Update: November 2018
Salmonellosis is an acute infectious intestinal disease,
the pathogens of which are different types of bacteria of the genus
Salmonella. Salmonella affects the gastrointestinal tract, sometimes
may occur with typhoid-like symptoms, less commonly as
generalized septic forms.
Medicine knows about 2 thousand serovars (varieties)
Salmonella, however, in our camp only 500 species provoke
intestinal diseases in humans. Causative agents of salmonellosis
extremely resistant to low temperatures as well
other manifestations of the external environment.
In animal excrements, these bacteria are able to persist in
for three years, in reservoirs up to four months, in dairy
products up to 20 days. Many strains of Salmonella are resistant to
antibiotics, but easily die from chlorine-containing
Ways of Salmonellosis Transmission
Farm animals are considered the primary source of infection.
– cattle, pigs, horses, sheep, and also waterfowl
wild birds whose salmonellosis is asymptomatic. These
animals for years are able to excrete the pathogen with urine, faeces,
milk, saliva and being a source of infection for a person
ухаживающего за ними, при транспортировке, обработке и
storage carcasses. Recently, adverse sanitary conditions
on the content of chickens led to an increase in the number of people infected
salmonellosis through chicken eggs.
- The source of infection for a person is either sick
salmonellosis, or bacterium carrier, which has signs
there is no disease. When infected from person to person mechanism
transmissions are mostly fecal-oral, that is, through dirty hands,
only in rare cases of contact-household – when caring for the sick,
in a close team, especially in the hospital, kindergarten.
- A large percentage of human infections occur through
food – meat of poultry, animals, fish, thermally prepared
unprocessed products – salads, fruits, confectionery,
Infection is especially dangerous for children under one year old, as this may
lead to severe generalized forms of salmonellosis, treatment
which the kids are serious difficulties. As you grow
child’s susceptibility to salmonella decreases. Any intestinal
infections have seasonal fluctuations, so in a hot, warm time
years most often observed epidemiological outbreaks.
Symptoms of salmonellosis depending on the severity of the infection
The incubation period of salmonellosis averages 6-48
hours Clinical signs of salmonellosis depend on the form
diseases that are classified as follows:
- Гастроинтестинальная форма — самая
common, which begins bright, acute, with symptoms
intoxication, such as weakness, dizziness, headache,
fever up to 38-39 C, chills. Symptoms
gastrointestinal tract work is growing rapidly – pains in the stomach appear first,
near the navel, then vomiting appears with undigested remnants
food, and then becomes watery, mixed with bile, after
diarrhea occurs with frothy, watery, greenish feces with
mucus. The patient’s tongue becomes dry with a white bloom, the stomach
painful on pressure, a little purriness and a rumbling,
the liver and spleen are enlarged in the patient. Diarrhea usually
ends at 4-5 days, which can lead to dehydration
organism, disruption of metabolic processes, loss of mineral
salt, convulsions, lower blood pressure, tachycardia, and
also to disorders of the nervous system, it is fainting, dizziness.
Usually in adults the bright symptoms of salmonellosis end with 5
day, but the final recovery and normalization of the gastrointestinal tract is delayed
for 10-14 days.
- Mild – Sometimes this form of the disease goes away.
easy enough, without high temperature, with single vomiting and
diluted stool 3 times a day, the normalization of this state
occurs in 1-2 days and the person to 3 days is completely healthy.
- Severe form – with this feverish state lasts 3-5
days, vomiting multiple, stools up to 20 times a day, pressure sharply
drops, voice weakens, according to the nature of salmonellosis in
severe form resembles dysentery.
- Mild – Sometimes this form of the disease goes away.
- Тифоподобная форма — сначала протекает как
gastrointestinal, but then her character begins to resemble
typhoid symptoms such as fever for
weeks, pronounced manifestations of intoxication, patients are in
darkened mind with possible delusions and hallucinations, at 6-7
a day usually appears on the stomach rash, which passes for 2-3 days.
The tongue of the patient becomes gray-brown, the skin
pale, liver and spleen are enlarged, swelling is observed
belly. Recovery from this form of salmonellosis occurs
in 1-1.5 months.
- Септическая форма — очень редкая форма
development of this disease, it happens only in elderly, debilitated
people and newborns. Характеризуется длительной
fever profuse sweating, chills, jaundice, develop
purulent inflammatory processes in organs and tissues. With this
the course of the disease is high fatality rate or
acquisition of chronic sepsis with certain lesions
- Бессимптомная форма — как правило, при
ingestion of a small number of bacteria, strong body
independently copes with an infectious attack of salmonellosis,
symptoms of the disease are not observed.
- Бактерионосительство — при заражении человек
may remain bacilli-carrying and excrete with feces
salmonella for either a short time or for 3
How to determine what is salmonellosis?
Symptoms for the most common form of the disease –
gastrointestinal, especially after the use of questionable
продуктов питания, очевидны, но по ним определить, что это
salmonellosis is difficult. Without analysis of feces and vomit mass
one doctor cannot affirmatively affirm that an infection has occurred
Is salmonellosis a must in hospital?
With mild gastrointestinal form
salmonellosis, treatment can be carried out on an outpatient basis.
the appointment of an infectious diseases specialist. The situation can be described
as a mild form and hospitalization can be waived, provided
that vomiting was only once, diarrhea no more than 10 times a day.
However, if we are talking about a child, especially with significant
dehydration, you should take medical care in
Hospitalizations to the infectious diseases hospital are subject to weakened
children, patients with severe and moderate forms of the disease and in
connection with the epidemiological situation of salmonellosis. Treatment
intestinal infection is carried out depending on the age of the patient,
stages of the inflammatory process and taking into account the associated
Do I have to take antibiotics for salmonellosis?
Since most Salmonella strains are resistant to
antibiotics, they are rarely used, mostly only in severe
cases: quinolones and nitrofuranic agents, as well as fluoroquinolones,
cephalosporins, intestinal antimicrobial drug Rifaximin
(Alpha Normiks), which acts only in the lumen of the intestine.
Antibiotics are used only by prescription; it is believed
that with typical gastrointestinal salmonellosis,
the use of antibiotics is likely to have a negative effect
since the action of antimicrobial drugs inhibits
elimination of toxins and salmonella, which only enhances
How to treat salmonellosis at home?
First wash the stomach until it goes out
clear liquid. When salmonellosis, the symptoms of which
mild, this procedure is sufficient, and
use of the antidiarrheal drug Enterol to recover
to the body.
Cleansing enema and the use of various
sorbents, such as Polysorb, Polyphepan, Filtrum STI,
Enterosgel, Smekta, Enterodez, activated carbon, etc.
It is necessary to comply with bed rest with a sparing diet – herbal
teas, crackers, mucous cereal soups.
If there is a process of dehydration, what to do?
The main focus of treatment is on rehydration and removal
intoxication in patients. With prolonged diarrhea for correction
dehydration using special salt solutions Regidron,
Glukosolan, Oralit. You can prepare a similar solution
independently: 8 tsp of glucose, 1.5 gr. potassium chloride, 1/2 h.
tablespoons of soda, 1 teaspoon salt per liter of water. This solution or pharmacy