Allergy to dust: symptoms, causes, what to do,treatment, prevention

Update: December 2018

ATокруг каждого человека постоянно присутствует один аллерген,
Regardless of the season, place and lifestyle. it пыль. Her
microscopic particles in huge numbers are in
apartments, houses, on the streets of any cities, towns, etc. Even with
slight impact on the “dusty” area, particles
lifted into the air and can be inhaled by humans. Most of
population will not notice their presence in the upper respiratory tract
(nose, oropharynx) or react with several episodes of sneezing.
However, in the body, 9-14% of people will develop an inflammatory response.
called “allergies.”

The reasons

Despite the fact that almost all people are equally in contact
with dust, allergic diseases do not occur in all. AT чем причина
such selectivity? AT настоящее время установлено – склонность к
these pathologies develop due to genetic peculiarities
immunity. The person is allergic, the blood content is increased
определенных антител (иммуноглобулинов Е), which отвечают за
development of inflammation on contact with dust particles. Other
no significant cause of allergy has been identified.

How to find out the propensity to allergies? AT первую
turn, should assess its presence among relatives (parents,
brothers and sisters, older generations). Also существует лабораторный
method of identifying allergies, even before the first symptoms. it
оценка количества IG (иммуноглобулинов)  Е. Он используется
quite rarely, because it does not allow to determine the substance
causing disease. IG E rate depends on age:

  • Newborns (first month of life) – up to 2 kU / l;
  • 2-6 months – up to 10 kE / l;
  • Up to a year – less than 20 kE / l;
  • 2-10 years – no more than 60 kE / l;
  • Above 12 years old – less than 100 kE / l.

It should be noted that dust can be household (located in
within the premises) and production (source – any exhaust
gases, factory emissions, etc.). They существенно отличаются по
составу, однако симптомы аллергических болезней, which они
cause almost identical.

Symptoms

How does an allergy manifest itself?  There are 6 main forms with
various symptoms. Which of them will be observed in a patient
depends on the amount of allergen (in this case dust) and the place
where it goes (eyes, skin, or respiratory tract). Any
allergic disease flows periodically – exacerbations are replaced
remissions (moments of complete health). Children often observed
combination of several forms.

Allergic Conjunctivitis

it воспаление глаз, вызванное развитием allergies. because of
constant contact with household dust, conjunctivitis often
lasts all year round, regardless of the season.  Disease can
have a mild, moderate or severe course, which is determined
the severity of the following symptoms:

  • Conjunctival hyperemia – clearly on the front surface of the eye
    видны капилляры и покраснение участков склеры вокруг нихаллергия на пыль;
  • Tearing – with mild / moderate rather scarce.
    Constant discharge of tears for several hours is observed.
    with severe conjunctivitis;
  • Redness and swelling of the eyelids – the eye may partially or completely
    �”Close” only when severe. Most often, swelling is pronounced
    slightly;
  • Swelling of the entire face area – this symptom occurs when severe
    allergic conjunctivitis without treatment or against
    angioedema;
  • The presence of grayish-yellow dots along the edges of the eye (Horner spots) –
    a symptom that occurs only with keratoconjunctivitis. Often
    accompanied by pallor, not redness of the eyes.

If the inflammation has an allergic nature – almost always
two eyes are affected. Symptoms, как правило, обостряются в
indoors or on a dusty street, which is also
diagnostic sign

See Eye drops for allergies.

Allergic rhinitis

The most common form of house dust allergy. Manifests itself
typical signs of irritation of the nasal mucosa: sneezing, copious
release of watery clear fluid (rhinorrhea) and itching. AT
in some cases, instead of rhinorrhea, there is a congestion that
decreases in the absence of contact with dust (for example, in fresh
air). The condition of patients with allergic rhinitis, as a rule,
improves at night. it связано с повышением выделением
anti-inflammatory hormones (cortisol, hydrocortisone) into this
time.

The change in the nature of the discharge of fluid from the nose can
to indicate adherence to infection. At the same time, she
becomes yellow / green, more viscous and viscous. With
the occurrence of these symptoms should be referred to a doctor who
will adjust the treatment. Read more about how to treat allergic
rhinitis.

Atopic dermatitis (eczema)

This skin lesion develops gradually, starting early
age Often, экзема возникает из-за пищевого аллергена, однако
dust can also be a trigger. Typical symptoms
Atopic dermatitis are:

  1. Itching of the affected areas of the body occurs predominantly when
    exacerbations. Increases during contact with dust, after stress and
    impact annoying substances (alcohol, acetic acid,
    saline, etc.);
  2. Peeling / ulceration – up to 9-12 years are more often formed
    weeping, but painless ulcers on the affected skin. ATо взрослом
    aged peeling, which delivers pronounced
    the discomfort;

Типичное расположение экземы. It is several
изменяется, в зависимости от age In children under 12 years old
atopic dermatitis is often localized in the joints, on
lateral surfaces of the legs and face. Adult eczema
mainly located on the upper half of the body, arms, neck
and nape.

  1. Dry skin – this symptom occurs due to damage.
    capillaries allergic inflammation. It is observed, as a rule,
    adults and children after 12 years;
  2. White dermographism – this feature is verified as follows
    way: on eczema-affected skin they press down with a transparent ruler
    and wait 20 seconds. If it remains white more than 2 minutes after
    impact is a sign of atopic dermatitis;
  3. ATоспаление губ и окружающей их кожи (хейлит).

Finding the above symptoms, you should evaluate the degree of their
expressiveness. itт нюанс оказывает существенное влияние на лечение
eczema

Read more about the symptoms and treatment of dermatitis.

Hives

it форма аллергии, диагностика которой проводится только по
examination of the patient. With обнаружении следующих признаков, можно
claim urticaria:

Symptom Symptom characteristic
ATолдыри

As a rule, different sizes. ATокруг волдыря наблюдается
redness of the skin. Often на этом участке наблюдается зуд/жжение.

An obligatory symptom of urticaria is the disappearance of the blister.
within 24-30 hours.

Edema

Edematous areas are quite painful, but not accompanied
itching. Redness is also quite rare.

If it is a urticaria, edema should disappear within 3 days.

Reddish brown spots on the skin With расчесывании, на их месте возникают волдыри. itт симптом
is a sign of the pigment type of urticaria.

As a rule, the disease develops acutely and with the elimination of contact
with a lot of allergen (in this case dust), rarely
occurs again. You can determine the allergen using special
laboratory methods. Read more about symptoms and treatment.
urticaria.

Angioedema

Allergies to dust rarely cause this disease, however such
there are cases. She is, как правило, имеет легкое течение и может
take place with adequate treatment for 20 hours. Main
symptom – the appearance of edema with different location (often on the face
and hands). ATнутренние органы (гортань, бронхи, кишечник) практически
not affected by exposure to dust, so the prognosis for the patient
favorable.

Edema при этой форме имеет следующие признаки:

  • The skin above it is hot, there is marked redness;
  • Develops gradually – from several hours to days;
  • Disappears quickly when hormone treatment starts.
    (glucocorticosteroids);
  • In every second patient, accompanied by a urticaria.

Despite the high probability of a favorable outcome,
be alert to possible complications (laryngeal edema
and choking). With подозрении на ангиоотек следует обратиться к доктору
as soon as possible.

The last form of allergy is anaphylactic shock, however
The development of this disease due to the action of dust is unknown.

Diagnostics

In addition to clarifying the hereditary predisposition (presence
illness from relatives), the collection of complaints and examination of the patient,
A number of additional studies are being performed. With their help it is possible
confirm the allergic nature of the disease and find out the provocative
factor (allergen).

AT первую очередь проводят обычный (клинический) анализ крови, в
which should pay attention to the number of eosinophils.
Повышение  их уровня выше 0,3*109/л (или более 5%
on white blood cell count) is an indirect sign of
allergies. Also может быть незначительно увеличено СОЭ (в пределах
15-25).

Analyzes of urine and feces do not help in the diagnosis, as they often
remain normal. Biochemistry of venous blood also does not allow
сделать вывод о природе diseases.

The most informative way are allergy tests.
determining factors leading to aggravation. Withнцип их проведения
один – на кожу наносятся различные вещества, which наиболее часто
cause allergies (household and industrial dust, pollen, etc.),
and analyze the skin reaction. If there are signs of inflammation
(redness, vial or puffiness) – allergy test is positive.
Contraindications to the study: exacerbation of the disease or
the presence of skin infections in the study area.

AT настоящее время, используется 3 основные методики:

Allergy test method How is it done? Feature of the method
Withк-тест

The forearm of the patient is rubbed with alcohol for disinfection, after
чего медсестра наносит по 1-2 капле различных allergens. Through
drops, a special instrument makes an easy injection (no deeper than
by 1 mm).

The presence of allergies is confirmed if around the injection appears
plot redness, larger than 3 mm.

Considered the “gold standard” among allergic samples, because
minimal allergen ingress into the body. Probability of false
The results are extremely small.
Scarification

After processing the forearm, small rows are made in several rows.
�”Scraping” the skin. On each of them drip solutions of different
allergens.

The appearance of signs of “hyperinflammation” – a bubble or extensive
redness indicates the patient’s allergy to the substance.

It is used when it is not possible to perform a prick test.
Probability of false реакций около 10-15%.
Application После дезинфекции, на кожу наносятся  капли различных
allergens, no scrapings, pricks, etc. The reaction is counted through
10 minutes.
The technique is assigned to patients with moderate / severe atopic
dermatitis or severe allergen reaction.

If the above methods fail to install
allergen, should be applied “provocative” samples. Principle of the method
– apply a certain concentration of irritant to
affected area (rhinitis – nasal mucosa, food allergies – under
tongue, conjunctivitis – mucous eyes). To confirm the reaction
the body on the dust using nasal administration (in the nose) and
conjunctival. It should be noted that the provocative sample
is performed only by an allergist who will provide adequate
helping the patient with a strong allergen response.

Treatment

What to do if you are allergic to dust? Need to contact
a doctor who will prescribe a comprehensive treatment. Firstly,
contact with dust should be minimized. Recommended
carry out regular cleaning of the place of residence, including washing
floors and all horizontal surfaces (cabinets, cabinets,
fireplaces, household appliances, etc.), wet carpet cleaning and
airing the premises. Once every 10-14 days should be changed
linens. Down pillows and blankets are recommended to be replaced.
on their synthetic counterparts, since they are hypoallergenic. Also
positive effect is observed with daily use
humidifiers.

The listed events concern only household dust –
remains “street” and production. This nuance is hard enough
to adjust. If the profession of the patient is associated with a permanent
allergic contact, it is better to change the place of work (in the presence of
such a possibility). Other adequate recommendations, unfortunately,
not.

Barrier drugs

Currently, sprays are developed that create thin
a protective layer on the nasal mucosa. This barrier prevents settling
allergen and does not allow to develop an inflammatory reaction. AT
Russia, the most common representatives are
Nazaval Plus and Prevalin. The disadvantages of this group are as follows:
the need for repeated use (due to “flushing”
protective layer of the normal mucous secretion), the effectiveness of only
for the prevention and treatment of the initial manifestations of allergic
rhinitis.

General drug therapy

Treatment аллергии на пыль проводится препаратами общего и
local character. The first group includes the following
medication:

  • Blockers to histamine receptors of the first type. They
    reduce / eliminate symptoms, preventing release
    inflammatory substances (mediators) in the blood. The most effective
    (but rather expensive) representatives: Loratadine, Fexofenadine,
    Desloratodine, Cetirizine. Low-cost, but less effective analogues:
    Suprastin, Dimedrol, Clemastine (synonym – Tavegil);
  • Membrane-stabilizing drugs. Used with weak
    effect of histamine blockers. The most common drug
    – Ketotifen.

Severe any allergic disease is
indications for the use of hormone analogues
(glucocorticosteroids) of the adrenal glands. Use them only
according to the scheme prescribed by the doctor to avoid complications. AT
clinical practice, prednisolone, dexamethasone and
Hydrocortisone.

What can not be done? It should be remembered a number of simple
Allergy Treatment Rules:

  • It is not recommended to use hormones that are used.
    by injection or by the addition of any infection
    (ARI, bacterial / viral conjunctivitis, pyelonephritis, etc.). it
    can lead to increased reproduction of microorganisms and
    disease progression;
  • To use antibiotics on the background of allergy does not make sense.
    Such treatment will only lead to dysbiosis;
  • Do not plan surgery on the affected organ (eyes
    with conjunctivitis, septum or sinuses with rhinitis and
    other) during the exacerbation of the disease.

Local Drug Therapy

In addition to treatment of a general nature, should be affected
directly on the inflamed place. Choose treatment to
Only the attending therapist / allergist can handle a specific patient.
Exemplary diagrams for various allergic diseases are presented.
below:

Form of allergy Treatment regimen
Conjunctivitis Membrane stabilizing drugs in drops:

  • Ketotifen;
  • Azelastine;
  • Cromohexal;
  • Lecrolin

AT качестве альтернативы, можно использовать комбинированные
drugs (Okumetil, Betadrin).

When conjunctivitis moderate / severe prescribed
Hydrocortisone or Dexamethasone in drops. it глюкокортикостероиды,
which virtually no side effects when local
application.

Rhinitis

Membrane stabilizers drugs in the form of sprays or nasal
drops – Kromoglikat;

Histamine receptor blockers:

  • Levocabastin (synonym Hisist) – nasal drops;
  • Azelastine – spray.

Glucocorticosteroids in spray:

  • Beclomethasone (synonym Nasobek);
  • Budesonide (Tafen Nazal);
  • Fluticasone (Nazarel).

See list of all nose drops and allergy sprays.

Atopic dermatitis (eczema)

Antiseptics, including silver salts (Argosulfan). These
medicines are available in the form of a cream.

Ointment with glucocorticosteroid (Dexamethasone).

Physical therapy with ultraviolet light (option – adequate courses
tanning bed).

Therapy for urticaria and angioedema is limited
using only common drugs. Allergies in children and
an adult is treated according to similar schemes – essentially
only dosages change.

As a rule, the patient is hospitalized only for severe
diseases. AT остальных случаях, терапия проводится «на дому» до
elimination of symptoms.

Specific immunotherapy (SIT)

If, after adequate treatment, allergies are difficult to control
patient (frequent spontaneous exacerbations, reduced effectiveness
drugs), he is recommended to undergo a special course of immunotherapy.
With it, it is possible to prevent the development of inflammation, even with
heavy dust.

Principle of the method прост. AT организм вводят аллерген в очень
small doses 2-3 times a week (classic method) or 3 times a
day (accelerated method). Gradually its quantity increases,
so that the body “gets used” and does not produce
Immunoglobulin E. After the end of the course, allergy does not bother
patient for 3-6 years.

Routine immunotherapy takes, on average, 3 years. Accelerated
the method involves the introduction of an allergen in 2 weeks, however
the likelihood of adverse reactions.

Exacerbation prevention

Allergies always occur periodically – periods of complete
health are replaced by exacerbations. To prevent most of
them, it is enough to follow simple recommendations:

  • Reduce the likelihood of contact with dust (described in detail at the beginning
    section of treatment). Let us list again the most important events:

    • Regular wet cleaning in the apartment / house wiping all
      horizontal surfaces;
    • Constant airing and humidification of the air;
    • Replacing pillows, blankets, mattresses from natural materials to
      synthetics;
    • Regular changing and washing of bed linen;
    • If there are carpets on the wall, they are strongly recommended.
      remove;
    • Floor carpets can be left if they are done regularly.
      wet cleaning.
  • In the presence of allergies mainly on “street” dust,
    consult a doctor and undergo a preventive course of treatment in the spring and
    summer;
  • If the patient lives in a dry climate, it is recommended two times per
    year (minimum – 1) to make trips to the sea;
  • SIT.

Adherence to the hypoallergenic diet is not necessary if the patient
allergic to dust only. it совершенно разные факторы,
therefore, they cannot cause cross-reactions.

Dust allergy is a feature of immunity in which
the person reacts with inflammation to contact with dust particles. She is
may manifest in various forms. With adequate therapy, their
can be cured within 2 weeks (exception – eczema).
It’s impossible to completely get rid of allergic reactions, however
it is quite possible to reduce the number of exacerbations, using easy
prophylaxis.

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