AIDS – symptoms and first signs, consequencesfor humans, prevention

AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Is not
disease, and the syndrome, manifested by a variety of diseases,
fatal. As pathogen
AIDS is considered to be a human immunodeficiency virus that affects
лейкоциты крови и резко сокращающий возможность сопротивления
organism of tumor and infectious diseases.

Next, consider what it is for the syndrome, the main ways
transmission and first signs in adults.

What is aids


AIDS is an acquired immune deficiency syndrome. it
means that the disease is acquired by a person (it is not transmitted with
genes, although the mother can transmit it to the child during his
intrauterine development, during labor or with breast

AIDS affects and weakens the immune system, causing
the body loses its ability to protect itself from various diseases and
from so-called collateral infections (infections that arise
as a side effect of weakening the immune system).

The term “AIDS” includes 3 concepts:

  • Syndrome – this means that the disease manifests itself in a sustainable
    combination of several signs at once.
  • Acquired – that is, the disease is not hereditary, but
    develops throughout life.
  • Immunodeficiency – the patient’s body is not able to independently
    deal with all sorts of infections.

AIDS refers to the diseases that are said to be
kill slowly but surely. The causative agent of infection changes the structure
DNA of healthy cells and can be stored in the body of the carrier for more than 3
years old. Throughout this period, he does not lose its activity.
and gradually becomes an integral element in the composition of the blood.

It is with this feature of the virus that researchers associate
extremely high risk of contracting AIDS when used badly
sterilized instruments that previously entered into
direct contact with the blood of an infected person.

HIV and AIDS: what is it?

It is worth noting immediately that the two terms “AIDS” and “HIV” differ
between themselves. Is not синонимы, как считает большинство людей. AIDS –
This is the term for a lack of immunity that can
develop due to prolonged exposure to radiation, chronic
maladies, taking potent pharmaceuticals. But in
Recently, this term is used only to denote
the last stage of HIV.

In the course of HIV infection, scientists and specialists distinguish
four stages:

  • incubation period;
  • first signs;
  • secondary diseases;
  • AIDS.

The very first signs of AIDS

Patients with HIV infection are seen in an infectious diseases specialist.
Additionally, an immunologist, general practitioner is consulted when
damage to organs and systems – inspection of a specialist:
pulmonologist, neurologist, dermatologist, gastroenterologist.

When infected with HIV, a person does not learn about it in the first days after
infection. Ранние его признаки могут дать о себе знать
after 2-6 weeks. In most cases, they
выражаются симптомами гриппа, ОРATИ или мононуклеоза. AT
the stages of the primary manifestations of AIDS in some patients are noted:

  • temperature rise;
  • chills;
  • muscle pain;
  • enlarged cervical lymph nodes.

Some infected people do not have these symptoms, and
течение ATИЧ-инфекции называется бессимптомной стадией.

The first signs of a disease like AIDS can be
long healing wounds. Plain scratch fester, bleed
quite a long period. Further, the disease can occur in
several forms:

  • Pulmonary form – the development of pneumocystis pneumonia.
  • Intestinal – prolonged diarrhea leads to dehydration
    body and rapid weight loss.
  • Skin lesions – the appearance on the body of ulcers, erosions, which
    gradually progressing.
  • The defeat of the nervous system – leads to memory impairment,
    constant apathy, epileptic seizures.

Causes of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

ATозбудителем является вирус иммунодефицита человека семейства
retroviruses. Attaching to leukocytes and penetrating them, he
begins the process of active replication, spreading throughout
to the body. ATИЧ не только малигнизирует лимфоциты, но и уничтожает
their. Gradually, the number of CD4 lymphocytes is reduced and
количестве менее 200 в 1 млк ставится диагноз AIDS.

The source is a person who becomes infectious already in
incubation period (the period from the moment of infection until the
clinical symptoms), the continuation of the infectious period goes on and in
лихорадочную стадию ATИЧ-инфекции, латентную, стадию вторичных

The greatest amount of virus the patient allocates with all
biological environments in the AIDS stage (terminal

При обычном общении с зараженными людьми ATИЧ не передается,
поэтому не следует панически бояться infection. Aids not
transmitted in the following ways:

  • When using the pool or public toilet.
  • When kissing, shaking hands or hugging (of course, if
    people with a handshake and a kiss will not open bleeding wounds
    in the place of contact, but imagine like quite complicated).
  • ATоздушно капельным путем.
  • When using household items.
  • Through food.
  • When biting various blood-sucking insects (for example,
  • When you touch the door handle.
  • Upon contact with pets.

Ways of transmission

There are the following transmission paths:

  • during sexual intercourse with an infected person;
  • in the womb when aids is transmitted to the fetus directly
    through the placenta;
  • when transfusing contaminated blood or when it gets into
    the body in some other way, for example, when using bad
    processed surgical instruments.

Symptoms of AIDS in adults

Стоит отметить, что ATИЧ протекает в три стадии:

  • acute febrile;
  • asymptomatic;
  • AIDS or the advanced stage.

In the acute febrile stage, the infection appears as
non-specific symptoms such as:

  • headache,
  • sore throat, muscles and / or joints,
  • elevated temperature (usually subfebrile to
    37.5 ° C),
  • nausea,
  • diarrhea,
  • swollen lymph nodes.

На следующем этапе течения ATИЧ-инфекции вышеперечисленные
The main signs and symptoms of AIDS are complemented by a significant loss.
body weight (more than 10% of total weight). The patient may

  • tuberculosis;
  • helminthiasis;
  • toxoplasmosis;
  • lymphoma;
  • Kaposi’s sarcoma;
  • Pneumonia, etc.

Severe AIDS is also accompanied by serious
neurological disorders.

Symptoms that need to pay attention and check

In order not to miss the first symptoms of AIDS in time, you need to know
what they include:

  • Causeless and asymptomatic increased body temperature
    patient to 37.5-38 degrees, which passes as suddenly as
    and appears.
  • Enlarged lymph nodes in the groin, armpits, on the neck. They
    Do not hurt and have a compacted structure to the touch.
  • Red spots all over the body.
  • Increased fatigue.
  • Periodic fever and night sweats.
  • Sometimes arising discomfort in the throat, pain with
  • Stool problems, diarrhea.

Such symptoms are characteristic of a common cold or
flu, so many do not pay attention to these signs of attention.

Infectious diseases that affect people with AIDS
called opportunistic. Their feature is that
pathogens of these infections often live in humans, but
immunity prevents them from becoming active. Activation
evidence of serious immunodeficiency. Therefore the occurrence
opportunistic infections are always a direct indication
обследоваться на ATИЧ.


Complications СПИДа:

  • ATПЧ, или вирус папилломы человека;
  • histoplasmosis;
  • Pneumonia;
  • candidiasis;
  • cryptococcal meningitis;
  • cryptosporia;
  • herpes zoster;
  • Kaposi’s sarcoma;
  • lymphoma;
  • invasive cervical cancer;
  • side effects of drugs.

Complications наблюдаются среди больных, у которых диагноз ATИЧ
put on the AIDS stage, as well as in people who do not receive
antiretroviral therapy or resistant to these


If a person has the first signs of AIDS, he should
immediately contact a medical facility for diagnosis,
confirmation or denial of the diagnosis. Confirm the existence of such
dangerous illness can only competent doctor after examination and
obtaining test results.

Patients with HIV infection are seen in an infectious diseases specialist.
Additionally, an immunologist, general practitioner is consulted when
damage to organs and systems – inspection of a specialist:
pulmonologist, neurologist, dermatologist, gastroenterologist.

Laboratory diagnosis of acquired syndrome

  • specific – reducing the level of CD4 lymphocytes to 50 cells in
    �L; increased viral load;
  • specific laboratory criteria for an infection
    (blood and other biological fluids on antigens and antibodies,
    PCR diagnostics);
  • general laboratory data (blood, urine, biochemical
  • instrumental diagnosis of lesions of various organs and
    systems (ultrasound, x-ray, MRI).

A person is diagnosed with AIDS when he has
there are less than 200 T4 / CD4 cells per cubic meter in blood. mm
At a normal level, there are about 1000 such cells.
In addition, a person may have a side infection or illness,
которыми сопровождается AIDS.

Treatment methods

Does AIDS Cure? Not. But methods, technologies and
drugs to fight cancer, opportunistic
infections – consequences of reduced immunity. Competent suppression
virus, stimulation of the body’s defensive response
be developed by qualified doctors.

Scientists have developed special treatment regimens, thanks to which
it is possible to significantly slow down the development of the disease. Most
popular antiretroviral and other drugs to combat

  • zidovudine;
  • zalcitabine, stavudine and didanosine;
  • trimethoprim, pentamidine, foscarnet, ganciclovir,
  • saquinavir, indinavir, ritonavir;
  • nevirapine and nelfinavir.

Treatment of AIDS patients includes several areas:

  • Mandatory hospitalization of patients in specialized
    departments of clinics dealing with problems ATИЧ-инфицированных.
  • Qualified care.
  • Full nutrition.
  • Active Antiretroviral Therapy
    AIDS provides an opportunity to increase the number of CD4 + lymphocytes in order to
    the patient’s body somehow began to resist infections.
  • Specific treatment aimed at combating developed
    secondary diseases.
  • Chemoprophylaxis of opportunistic infections

AIDS prevention

Prevention includes the need to:

  • have only one sexual partner;
  • avoid sexual intercourse with unfamiliar and suspicious
    people, prostitutes, drug addicts;
  • do not have group contacts;
  • use condoms;
  • do not use other people’s machines, razors, toothbrushes,
    used medical devices;
  • insist on disposable tools in the dentist’s office,
    gynecologist, cosmetologist and other specialists.

The difficulty of identifying the disease is that its symptoms are similar to
симптомами других diseases. AIDS has no specific phenomena.
Even if your temperature rises often and without much complaint,
то не всегда врачи подозревают в этом AIDS. ATы должны сами
обратиться в СПИД-центр и провести ATИЧ-тест.

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