Analysis of feces on the eggs of the worm: how to take, how manyis done

Update: October 2018 Standardized feces for eggs of the worm
medical research, which is assigned to adults and children.
Used to diagnose protozoa and helminth infections, pathogens
which are parasitic in the human gastrointestinal tract.

According to WHO, about 90% of the population is infected with one way or another.
helminthiasis. The most common are pinworms and roundworms.
Worm infestations are often asymptomatic, especially in people with
good immunity. But outwardly healthy person can easily
infect others with helminthiasis. Parasite eggs secreted in
external environment, begin their life cycle: hatched larvae
get into the organisms of intermediate hosts, which are
mollusks, fish, animals, and are already dangerous
a person who is ingested by food or
contact-domestic way. That is why eggs are worm and protozoa,
found in feces have an important diagnostic role. Besides,
the study is simple, not associated with pain or discomfort, requires
from the patient only simple preparation and correct sampling
feces

Как сдавать analysis kala на яйца глист и какие условия нужно
to follow in order for the study to be reliable, we will tell
in this article.

Indications for diagnosis

Сдавать analysis рекомендуется не реже 1 раза в год. Onиболее
topical research is for people with increased risk
helminth infections

  • permanent stay in a closed team (children
    preschool and school institutions, boarding schools, barracks and
    other);
  • lack of hygiene or the impossibility of their
    compliance (field work);
  • the use of river fish, meat, past insufficient
    heat treatment;
  • regular contact with farm animals
    (owners of private farmsteads, rural residents);
  • breeding dogs and work with them.

Stool analysis is included in the list of standard studies for
obtaining a medical certificate for visiting preschool children,
school and other institutions, as well as being appointed during
medical examinations:

  1. for admission to work;
  2. as part of a periodical nursing center of professionals working in
    health, education, catering and
    trade and some others.

Рекомендуется сдать analysis при появлении признаков
helminth infections:

  • weight loss for no apparent reason;
  • constant weakness, shortness of breath;
  • reduced performance;
  • poor sleep;
  • pain in the joints and muscles;
  • heaviness in the right hypochondrium;
  • nausea;
  • feeling of bitterness in the mouth;
  • intermittent abdominal pain, especially in the navel;
  • stool disorders – diarrhea or constipation;
  • pale skin and mucous membranes;
  • allergic phenomena: dermatitis, itchy skin, acne;
  • itching in the anus.

What helminth infections can be diagnosed in the study
kala

The most common are 3 groups of parasites, which
могут быть обнаружены при исследовании kala:

  1. roundworms (nematodes): roundworms, whipworms, necators,
    pinworms, duck heads duodenal ulcers;
  2. flukes (trematodes): schistosomes, liver and feline
    fluke;
  3. tapeworms (cestodes): bovine tapeworm, pork tapeworm, tapeworm
    wide.

Let us dwell on the features of the diagnosis of each
helminthiasis.

  • Ascariasis. Helminth eggs have a small size of 50-70 microns,
    oval and microscopic
    образца kala. However, the absence of acarid eggs in feces is not
    excludes this diagnosis: they can only be detected in the feces
    90 days after infection on condition of adult parasitism
    females.
  • Trichocephalosis. Swiping eggs, only 20-50 microns in size
    brown barrel can only be detected when
    микроскопии kala, но далеко не во всех случаях — заражение должно
    flow quite intensively. Therefore, the diagnosis is carried out
    repeatedly.
  • Necatorosis Helminth eggs appear in the feces after 2 months
    after infection, have a size of 30-60 microns.
  • Enterobiasis. Pinworm eggs are oval, colorless, flattened with
    one hand, have a size of 20-60 microns. Females lay huge
    the number of eggs (5-15 thousand), but it is problematic to catch them in feces,
    as for laying eggs, females crawl out of the intestines to the area
    the anus. Therefore, when screening for enterobiasis and worm eggs,
    found in the perianal imprint, and living specimens, visually
    visible in the feces, have a greater diagnostic value than
    исследование kala только на яйца гельминта.
  • Hookworm disease. Curved eggs are oval, colorless,
    transparent, 30-70 microns, have a thin smooth shell, in fresh
    feces found 2-8 balls of crushing. But reveal them pretty
    difficult, only during the laying of eggs by the female (up to 10
    thousand), when they, along with undigested food, go outside.
  • Schistosomiasis. The eggs are oval-shaped, the cap is missing. On
    The side surface has a small spike. The size of the eggs is 70-110 microns.
    Found in the feces after 1-3 months. after infection.
  • Opisthorchiasis. Hepatic fluke eggs have a regular oval
    shape, size 70-145 microns, smooth shell with a small cap.
    Flat tubercle visible on the opposite pole, in the cavity of the egg –
    uniform yolk cells. Found in feces after 30-40
    days after infection, the number of eggs per gr. feces for
    установки степени diseases. Feline fluke eggs are very small,
    10-20 microns, oval, with a thin shell, more tapering to
    pole, with a cap. On противоположном полюсе имеется шипик.
    There is a fine-grained content.
  • Teniarinhoz, tenioz. For the diagnosis of bovine and porcine tapeworm
    a study of feces on the eggs, as well as fragments of the body of the worm.
    Eggs are round, 20-40 microns, have 2 filamentous processes, inside –
    embryo oncosphere. Differential diagnosis is performed,
    since the eggs of two types of chains are similar to each other.
  • Diphyllobothriasis. Eggs of a tapeworm of wide 45-70 microns, oval
    form, yellow or brown. On одном полюсе имеется
    cap on the other – bump. Inside the egg is
    coarse content.

In most cases, additional studies are assigned and
diagnostic methods to confirm the diagnosis: blood ELISA,
hemoscanning, retro-romanoscopy, colonoscopy, research
duodenal juice, coprooscopy – detection of joints and
proglottids in feces and perianal region and others.

How to prepare for the study and properly assemble
analysis

Preparation for the study

It is not recommended to eat liver (beef, pork), mushrooms, bran,
pickled foods, soda, as well as a large number
фруктов, ягод и овощей за пару дней до analysisа. In the treatment of
antibiotics feces can be taken only a week after
completion of taking the drug. It should also be from any
potent drugs except vital
necessary.

Do not use laxatives, petroleum jelly, oil for
in order to cause defecation, as well as use sorbents. Behind
the day before the feces should drink more water, keep an active way
life, do a walk at night and a circular massage of the abdomen (especially
in children). You can take a warm bath. Do not need before stool
take water treatments (wash).

Where to collect feces

Defecation should be done in a clean plastic container.
(disposable plate, plastic bag, etc.). If feces
going to a child, you can use a regular pot for
making a bowel movement, but wash it thoroughly with hot water.

You can not urinate in the feces – you need to urinate
defecation.

How much does kala need

Для analysisа собирают утренний кал в приблизительном объеме 50 гр
(if the stool is liquid – not less than 5 ml). It is advisable to take samples from different
parts of fecal masses. If on the surface of feces visually
visible creeping worms, they should be placed in a container
with feces.

If defecation occurs in the evening, feces are collected and put
a container that is stored in the refrigerator until morning (see below).

Capacity

To collect feces you need to prepare a clean glass container.
or plastic. Also for these purposes, special pharmacies are sold in pharmacies.
disposable containers with a tight screw cap, inside
which is a spoon for the collection of feces.

What to select cal

Collect feces should be using ordinary disposable plastic
spoons, which after use must be thrown out. Not worth it
use chips, matches, toothpicks, wooden sticks for
drinks, cotton swabs – microfibers can get into feces and
complicate the study. Moreover, you can not use dining
appliances and other items reusable.

Особенности analysisа kala у маленьких детей

If you need to collect feces from a small child up to a year
take the stool from the diaper, although this option is definitely
the easiest for mom. It is necessary to lay out the baby on a clean diaper on
time about when a bowel movement should occur. If the child is already
crawls or walks, you should wear regular panties and watch for
the appearance of signs of defecation (grunting, straining, etc.).

How to store

If the material does not work right away to the lab,
the container with the feces is closed with a lid and stored in the refrigerator,
wrapped in a package, with t from 0 to 4 C, separately from others
products.

How much to store

В идеале – не более 8 hours In medical institutions for
сохранения материала иногда используется preservative. However the most
reliable results will be if you deliver the material to the laboratory
within 35-40 minutes.

How old is cal

Subject to the temperature regime feces sample may
stored up to 8 hours (taking into account the time of transport to
laboratories).

Где сдать analysis kala?

The analysis of feces on the eggs of the worm can be passed in any medical
an institution, public or private, where there is a laboratory,
выполняющая данный вид research. Onправление на analysis следует
get from the district nurse or in the pre-hospital room.

Сколько действителен analysis?

Срок analysisа составляет 10 дней с даты выдачи результата (дата
indicated on the form). По истечении 10 дней analysis придется
retake.

Сколько is done analysis каловых масс на яйца глист

The very next day you can get research results as well
with a small lab load – on the same day, after a couple
hours As a rule, the analysis of feces on the eggs of the worm is not appointed by
cito, with the exception of emergency cases when the patient needs
urgently hospitalize in specialized medical
institution, and this study is mandatory for
directions to the hospital.

How much analysis is being prepared and how is it carried out under
laboratories

If possible, stool samples immediately go to work or
placed in appropriate temperature conditions before starting
research. In some cases, can be used
preservative. Sample preparation and features of the study
depend on the method used.

  1. Macroscopic methods are used to detect mature
    helminths or their fragments with a magnifying glass, stereoscope. Tweezers
    remove from the surface of feces all suspicious formations on
    Petri dish, examine them through a magnifying glass and under a microscope between
    glass slides.
  2. Thick smear method. A thin layer of stool sample is examined.
    on a slide under a special hygroscopic cellophane,
    which is impregnated with phenol, glycerin and malachite green. On
    the glass is applied a sample of feces the size of a pea, pounded
    glass rod and covered with cellophane strips,
    cleared for half an hour. With such training you can
    view 30 times more drugs.
  3. Sedimentation method (sedimentation). The basis is the difference
    specific weight of reagents and helminth eggs, which are concentrated
    in the draft. The precipitate is obtained using a centrifuge and further
    examined under a microscope. Also apply modified
    sedimentation methods with the “Real” mini-system and disposable
    “PARASEP” concentrators.
  4. Method for the study of feces using flotation
    solutions. The method is based on the difference in the specific weight of eggs.
    helminth and flotation solution – helminth eggs float and
    concentrated in the surface film. Next, the film is examined
    under the microscope.

Perianal prints

Eggs of pinworms and tapeworms parasitizing in the intestine can be detected
microscopy of prints from the skin near the anus.

Before the analysis, you can not hold the toilet area of ​​the anus, as well
It is unacceptable to conduct a study after an act of defecation. Optimal
– in the morning immediately after waking up. To take the analysis is used
adhesive tape that is pressed against the anus area with a sticky side
for 1-2 seconds and then smoothly glued onto the slide.
The edges of the film, protruding at the edges of the glass, cut.

Most often, the study is conducted in children, and prints are removed
parents – glass and tape issued by a nurse clinic or
kindergarten. No more scraping is allowed for enterobiasis.
8 hours, ensuring a storage temperature not exceeding 4 degrees
(in a refrigerator). Исследуются under the microscope.

Analysis of feces for the simplest

Identifying and differentiating protozoa in feces are complex.
challenge Unicellular organisms can be detected in feces in
two forms: vegetative (trophozoite) – vital, mobile
and unstable to temperature changes and external influences and in
form of cysts (oocysts) – dormant forms that survive well even in
adverse conditions. In decorated kale protozoa mainly
can be detected in the encysted state. To “catch”
vegetative form, feces need to explore more in a warm condition.
Vegetative forms of protozoa quickly perish in the cooled feces,
exposed to proteolytic enzymes and lose
characteristic features of its structure. When cooling fecal masses
the mobility of protozoa decreases first and then completely
disappears – and this is an important diagnostic sign.

In feces, you can find up to 20 types of the simplest of 4 groups:
amoebae flagellates ciliated and coccidia that inhabit
intestine (thin and thick). However, for accurate diagnosis
only this study is not enough – the most revealing
analysis is the determination of specific antibodies in the blood
the patient.

Consider the most common types of protozoa that can
be detected in feces.

View Features of parasitism Detection in feces
Entamoeba histolytica (dysenteric amoeba), amoeba class Causes amebiasis, amebic dysenteric colitis and parasitic
large intestine. Most amoebas are not pathogenic for humans,
therefore, detection of cyst alone is not a reason for
making a diagnosis. Detection is diagnostic
hematophagous trophozoites.
With liquid feces excreted in the form of a trophozoite, in
decorated kale – in the form of cysts.
Lamblia intestinalis (lamblia), flagellate class Parasitic in the small intestine (usually in the duodenum) and in
gall bladder. Vegetative form Giardia parasitizes only in
in a liquid medium, in the colon the protozoa are encysted.
With profuse diarrhea in the feces can be detected
vegetative forms, and in decorated – only cysts.
Balantidium coli (balantidia), class ciliated The infusoria parasitizes the human intestine and causes
diseases of varying severity.
Found in the feces in the form of trophozoites and cysts.
Cryptosporidium (cryptosporidia)

Obligate parasites that affect mucus microvilli
respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract (distal part of the small intestine).
They are considered the main causative agents of diarrhea.

The most pathogenic species are Cryptosporidium parvum and felis.

Oocysts are found in feces, especially in the acute period.
diseases.

Preparation for analysis is similar to that described above.
feces on helminths. In a hospital, if possible
patients donate to the laboratory a fresh, warm stool in which
the highest probability of detecting vegetative pathogens
provided that the material immediately goes to work.

For accurate results or confirmation of diagnosis
it may be necessary to repeat, repeat the analysis through
several days (4-5). If a family member has a case
worm infestation, pass stool analysis and other studies, as well as
All family members should receive prophylactic treatment. it
due to the fact that in the domestic conditions helminthiasis is very fast
spreads. In addition, prophylactic treatment should be
conducted in respect of pets – cats and dogs.

Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог

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