solyutab, Ecoclav, etc.)
- Макролиды — их применение оправдано при
intolerance to drugs of the penicillin series. Trade names
препаратов — Зитролид, Сумамед, Макропен, Кларитромицин.
- Цефалоспорины — эта группа антибиотиков
it is prescribed for severe inflammation and for the effectiveness of other
antimicrobial agents. These include – Ceftriaxone,
Cefotaxime, Cefuroxime, etc.
- Фторхинолоны — большинство бактерий еще не
managed to form resistance to these synthetic drugs,
therefore they are also used to treat sinusitis
(contraindicated in children). Antibiotics of this series – Ofloxacin,
Lomefloxacin, Ciprofloxacin (1st generation), Levofloxacin (2
generation), Moxifloxacin (3 generations).
- Местное лечение — каплями в нос с
antibiotic. Use of local, local antimicrobial sprays,
drops at the onset of the disease can help avoid oral or
intramuscular systemic use of antibacterial
broad-spectrum drugs with their inherent adverse
impact on the entire body. These drops include Isofra,
When choosing an antibiotic should be guided by individual
features of the patient, concomitant diseases, possible
allergic reactions to it. And most importantly, the selection is better
carry out taking into account smear microscopy and rapid assessment data
pathogen for Gram stain, otherwise the treatment of sinusitis
antibacterial agents may not be effective with
waste of time and money.