All questions about salmonellosis are symptoms, treatment,how not to get infected

Update: November 2018

Salmonellosis is an acute infectious intestinal disease,
the pathogens of which are different types of bacteria of the genus
Salmonella. Salmonella affects the gastrointestinal tract, sometimes
may occur with typhoid-like symptoms, less commonly as
generalized septic forms.

Medicine knows about 2 thousand serovars (varieties)
Salmonella, however, in our camp only 500 species provoke
intestinal diseases in humans. Causative agents of salmonellosis
extremely resistant to low temperatures as well
other manifestations of the external environment.

In animal excrements, these bacteria are able to persist in
for three years, in reservoirs up to four months, in dairy
products up to 20 days. Many strains of Salmonella are resistant to
antibiotics, but easily die from chlorine-containing
disinfectant solutions.

Ways of Salmonellosis Transmission

  • Farm animals are considered the primary source of infection.
    – cattle, pigs, horses, sheep, and also waterfowl
    wild birds whose salmonellosis is asymptomatic. These
    animals for years are able to excrete the pathogen with urine, faeces,
    milk, saliva and being a source of infection for a person
    ухаживающего за ними, при транспортировке, обработке и
    storage carcasses. Recently, adverse sanitary conditions
    on the content of chickens led to an increase in the number of people infected
    salmonellosis through chicken eggs.

  • The source of infection for a person is either sick
    salmonellosis, or bacterium carrier, which has signs
    there is no disease. When infected from person to person mechanism
    transmissions are mostly fecal-oral, that is, through dirty hands,
    only in rare cases of contact-household – when caring for the sick,
    in a close team, especially in the hospital, kindergarten.
  • A large percentage of human infections occur through
    food – meat of poultry, animals, fish, thermally prepared
    unprocessed products – salads, fruits, confectionery,
    beer.

Infection is especially dangerous for children under one year old, as this may
lead to severe generalized forms of salmonellosis, treatment
which the kids are serious difficulties. As you grow
child’s susceptibility to salmonella decreases. Any intestinal
infections have seasonal fluctuations, so in a hot, warm time
years most often observed epidemiological outbreaks.

Symptoms of salmonellosis depending on the severity of the infection

The incubation period of salmonellosis averages 6-48
hours Clinical signs of salmonellosis depend on the form
diseases that are classified as follows:

  • Гастроинтестинальная форма — самая
    common, which begins bright, acute, with symptoms
    intoxication, such as weakness, dizziness, headache,
    fever up to 38-39 C, chills. Symptoms
    gastrointestinal tract work is growing rapidly – pains in the stomach appear first,
    near the navel, then vomiting appears with undigested remnants
    food, and then becomes watery, mixed with bile, after
    diarrhea occurs with frothy, watery, greenish feces with
    mucus. The patient’s tongue becomes dry with a white bloom, the stomach
    painful on pressure, a little purriness and a rumbling,
    the liver and spleen are enlarged in the patient. Diarrhea usually
    ends at 4-5 days, which can lead to dehydration
    organism, disruption of metabolic processes, loss of mineral
    salt, convulsions, lower blood pressure, tachycardia, and
    also to disorders of the nervous system, it is fainting, dizziness.
    Usually in adults the bright symptoms of salmonellosis end with 5
    day, but the final recovery and normalization of the gastrointestinal tract is delayed
    for 10-14 days.

    • Mild – Sometimes this form of the disease goes away.
      easy enough, without high temperature, with single vomiting and
      diluted stool 3 times a day, the normalization of this state
      occurs in 1-2 days and the person to 3 days is completely healthy.
    • Severe form – with this feverish state lasts 3-5
      days, vomiting multiple, stools up to 20 times a day, pressure sharply
      drops, voice weakens, according to the nature of salmonellosis in
      severe form resembles dysentery.
  • Тифоподобная форма — сначала протекает как
    gastrointestinal, but then her character begins to resemble
    typhoid symptoms such as fever for
    weeks, pronounced manifestations of intoxication, patients are in
    darkened mind with possible delusions and hallucinations, at 6-7
    a day usually appears on the stomach rash, which passes for 2-3 days.
    The tongue of the patient becomes gray-brown, the skin
    pale, liver and spleen are enlarged, swelling is observed
    belly. Recovery from this form of salmonellosis occurs
    in 1-1.5 months.
  • Септическая форма — очень редкая форма
    development of this disease, it happens only in elderly, debilitated
    people and newborns. Характеризуется  длительной
    fever profuse sweating, chills, jaundice, develop
    purulent inflammatory processes in organs and tissues. With this
    the course of the disease is high fatality rate or
    acquisition of chronic sepsis with certain lesions
    organs.
  • Бессимптомная форма — как правило, при
    ingestion of a small number of bacteria, strong body
    independently copes with an infectious attack of salmonellosis,
    symptoms of the disease are not observed.
  • Бактерионосительство — при заражении человек
    may remain bacilli-carrying and excrete with feces
    salmonella for either a short time or for 3
    months.

How to determine what is salmonellosis?

Symptoms for the most common form of the disease –
gastrointestinal, especially after the use of questionable
продуктов питания, очевидны, но по ним  определить, что это
salmonellosis is difficult. Without analysis of feces and vomit mass
one doctor cannot affirmatively affirm that an infection has occurred
salmonella.

Is salmonellosis a must in hospital?

With mild gastrointestinal form
salmonellosis, treatment can be carried out on an outpatient basis.
the appointment of an infectious diseases specialist. The situation can be described
as a mild form and hospitalization can be waived, provided
that vomiting was only once, diarrhea no more than 10 times a day.
However, if we are talking about a child, especially with significant
dehydration, you should take medical care in
hospital

Hospitalizations to the infectious diseases hospital are subject to weakened
children, patients with severe and moderate forms of the disease and in
connection with the epidemiological situation of salmonellosis. Treatment
intestinal infection is carried out depending on the age of the patient,
stages of the inflammatory process and taking into account the associated
chronic diseases.

Do I have to take antibiotics for salmonellosis?

Since most Salmonella strains are resistant to
antibiotics, they are rarely used, mostly only in severe
cases: quinolones and nitrofuranic agents, as well as fluoroquinolones,
cephalosporins, intestinal antimicrobial drug Rifaximin
(Alpha Normiks), which acts only in the lumen of the intestine.

Antibiotics are used only by prescription; it is believed
that with typical gastrointestinal salmonellosis,
the use of antibiotics is likely to have a negative effect
since the action of antimicrobial drugs inhibits
elimination of toxins and salmonella, which only enhances
intoxication.

How to treat salmonellosis at home?

First wash the stomach until it goes out
clear liquid. When salmonellosis, the symptoms of which
mild, this procedure is sufficient, and
use of the antidiarrheal drug Enterol to recover
to the body.

Cleansing enema and the use of various
sorbents, such as Polysorb, Polyphepan, Filtrum STI,
Enterosgel, Smekta, Enterodez, activated carbon, etc.
It is necessary to comply with bed rest with a sparing diet – herbal
teas, crackers, mucous cereal soups.

If there is a process of dehydration, what to do?

The main focus of treatment is on rehydration and removal
intoxication in patients. With prolonged diarrhea for correction
dehydration using special salt solutions Regidron,
Glukosolan, Oralit. You can prepare a similar solution
independently: 8 tsp of glucose, 1.5 gr. potassium chloride, 1/2 h.
tablespoons of soda, 1 teaspoon salt per liter of water. This solution or pharmacy
salt option

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