Infant hemangioma is called benign
a tumor that is formed from small and large blood vessels
vessels. Due to irregularities in the formation of blood vessels
внутриутробном периоде, гемангиомы у
новорожденных начинают появляться после рождения.
The neoplasm often has skin localization (in 80% of cases) in
as a pale or bright burgundy spot, but may have another
location: internal organs, bones, muscles. By structure
the tumor is a slight thickening with jagged edges,
consisting of normal and atypical cells.
Immediately after giving birth, you can notice such specks on
skin, which show maximum activity in growth in the first
half a year Hemangioma occurs in 10% of newborns, in several
times more often in girls. After the 1st year of life, tumor growth
its involution slows down and happens – gradual disappearance. TO
at the age of 5, 50% of the hemangiomas disappear, and by the age of seven – before
70% (early involution). Since hemangioma is
hormone-sensitive tumor, then its complete depression occurs in
puberty (late involution).
Why does hemangioma occur?
Истинные причины возникновения этих опухолей пока
unknown. It is assumed that trigger factors in their development
I can be:
- ARVI in the mother during pregnancy for a period of 3 – 6 weeks,
when the embryo forms a cardiovascular system;
- rhesus – mother’s conflict during pregnancy;
- taking drugs, alcohol, or smoking during
- hormonal disorders in a pregnant woman or in a child;
- poor environmental conditions;
- burdened heredity.
Types of hemangiomas
Depending on the structure and the level of location, allocate
следующие виды гемангиом:
TOавернозная гемангиома – опухоль, образованная расширенными
vessels and cavities filled with arterial or venous
by blood. Most often located in the skin, but does not penetrate deeply, therefore
Easily amenable to local therapy. The touch has a soft
Этот вид опухоли так же встречается в органах
с обильным кровоснабжением: печень, селезенка, почки,
adrenal glands, lungs and brain.
Очень опасной считается кавернозная гемангиома у
новорожденного в печени. In most cases, she
makes itself felt only when complications or accidental
diagnosis, as it exists in the body asymptomatic. With
injury, the hemangioma can rupture and
hemorrhage under the capsule of the liver or into the abdominal cavity, in 80% and
more cases are fatal.
The spleen is a very well vascularized organ,
therefore, hemorrhages in it due to rupture of hemangiomas, the most
dangerous because they have a profuse character.
Brain cavernous hemangioma is one of the most insidious
tumors. Despite its goodness, breaks lead it
intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage, which leads to
behind a deep coma or death.
TOапиллярная (простая) гемангиома образуется из сосудов дермы и
never affects the underlying layers of the skin (except
комбинированного вида гемангиомы). By structure
is a tangled capillary vessels.
The tumor is slightly above the surface of the skin,
exceptionally rarely hemorrhages. TOак правило, она маленького
size, about 1 cm in diameter. The tumor is considered to be
more favorable than the paler color – it speaks of her
TOомбинированная гемангиома представлена простой и кавернозной
parts and insidious that it is often mistaken for capillary
the tumor, while its cavernous part can be fraught with
A mixed tumor occurs when, along with the vascular
tumor cells are present in the connective,
nervous or other tissues.
Hemangiomas in newborns, located on the eyelid mucous
mouth, in the ear or on the tip of the nose can cause
hearing, vision, or breathing problems.
Диагностика и методы лечения гемангиомы
The choice of therapeutic measures depends on the results.
diagnostic studies of hemangioma. Primarily a doctor
should differentiate the tumor from other diseases. It may
be squamous cell carcinoma or glomus-angioma. Hemangioma sometimes
similar to vascular malformations, some forms of nevi and cysts,
After the diagnosis, the decision on
последующем лечении принимается в зависимости от
In the period up to 1 month (neonatal period), operational
intervention is excluded. “Behavior” is monitored
hemangiomas. If the tumor does not change in size and color, then
visiting a kindergarten is simply watched by a specialist. If she
increases, disrupts the organs or poses a threat to
then steps are taken to remove it. TOак правило, такие
operations are assigned to a child aged 3 months, six months or in 1
Лечение гемангиом проводится следующими
- Surgical лечение включает полное или
partial excision of the tumor and shown at its rapid
progression, provided that the operation does not cause serious
cosmetic defect and will not disrupt the organs. Surgical
treatment is preferred in case of large tumor sizes, but then
after resection it becomes necessary to take a donor skin flap with
another part of the body. This is especially true.
при лечении гемангиомы на коже головы или веке. In children
such operations are performed only in exceptional cases with
parallel blood transfusion, under general or local
- TOонсервативное лечение:
- TOриотерапия (снегом из углекислоты): применяется
on small hemangiomas (2 -2.5 cm). Snow impose on
place the tumor with the capture of healthy tissue up to 0.5 cm. After that
an indented surface forms that soon swells,
turning into a bubble. Then there is the formation of a crust, which
two weeks away.
- Инъекционное лечение со
склерозирующим действием на сосуды опухоли, после чего на ее
place formed connective tissue. Used for injection
alcohol 70% and quinine solution – urethane. A few injections
receive education infiltration roller first around
tumor, then in its center. Once a week, repeat the procedure,
after the swelling disappears. This method is used for
the impossibility of surgical treatment, due to the difficult
tumor localization: eyelid, oral mucosa.
- Электрокоагуляция применяется для лечения
small in size (not more than 5 mm) capillary, cavernous and
stellate hemangiomas, as well as to remove the remaining parts
tumors after other procedures. Under the influence of electric current
coagulation of tumor tissue occurs, after which it forms
crust, which independently passes with time.
- Лучевая терапия используется при лечении
subcutaneous cavernous hemangiomas or tumors with localization
on the internal organs. Radiotherapy has a negative effect.
на весь организм, поэтому ее при гемангиомах у
новорожденных не используют. Radiotherapy is prescribed
only after 6 months.
- TOриотерапия (снегом из углекислоты): применяется
Complications of hemangioma
TOроме того, что гемангиомы могут стать причиной кровоизлияний
or disrupt organs, they also contribute to the formation of
blood clots in the cavity of the tumor. Because of this, consumption increases
platelets in the body, which leads to deterioration of coagulability
blood. Этим характеризуется симптомокомплекс TOазабаха – Меррита –
disease of newborns and children under one year, patients with hemangioma
If the tumor is located in traumatic areas or in
genital area then often ulcerated.
Hemangioma in newborns is most often limited.
cosmetic deficiency or completely passes. But nonetheless,
the presence of a tumor in a child requires parents to provide the baby
systematic observation by a specialist.