Androgenic alopecia in women and men: treatment,the reasons

Update: December 2018 Hair Loss – Bad Cosmetic
a defect that is difficult enough to hide from others. Exists
several reasons for increased hair loss, however, the most common
of them – androgenic alopecia, which in women it is less common,
than men. It is a hormonal disease that raises
the content of “male” hormones (androgens) or increases
sensitivity of skin cells to them.

What are androgens?

As already mentioned, these are the hormones that are needed for normal
work of the body and its development on the “male” type. Exactly
thanks to androgens in men:

  • stronger muscles than women;
  • rougher voice;
  • mammary glands are not developed;
  • specific hair distribution – beard, sideburns,
    chest hair, etc.

In small quantities, these hormones are contained in the female
the body. They are involved in maintaining normal sugar levels.
blood, regulate the work of estrogen (“female” hormones) and
perform a number of other metabolic functions.

Androgens are conventionally divided into strong and weak. To the first group
refers to testosterone. Its weakened counterpart is
dehydroepiandrosterone. In the development of alopecia, both these
hormone.

Why does

The life cycle of a hair is a rather complicated process that
regulated by a large number of hormones. It can be divided into
two stages:

  1. Growth phase It can last from 3 to 10 years. In it
    time, hair growth is stimulated by various substances that
    designate a single term – growth factors;
  2. Phase of involution or fallout. It should continue no less.
    100 days so that there is no cosmetic defect. It is important to note that
    Normally the hair follicle should not be damaged during this.
    stage. Only the root of the hair is subject to decay.

There is a special enzyme in the skin of the scalp (5-alpha
reductase), which turns androgens into active form
(Dihydrotestosterone). Because of this, they can affect both
stage of the life cycle of the hair.

If the amount of hormones increases above normal, or the cells
become more sensitive to them, androgenic arises
alopecia.  In the first phase, androgens block growth factors,
because of what the life cycle of the hair is significantly reduced (to
several months and even weeks). In the phase of involution, increased
hormone levels can damage the hair follicle that
manifested by increased hair loss.

Risk factors for hair loss

Currently, the following risk factors are identified:the reasons и лечение андрогенной alopecia

  • Male sex – it is reliably known that this hormonal disease
    occurs in men 4 times thicker than those of the weak
    sex;
  • Age – after 50 years, androgenic alopecia suffers
    every second man and every fourth woman;
  • Heredity – if the family had this disease or
    unexplained hair loss by one of close relatives,
    the probability of the development of this pathology in subsequent generations is about
    70-80%;
  • Hormonal stress – hormonal changes may
    cause in some patients. These conditions include:
    pregnancy; taking drugs containing male sex hormones;
    use of testosterone stimulants (as
    doping), etc. This is the most common cause of androgenic alopecia.
    men;
  • Damage / swelling of glands that produce sex hormones:
    • Hypothyroidism or hyperfunction;
    • Strengthening the function or tumor of the adrenal glands;
    • Hypo / hyperfunction of the gonads (testes or ovaries). To this
      group of causes include polycystic and ovarian scaling, orchitis,
      ovarit etc.

If you note the presence of one of the risk factors and characteristic
signs of androgenic alopecia, you should contact a dermatologist,
who will prescribe the necessary examination and confirm / deny
diagnosis.

Symptoms of Alopecia

The manifestations of this disease are somewhat different, depending on
gender, severity of symptoms and the presence of additional signs.
Но при ней поражаются волосы только лобной и теменной областей
heads. Exactly эти участки кожи наиболее чувствительны к мужским
hormones.

In women, the following symptoms may occur:

  • Hair thinning in parietal and frontal areas. Total loss
    hair is usually not observed;
  • Disruption of the menstrual cycle – androgens counteract
    female sex hormones, because of which the regulation is violated
    menstrual function in women;
  • Acne rash of any localization (typically – on the face and on
    back);
  • Hirsutism – hair growth in atypical for the female body
    places (on the chin, cheeks, chest, back, etc.).

In men, manifestations of this disease are usually limited to
hair loss in the frontal and parietal areas.

Diagnostics

The diagnosis can be made without laboratory diagnosis, since
parts of patients the content of hormones in the blood remains within
norms. If the doctor has doubts about the true
the reasons выпадения волос, можно исследовать следующие
indicators:

Indicator Norm Change in androgenic alopecia
Men Women
Testosterone 5.76-30.45 nmol / l 0.3-3.79 nmol / l Increases or is at the upper limit of normal
Free testosterone 19-143 pmol / l Less than 14 pmol / l
Dihydrotestosterone 0.85-3.36 nmol / l 0.1-1.6 nmol / l
Dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate 2.16-15.2 μmol / l 0.9-11.5 micromol / l
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (examined for suspected
adrenal or pituitary disease)
Less than 46 pg / ml

Для поиска the reasons андрогенной alopecia также можно использовать
instrumental methods: ultrasound of the adrenal glands or ovaries (in
women), brain CT and others. Unfortunately, in most
cases they are not informative.

Treatment

It should be noted that it is extremely long, expensive and time consuming.
process. Androgenic alopecia is difficult to treat, therefore
you must strictly observe the appointment of a dermatologist and regularly
use the necessary drugs. Unreasonable breaks or
improper use of drugs will make therapy
worthless.

Conservative therapy

Treatment у мужчин и женщин имеет существенные отличия. Because
the need for androgens in the male
above, do not use drugs that completely block
action of testosterone. Otherwise, it will cause
feminization (appearance of female sexual characteristics) of a man
impotence and disappearance of libido.

Funds for women are designed to completely block
androgen action. As a rule, therapy is supplemented with drugs.
female hormones (estrogen), which allows to increase its
efficiency.

Currently, the following treatment regimens are used:
hormonal disease:

Treatment у женщин Treatment у мужчин
  • Tsiproterona acetate (Tsiproteron-Teva);
  • Ethinyl Estradiol (Microfollin)

Combination drugs that include both of these acting
substances – Klymen, Chloe, Erica-35, Diane-35, Bellune-35, MODELL
PIUR Preference should be given to these drugs.

  • Finasteride (synonyms – Penester, Prosterid, Finast, Alfinale,
    Zerlon, Proscar, Finpros)

The course of treatment ranges from 1 to 2 years. Finasteride rarely
causes side effects such as impotence or reduction
libido.

At the same time it has high efficiency – stop
hair loss is possible in 80% of men.

Minoxidil (Kosilon, Alerana, Alopexy, Revasil, Generolon,
Регейн)  — это лекарство можно использовать у пациентов обоих
sexes, with the ineffectiveness of the above drugs. Him
есть важная особенность – Миноксидил не эффективен, если
болезнь продолжается дольше 5-ти лет
. The first effect from
treatment appears no earlier than 10 months after the onset
treatment.

Only the attending doctor can prescribe the exact treatment regimen.
after examining the patient and examining his hormonal background. With
the ineffectiveness of conservative treatment, there are other ways
коррекции андрогенной alopecia.

Surgery

The only way to get your hair back quickly is with a transplant.
hair follicles. Surgical treatment does not get rid of
from the disease, it has only a cosmetic effect, besides
temporary. To preserve transplanted hair, you must combine
transplantation with conservative therapy, which will appoint
dermatologist after consultation and laboratory examination.

Physiotherapy treatment

The only proven method of physiotherapy treatment is
special laser comb LaserComb HairMax. American
the FDA has conducted clinical trials of this device and
подтвердила его efficiency. In combination with the conservative
therapy, it is possible to achieve better results from treatment and in more
short time.

Modern methods of treatment

How to treat alopecia, if classical methods are ineffective? AT
In 2011, new therapies were developed that help
stop hair loss and stimulate their growth.

Первый способ – местное введение
botulinum toxin (botox) in the field of baldness. A course of treatment
makes only 2 injections, with an interval in half a year. This drug
increases blood circulation in the skin and reduces the effect locally
androgen cells. Side effects of this technique are not
discovered but widespread until now
not received. Withчина – трудности с внедрением новых технологий в
Russia;

ATторой способ – внутрикожное введение плазмы,
enriched with platelets. These cells improve the nutrition of the skin and
hair follicles activate hair growth factors. Method also
shows good results in the absence of negative action
on the body. Unfortunately, it is also not common in the Russian Federation.

Unfortunately, so far there is no optimal method
therapy of this hormonal disease. To gain control of it,
it is necessary to carry out doctor’s appointments accurately and in a timely manner
adjust therapy. If the patient needs to quickly achieve
results, he is recommended surgical treatment. However to
keep hair and prevent their subsequent loss, should
continue conservative treatment.

FAQ

ATопрос: Может ли возникнуть она у женщины после
childbirth?

Yes, since pregnancy and childbirth is stress for the body
which is accompanied by hormonal changes. With наличии
genetic predisposition, androgenic alopecia may
appear in a woman immediately after childbirth or after a certain time
(from several months to several years).

ATопрос: Можно ли ее вылечить?

You can’t get rid of this disease forever, because you don’t know
exact mechanisms of its development. However, in most cases, you can
temporarily stop hair loss and gain control
disease.

ATопрос: Можно ли вернуть волосы после длительного
the course of the disease?

After 5 years of the disease, alopecia is very poor
treatment. The best treatment method is transplantation.
hair follicles with the appointment of further therapy.

ATопрос: Перейдет ли андрогенная алопеция по
inheritance to children?

This possibility exists, however, to accurately answer this
the question is impossible.

ATопрос: Как предотвратить ее развитие?

AT настоящее время, эффективных средств профилактики этой
There is no hormonal disease.

ATопрос: Потеряю ли я все волосы из-за андрогенной
alopecia?

In men, complete hair loss will be only in the frontal and parietal
areas. In women in these areas will only be marked
thinning hair. Typically, the rest of the head
androgenic alopecia does not affect.

ATопрос: Препараты для ее лечения — это гормоны?
Do they have many side effects?

Not everyone. The only hormonal drug is included in the scheme.
therapies for women (this is Ethinyl Estradiol). Other medicines are
synthetic substances that have antiandrogenic
act.

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