Anemia – symptoms and treatment, causes, types,prevention

Diseases of the blood system occupy one of the first positions on
prevalence in the overall structure of the incidence. Among them
безусловным лидером является анемия blood. A clear sign
anemia is pallor of the skin. A common cause of anemia is
human lack of iron that can be caused
frequent blood loss. In more detail what it is, what
symptoms, types and treatments of anemia, further in the article.

What is anemia

Анемия: что это такое

Anemia is a clinical and hematological syndrome that
characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin concentration in the blood, with
reducing the number of red blood cells.

Anemia weakens the body’s ability to exchange gas,
red blood cell reduction account violated transportation
oxygen and carbon dioxide. As a result, a person may
there are such signs of anemia as a feeling of constant fatigue,
loss of strength, drowsiness, and irritability.

Severe forms of anemia due to tissue hypoxia can cause
to serious complications such as shock conditions (for example,
hemorrhagic shock), hypotension, coronary or pulmonary

Hemoglobin values ​​in the framework of the allowable rate:

Adult men 140 g / l to 160 g / l
Adult women 120 g / l to 140 g / l
Pregnant The minimum threshold is 110 g / l
Children from 5 years From 115 g / l
Children under 5 years From 110 g / l

The reasons

There are no few reasons that can lead to development
anemia. As an independent disease, anemia rarely develops.
The most common trigger for the appearance of this syndrome
various diseases of internal organs become or
неблагоприятные факторы, которые повлияли на состав blood.

The basis of anemia is:

  1. Reducing the amount of hemoglobin;
  2. Reducing the number of red blood cells (occurs in most
  3. Signs of impaired blood supply to tissues and their hypoxia
    (oxygen starvation).

Anemia is dangerous and that develops often in combination with
diseases that can lead to serious consequences. TO
The number of such diseases, for example, are different
inflammatory and infectious diseases, malignant

Severe blood loss can also be the cause of anemia. Large
the number of red blood cells can be lost with blood during long or
unnoticed bleeding. Such bleeding often occurs in
diseases of the gastrointestinal system, such as ulcers,
hemorrhoids, gastritis (inflammation of the stomach) and cancer.

With a lack of oxygen that is carried by the bloodstream,
able to develop oxygen deprivation. This leads to dystrophy.
tissues and organs.

The cause of anemia may be an insufficient amount in the body.
iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid, and in rare cases, in
mainly in children, vitamin C and pyridoxine deficiency. These
substances are necessary for the formation of red blood cells in the body.

Symptoms of anemia

симптомы при анемии крови

Anemia is a dangerous condition. It is insidious, as the signs
iron deficiency does not appear immediately. In the initial stages of the body
first uses internal reserves and will try to cope with

Symptoms of anemia настолько разносторонние, что затрагивают
almost every functional system of the body. Their
severity depends on the degree of hemoglobin level reduction.

Therefore, the correct interpretation and comparison of existing
patient data will allow you to make the correct diagnosis even when
initial examination. The situation is quite different with the definition
specific type of anemia and its causes.

According to generally accepted criteria for anemia in men

  • decrease in hemoglobin from 130 g / l;
  • red blood cell level less than 4 * 1012 / l;
  • hematocrit is below 39%.

In women, these indicators are as follows:

  • hemoglobin below 120 g / l;
  • red blood cells less than 3.8 * 1012 g / l;
  • hematocrit – 36% and below.

TO общим симптомам анемии можно отнести:

  • weakness, a significant decrease in performance;
  • fatigue, irritability, drowsiness without
    visible reasons;
  • headaches, tinnitus, flickering “fly” before the eyes,
  • dysuric disorders;
  • geophagy (irrepressible desire to eat chalk or lime);
  • shortness of breath with light physical exertion or in calm
  • trophic disorders of hair, skin, nails;
  • pain in the heart area of ​​the type of angina pectoris;
  • fainting, tinnitus;
  • muscle weakness, body aches.

Explain what is anemia, and what are its signs in humans
can be on the skeleton of the hair condition. TOогда снижается концентрация
erythrocyte hemoglobin, hair loss, nails
become brittle.

In elderly patients with coronary heart disease, with
anemia, there is an increase in angina attacks, even after
small physical exertion.

Symptoms of anemia могут развиваться, как постепенно, так и
lightning fast It all depends on the cause of its occurrence.

Types of anemia

Anemias can be caused by completely different reasons, therefore
it is common to divide all anemias according to various criteria, including
reasons for their defiant.

All types of anemia in humans are divided into:

  • resulting from blood loss – post-hemorrhagic (acute
    and chronic);
  • developed as a result of violations of the creation of red blood cells or
    building hemoglobin: iron deficient, megaloblastic,
    sideroblastic, anemia of chronic diseases, aplastic;
  • caused by increased red blood cell destruction or
    hemoglobin – hemolytic.
Types of disease Description, symptoms and signs
Iron-deficiency anemia The most common type of blood anemia is because
diagnosed in 90% of patients. This type of anemia can frolic with
adverse living conditions, after surgery or injuries, in
которых произошла большая потеря blood.Проявляется головокружением,
noise in the ears, flashing flies before his eyes, shortness of breath,
heartbeat. Dry skin, paleness, in the corners of the mouth
ulcerations, cracks appear. Typical manifestations are
fragility and lamination of nails, their pepper striation.
Hemolytic  This type of anemia is a consequence of elevated
destruction of red blood cells. A characteristic sign of the disease –
гемолитическая желтуха и повышенный билирубин в blood. Can often
occur in newborns. The main reason is
rhesus-conflict of mother and newborn baby. The symptoms are
dizziness, weakness, fever, sometimes
feverish condition and chills. An increase in the spleen
(splenomegaly), in some cases the liver.
Sickle Cell  This is quite a serious disease that is transmitted.
by inheritance. Erythrocytes with this disease have
abnormal sickle shape. This causes anemia and, as
consequence, the occurrence of jaundice and slow blood flow.
B12 deficiency anemia  Manifested in the body with a lack of vitamin B12.
The deficiency is usually due to insufficient intake of it from
food, especially characteristic during diets, vegetarianism. Sign
B12-deficient anemia is the presence of red blood cells in the blood.
increased form. Distinctive symptoms of this type of anemia
is an:

  • tingling in hands and feet,
  • loss of sensation of limbs
  • gait disturbance,
  • muscle spasms.
Aplastic anemia of the blood With this type of disease, malfunction occurs.
bone marrow. TOостный мозг и содержащиеся в нем стволовые клетки
are responsible for producing red and white blood cells as well
тромбоцитов в blood. With aplastic anemia production
going down. Происходит уменьшение числа клеток в blood.
Megaloblastic anemia  Megaloblastic anemia представляет собой дефицит фолиевой
acid and vitamin B 12 in the body. These elements, like iron,
участвует в синтезе эритроцитов.Megaloblastic anemia симптомы,
which is associated with oxygen starvation of the body, accompanied by
following features:

  • general weakness in the body
  • dizziness and lethargy
  • characteristic headaches
  • shortness of breath and swelling of tissues
  • body discomfort
Chronic anemia  This is a condition in which significant
lower hemoglobin and / or decrease
эритроцитов в blood. It occurs because of insufficient
supplying organs with oxygen. The main symptoms of chronic
anemias are:

  • severe weakness;
  • pain in the heart;
  • dizziness;
  • irregular heartbeat;
  • bruises under the eyes;
  • increased fatigue.

Common symptoms of anemia of all kinds are:

  • weakness;
  • dizziness, “flies” before the eyes;
  • palpitations, shortness of breath with habitual physical exertion;
  • One of the main symptoms of anemia is pallor of the skin and mucous membranes.
  • in older people – the occurrence or increase in seizures
    angina pectoris;
  • clinical symptom of anemia in women of reproductive age –
    menstrual irregularities.


There are three degrees of anemia – mild, moderate and
heavy depending on the content of hemoglobin and red blood cells in
blood. The lower the numbers, the harder it will be and the shape of this
painful condition.

Severity Hemoglobin, g / l Erythrocytes, T / L
Lightweight > 100 г/л > 3 Т/л
Average 90 — 70 г/л 3 – 2 T / L
Heavy < 70 г/л
  1. Mild or anemia grade 1 is characterized by a decrease.
    hemoglobin up to 100-120 g / l. There are no symptoms at this stage.
    To increase hemoglobin it’s enough to eat right
    consume as much iron-containing foods as possible.
  2. Average или 2 стадия анемии сопровождается снижением
    hemoglobin up to 70-80 g / l. During this period, the symptoms of anemia are sufficient.
    expressed. A person feels weakness, frequent headaches,
    dizziness. Medicines will help increase hemoglobin
    and proper nutrition.
  3. Heavy, or stage 3 – life threatening. TOоличество
    hemoglobin in the blood below 70 g / l. At this stage, the patient feels
    disturbances in the work of the heart, the general condition is significantly deteriorated

TOроме степеней тяжести заболевания принято выделять:

  • relative anemia – more common during pregnancy
    or within significant blood loss, characterized by an increase
    blood plasma;
  • absolute anemia – a tangible decrease in the number of red blood cells and
    as a result, a decrease in performance hemoglobin.


The effects of anemia can be quite serious, in some
In some cases, it can even be fatal. More often
anemia causes such problems:

  • reduced immunity and, as a consequence, increased disease
  • the appearance of neurological disorders and even nervous deformities
  • leg swelling;
  • enlarged liver and spleen;
  • pathologies of the heart and blood vessels, etc.


Diagnostics анемии включает несколько важных этапов:

  1. Determining the type of anemia, that is, it is necessary to identify the mechanism
    which causes a decrease in red blood cell levels and
  2. Establishing the cause of the underlying anemic disease
  3. Conducting laboratory tests, interpretation of results
    obtained during the survey.

TOомплексное обследование при патологии включает в себя целый ряд
laboratory tests:

  • Общий анализ blood. TOровь берется из пальца, определяется
    уровень hemoglobin.
  • Полный анализ blood. This test allows you to determine the average
    the amount of hemoglobin in the blood cell and the amount
    reticulocytes. This makes it possible to judge the state of the bone.
    the brain.
  • Биохимический анализ blood. In this case, produce a fence.
    blood from a vein. This study allows you to determine the content in
    blood iron and bilirubin levels.
  • Additional research which aims to study
    condition of the gastrointestinal tract.

Для выявления анемии необходимо сдать общий анализ blood.
The main signs of anemia are deviations in such

  • hemoglobin in the blood does not reach 100 g / l;
  • red blood cells less than 4 * 1012 / l;
  • iron content in blood cells is less than 14.3 μmol / l.

If there are such deviations, more detailed research is needed.
крови для выявления конкретного вида anemia.

Treatment of blood anemia

Anemia due to decreased production of red blood cells and
arising from chronic diseases such as cancer, infections,
arthritis, kidney disease and hypothyroidism, often mild and not
requires special treatment. Treatment of the underlying disease should
beneficial effect on anemia. In some cases it is necessary
the abolition of hematopoietic drugs – antibiotics or
other chemotherapeutic agents.

Treatment of anemia depends on the cause of it.

  1. If a patient has one of the varieties of deficiency anemia,
    prescribe medicines high in iron and vitamins.
  2. With a large blood loss, when the problem is recently
    performed operations (including plastic), injuries and other
    причины, рекомендуется переливание blood.
  3. In children, anemia can cause worms, then prescribed
    antiparasitic drugs.

Drugs for anemia should be taken only on prescription.
So, an overdose of iron can lead to constipation, hemorrhoids, ulcers
stomach. In a situation where the results of laboratory studies
confirm the deficiency of anemia, the patient is assigned one
of the following drugs:

  • Sorbifer;
  • Ferrum-Lek;
  • Totem;
  • Maltofer;
  • Trapiferon.

The process of blood formation is most affected by:

  • iron, copper, zinc;
  • B vitamins;
  • vitamin C;
  • vitamins A, D, E.

Treatment should take place exclusively on the advice of a doctor.
you should not engage in self-treatment, especially during pregnancy,
when it is possible to expose a ripening child to additional risks.
Only after examining the doctor will be able to determine what caused

Folk remedies for anemia

Treatment is allowed folk remedies. However, most
popular recipes is reduced to the simple use of iron
vegetables and fruits. Changes in your diet are also worth agreeing to.
with a doctor. TO числу таких продуктов относятся красное мясо, бобовые,
egg yolks, whole grains and more.

  1. With a strong loss of strength it is useful to take a dining room before meals.
    spoon of garlic, boiled with honey.
  2. A teaspoon of inflorescences of meadow clover (red clover)
    Pour with 1 glass of hot water, boil for 5 minutes, strain.
    Take 1 tablespoon 4-5 times a day.
  3. 6 g of roots and herbs dandelion medicinal pour a glass
    water, boil for 10 minutes, insist 30 minutes, take
    tablespoon 3 times daily before meals.
  4. This recipe is a great combination of taste and benefit. TOаждый день
    before eating eat a small amount of grated carrots with
    adding sour cream.
  5. Rosehip fruit. 5 tablespoons of chopped fruit per 1 liter
    water. TOипятить 10 минут. Wrap up for the night. Drink like tea in any
    time of day with anything. Perfectly cleanses the circulatory system
    improves metabolism. The infusion is rich in vitamin “c” and is used.
    with anemia, scurvy, kidney and bladder disease, the patient
    печени, как тонизирующее средство.
  6. The infusion of the fruits of mountain ash is used as a multivitamin remedy
    with exhaustion and anemia. 2 teaspoons of fruits pour 2
    cups of boiling water, insist 1 hour, add sugar to taste and drink
    for 3-4 receptions during the day.
  7. Muesli is an additional source of iron. Morning breakfast with
    muesli contains biologically active substances that regularly
    accompany in the body the iron molecules found on their way.
    To improve the taste and value of such a quick breakfast.
    можно  в мюсли добавить фрукты и орехи.


Judging by the name of the disease, the patient needs iron correction in
blood. It is necessary to take into account the interaction of iron-containing products with
other components.

Useful products for anemia:

  1. meat, cream, butter – contain amino acids, proteins;
  2. beets, carrots, beans, peas, lentils, corn, tomatoes,
    fish, liver, oatmeal, apricots, beer and baker’s yeast –
    contain trace elements necessary for blood formation;
  3. green vegetables, salads and greens, breakfast cereals – contains
    enough folic acid;
  4. water from mineral springs with low mineralized
    iron sulfate-hydrocarbonate-magnesium composition of water that
    promotes the absorption of iron in ionized form by the body
    (for example: mineral springs of Uzhgorod);
  5. iron-fortified foods
    (confectionery, bread, baby food, etc.);
  6. honey – promotes iron absorption;
  7. plum juice – contains up to 3 mg of iron in one glass.

The menu is divided into 5 meals.

1st breakfast:

  • soft-boiled egg;
  • black sweet tea;
  • 2 liver pate sandwiches.

2nd breakfast: apple or pear.


  • fresh vegetable salad, seasoned with vegetable oil;
  • borscht with boiled meat;
  • a piece of chicken with buckwheat side dish;
  • decoction of wild rose.

Lunch: diluted pomegranate juice.


  • boiled fish with potatoes;
  • sweet tea with cookies.


Prevention некоторых видов анемий вполне реальна. This, in
first of all, iron deficient types. Often such anemia occurs
due to poor diet and lifestyle choices.
Therefore, it can be prevented by following the principles:

  1. Healthy lifestyle;
  2. Periodic medical examinations;
  3. Early treatment of chronic pathology;
  4. In order to prevent the development of anemia should be included in the diet
    foods rich in iron (whole grain bread, beans,
    green vegetables, lettuce, greens, red lean meat).

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