Anorexia disease is most often
associated with modern modeling business, with the desire of women
meet the standards of beauty. You can often find an opinion
that anorexia is a whim, not a disease: if a person wants to, and
he will immediately begin to eat normally. Unfortunately, it’s not that simple:
not for nothing that anorexia is considered one of the most deadly
Description of the problem
Latin name of the disease –
�”Anorexia nervosa” or “Nervous or psychogenic anorexia.”
The name comes from the ancient Greek words “Not” and “Appetite”, then
eat “lack of appetite.” Anorexia is an eating disorder.
behaviors in which there is a desire to lose weight, lose weight
by refusing food. The patient has a strong fear of recruitment.
weight, distorted perception of himself and his figure, the prosecution
внешности в their problems.
Anorexia is common in adolescent girls,
often observed in the so-called “honors”, always seeking
be the best and do everything perfectly. Parents of teens is important
remember that any jokes about the daughter’s figure or appearance can
turn into her refusal to eat: at this age girls are extremely
vulnerable, and the model business promotes as an ideal of beauty
anorexic shape type. Also причинами могут стать злые слова
classmates, ridicule of a loved one or other seeming
For the first time the definition of anorexia was given by English doctor Richard Morton.
in the seventeenth century. One of his patients was an 18-year-old girl who
For 2 years she suffered from the disease. Because of the many problems and
worries she lost her appetite, she was poorly fed, she had a strong
state of health worsened, frequent fainting began. Last has become
the reason for going to a doctor who consulted and healed
her. Dr. Morgan himself described the patient as a skeleton covered
However, many experts believe that
eating disorders have been encountered before. For example, in
Middle Ages, when the ideal of beauty was thin, pale,
emaciated saints, and asceticism and the rejection of earthly joys
propagated by the church, refusal to eat was perceived as
In the XIX century, with the advent of the Empire style, the natural
thinness and lightness. Not being able to “hide” behind a corset,
girls start to refuse food for their slim body, and
take vinegar to discourage eating. Also started
fashion for sentimental novels whose heroines are in the throes of love
lose their appetite. Young aristocrats, seeking to prove their
feelings also ceased to eat to look exhausted and
The fashion for “bones” returned in the late twentieth century in the 90s. The main
the representative is Kate Moss and her “heroin chic.”
Types of disease
Despite the same result, anorexia is divided into several
species. Depending on the classification, there are ways to
According to the mechanism of development there are:
- Neurotic anorexia:
lack of appetite caused by over-stimulation of the cerebral cortex.
The latter is most often caused by the experience of the strong, usually
- Neurodynamic: the cause is inhibition of the brain area,
responsible for the appetite. Usually caused by severe irritation.
non-emotional nature, for example, severe pain.
- Neuropsychiatric: This is anorexia nervosa. Ill willpower
refuses to eat or severely limits the diet. it самая
опасная разновидность, которая требует вмешательства
For reasons distinguish:
- Primary anorexia (or true): due to any external
the patient’s factor is actually lacking the desire to eat,
the work of the digestive center in the brain is disturbed. In other words,
a person understands that you need to eat, but cannot even do it
- Secondary (or false): the person convinced himself that he did not
need to eat. Often this is due to imposed ideals, striving
reduce body weight and get closer to the canons of beauty.
Causes of Primary Anorexia
They can be any disease affecting the center.
appetite of the brain, because of what the patient does not want to eat. The food becomes
противной для него. These include:
- Cancer (any).
- Tuberculosis or other chronic infections.
- Chronic pain syndrome.
- Различные заболевания Gastrointestinal tract.
- Pernicious anemia.
- Chronic renal failure.
- Malignant blood diseases (leukemia, lymphoma).
- Brain tumors, injuries, vascular disease, eclampsia (violation
- Mental disorders (psychosis, depression, schizophrenia) and
neurosis (anxiety, phobia).
- Некоторые заболевания зубов и полости mouth
- Alcoholism and drug addiction.
- Undergone surgery on the brain and spinal cord.
- Avitaminosis, poisoning by poison, taking certain drugs (genital
hormones, sedatives, antidepressants,
- A long coma.
There are usually several such reasons, and they manifest themselves in a complex manner.
- Personality factor: among the sick
anorexia often perfectionists (striving for the ideal
in all areas), self-doubt people or with low self-esteem,
possessing painful vanity. Often they are observed
accuracy, pedantry, inflexible thinking and refusal to go on
compromises. Often people suffer from anorexia
in love: they believe that no one is imperfect (i.e. complete)
love, including their parents.
- Ambient culture: imposing standards of beauty models,
the spread of stereotypes about the beauty of a thin body.
- External impact: experienced violence, severe stress,
for example, from the death of a loved one. The patient can choose
anorexia as a slow way to suicide, punishing the very
yourself for something or as a protest. For example, not wanting
to grow up, anorexic tends to remain a small child,
- Family: if there are patients among close relatives of a person
obese, alcoholics, drug addicts, patients with depression or having
eating disorders, chances are that
человек столкнется с anorexia. Example of a model isabel caro says
and about other effects: if parents are afraid that the child will grow up
and leave them, he may limit himself in food so as not to
become an adult and not upset mother and father.
- Age: most often at risk are young people.
it связано с тем, что они более внушаемы, не всегда могут понять
danger of their actions and calculate the risks of wrong
- Генетика: у the sick наблюдается ген 1р34 в 1 и 13 паре
chromosomes. Their action is activated by stress or abnormal
- Biological: early onset of menses, overweight, dysfunction
dopamine or serotonin, the lack of any substances (for example,
zinc). All this can lead to problems in eating behavior or
aggravate the existing disease.
List of symptoms
Early detection of the problem will allow faster treatment and
get rid of it with less consequences. Most symptoms
associated with eating disorder and easily detected
under close observation:
- The desire to lose weight at any cost, even
if the weight is already too low. Most unhealthy are chosen
methods: suspicious diets with a minimal amount of food
(for example, 2 apples a day), severe physical exertion.
- Fear of completeness, fear of getting better, the development of a phobia.
- Refusal of food or serious restriction of its quantity, deception
family (“already ate”, “not hungry”), throwing away food and leaving
- A sharp narrowing of interests: a person begins to be interested
only food, diets, calorie counting, physical
- Turning every meal into a ritual: beautiful serving
table, thorough chewing food, cutting into small
slices, use the smallest plates.
- Refusal of visits or cafes, where there will be food. In the cafe
A person can order only water, tea or coffee.
- Sometimes the patient begins to fanatically cook for the whole family,
seeks to feed everyone. He himself refuses to eat
- Constant exercise, sometimes
quite heavy (several hours a day). At the same time food
remains the same meager.
- A selection of loose, baggy clothes to hide weight loss.
Anorexic believes that in this way he hides folds and
- Use of tricks: drinking plenty of water
coffee and tea (to kill hunger), drinking cold water and opening
windows in the cold (to spend calories on heating the body), resorption
ice (instead of ice cream). Also анорексик может начать курить или
increase the number of cigarettes, use certain medications
(to reduce appetite or laxative effect).
- The desire to be alone, to be creative, to
kill time. it может быть написание рассказов или рисование,
the main character is often thin initially or strongly
thinner girl. Sometimes the heroine is Ana or Anorexia,
which “helps” the heroine to become perfect or is
motivator. Communication can move to the Internet, support
render familiar with thematic sites and groups in social networks.
- The feeling that all efforts are in vain, that nothing will change,
loss of control over life. At the same time most of the problems
associated with “overweight”: the absence of a loved one or
friends, problems at work.
- Refusal to admit his illness: a person considers himself fat even
with a strong lack of weight. If you ask him to draw himself,
Anorexic draws a figure several times thicker than himself and with
trying to prove wrong will deny it. With this conviction
defended violently, irritably, until aggression.
In addition to mental and behavioral signs, there are
physiological. The latter include:
- Weight loss of more than 30% of
norms. Often the figure “40 kg” appears – the majority seeks to it
- The appearance of soft vellus hair on the body.
- Frequent dizziness, weakness, fainting.
- Sleep disturbance – a person either sleeps too much or suffers
- Apathy, depression, reduced performance,
inability to concentrate, obsession with self-care and
- Disorder of the menstrual cycle (up to full
disappearance and subsequent infertility), decrease in sexual
- Poor circulation, low body temperature, feeling
constant cold, pallor, bruising. Fingers can
acquire a “marble” (bluish) hue due to lack of blood in
- Dry skin, problems with hair (fragility, dryness) and nails
(weak, constantly exfoliate), tooth decay, unpleasant smell
- Omission of the kidneys, liver and genital organs, internal dystrophy
organs and muscles.
- In some cases, there is a desire to punish themselves for
«лишнюю» еду или недостаток споmouth It may be an increase.
load or self-injury: cuts, burns,
Such signs become stronger over time, which
indicates the development of disease. As a result, anorexic can
die of cardiac arrest, cardiac muscle wasting or
complications in the work of any organ caused by lack
Anorexia proceeds in several stages, with the specified time
may vary and more often depend on individual characteristics.
For example, dissatisfaction with yourself can last 10 or more.
The patient goes through the following stages:
- Dysmorphic or
initial: this is the very first stage, which can last 2−4 years.
It begins with the emergence of dissatisfaction with their appearance, in
features weight and figure, frequent viewing yourself in the mirror
in search of flaws that become exaggerated.
Anorexic constantly finds new flaws, for which
humiliates himself (for example, calls names), loses interest to other parties
life, begins to limit yourself to food and stick to diets,
often stringent and unhealthy.
- Anorectic: this stage can last 1-2 years.
Restrictions on food are becoming longer and more serious, sick
tends to eat as limited as possible while increasing
exercise and taking laxatives or washing the stomach.
This leads to quick and significant weight loss (up to 50% of
primary). Lack of balanced nutrition and debilitating
workouts lead to breakdowns: unconscious absorption of food in
huge quantities. Recovering, Anorexic experiences remorse
and shame, believes that the breakdown was due to weak willpower, and
punishes himself. At this stage chronic diseases develop
death can come.
- Kahekticheskaya: the last stage. Weight loss becomes
critical (the patient weighs less than 50% of the norm, about 25-30 kg),
dystrophy of organs begins and develops, their work is disturbed.
Food ceases to be absorbed, and even if desired, anorexic is not in
able to start eating by myself. The stage lasts about six months and
often ends in death. If the patient or his family
they have time to consult a doctor, recovery is possible, but problems with
affected organs can survive for life.
Features of treatment
Depending on the type of illness, treatment will also vary:
so, with true anorexia, it is enough to get rid of the mass deficit
body and organ problems, a false one will require mandatory
Anorexia treatment aims to overcome 2
- Physiological: weight gain, recovery
normal functioning of the organs, getting rid of water shortages and
- Psychological: increase self-esteem, overcoming internal
problems, explaining the dangers of long starvation.
Depending on the time of circulation, overcoming the physiological
problems occurs either at home or in a hospital. In both cases
the patient gradually expands his diet, adds the necessary
products and vitamins, learns proper nutrition. In the hospital it is
may be accompanied by the introduction of insulin and glucose, atropine. Also
necessary physical therapy to avoid muscle wasting.
Depending on the type of anorexia, a doctor may be
- Vitamins and trace elements.
- Medicines to increase the appetite, including herbs: St. John’s Wort,
mint, wormwood, centaury.
- Preparations for the normalization of metabolism and recovery
- Antidepressants, sedatives or sleeping pills.
It is important to remember that anorexia is not treated only with pills or
by force feeding. Only an integrated approach, taking into account
individual characteristics of the patient will give the desired result. Even
a good psychologist will not be able to help if the anorexic problem is in
relationships with parents who have not changed or deteriorated.
Also необходимо регулярно наблюдаться у врачей, чтобы
get rid of possible problems with the affected organs.
Anorexia began to study not so long ago, and her “boom” fell on
последние 10−20 years old. Today in social networks is easy to find
groups and communities dedicated to her that praise beauty
fragile butterfly girls give advice on how to cheat
surrounding and clean up hunger. Models are given as examples.
or girls with ascetic (thin-boned) type of figure.
Below are a few facts about this.
- Anorexia is one of the most
fatal mental disorders: death occurs in 20%
cases. It comes not only because of exhaustion, but also because
- Even при оказании своевременной медицинской помощи
выздоровление наступает всего в 40−50% cases. Often anorexia
is replaced by other mental illnesses also associated with
- Most often, anorexia occurs in women with white skin and
latina. In total, 2% of all women are ill.
- The age of the “risk” is 12–26 years, however there are more
- Among the models of anorexics over 70%. Several professional
models died from the disease (Luisel and Eliana Ramos, Ana Carolina
Reston, Hila Elmaliyah, Isabel Caro), among them 14-year-old Mayara
Vieira (cardiac arrest) and male model Jeremy Glycer. All of them
weighed very little – no more than 40 kg with growth from 170 cm.
- Despite the fact that anorexia is considered exclusively female
the disease, anorexic men also exist, but they are few.
It is associated with other ideals of beauty, stronger nerves and
weaker social pressure. According to statistics of anorexic men
no more than 5% of the total number, of which more than half have
mental disorders, most often schizophrenia. Another quarter
male patients have sexual orientation and
obsessed with their own appearance.
- Refusal to eat can be associated not only with the desire to lose weight,
but also be a sign of any disease. For example, anorexia in
children are usually associated with allergies, otitis, worms, thrush,
rhinitis and other diseases.
- Since 2005, November 16 is the International Day to combat
anorexia. This year Israeli photographer Adi Barklan made a speech
proposal to ban models with anorexia, withdraw and
go to the podium. In 2012, his proposal became law in
- Anorexia is devoted to several books and films based on
real stories. Also против выступают лица, переболевшие ею,
for example, Isabel Caro. In 2007, she took part in
photo shoot “No anorexia”, in which everyone saw a very emaciated
25-year-old girl weighing only 28 kg. Also она выпустила книгу о
- It is believed that there are no former anorexics, and
that a person will still return to the desire to lose weight. It’s right
only in part: since the disease is more
psychological, relapse is always possible and often happens. Important
not just bring weight to normal, but for some time to work with
a psychologist, to work out the problem.
- Анорексия нередко сменяется булимией — неосознанным
overeating followed by laxatives and vomiting. it
the disease is no less dangerous and also deadly, but to recognize it
more difficult, because a person eats normally and looks good.
Anorexia is an extremely dangerous psychological disease,
characterized by high mortality. Almost every fifth
the patient eventually dies either from the disease itself or commits
suicide. Unfortunately, the effects of anorexia are sad:
only 50% of patients are completely cured, but the probability of recurrence
persists with them.