Adnexitis – what is it, causes, symptoms and treatmentadnexitis in women

Аднекситом или сальпингоофоритом называется одно- или
bilateral, combined inflammation of the ovaries and fallopian
(uterine) tubes forming uterine appendages. Inflammatory process
not only negatively affects the quality of life of a woman, but can also
disrupt its reproductive functions. Most common disease
occurs among young women. Provoke development
such a disease can be different pathological microbes – gonococci,
staphylococci, streptococci, etc.

In more detail, what is this disease, what are the symptoms in women,
and also treatment at an adnexitis – we will consider further in article.

Adnexitis: what is it?

Аднексит

Adnexitis is a disease of the female genital organs,
at which the appendages of the uterus inflame, and these are the ovaries and uterine
pipes. The second name of the same disease is salpingo-oophoritis,
formed by the words salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes) +
oophoritis (inflammation of the ovaries).

Salpingitis and oophoritis are extremely rarely seen separately, due to
close connection with each other, therefore their combined inflammation
combined into one nosological unit – adnexitis, inflammation
appendages.

When the disease occurs destruction of the epithelium of the fallopian tubes, in
the result of which is the impregnation of the walls with products
vital activity of infectious microorganisms, which, as a result,
and leads to inflammation.

According to statistics, in every fifth case
This pathology leads to infertility. Most often, experts
diagnose this disease in young sexually active
women aged 20 to 30 years.

  • Adnexitis (ICD 10) code N 70.

To exclude the disease, you must visit every year.
district gynecologist. Periodic routine inspection can on time
diagnose dangerous diseases, so the treatment will be more
faster and less expensive.

Classification

Adnexitis is classified by the nature of the distribution, by type
course, at least – on the infectious agent.

The types of salpingoophoritis are as follows:

  • Acute adnexitis, or having a chronic course;
  • Unilateral or bilateral adnexitis;
  • Serous or purulent process;
  • Preferential damage to the tubes (salpingitis) or ovary
    (oophoritis).

Previously diagnosed with subacute adnexitis as not treated
acute or precursor of chronic; but now
Only these two forms are used for diagnosis.

Acute adnexitis

In most cases, there is bilateral inflammation.
appendages combined with inflammation of the uterus. This disease more often
only proceeds with violations of the menstrual cycle (algomenorrhea and
menorrhagia).

With acute adnexitis due to inflammatory fluid,
accumulating in the fallopian tube, there are saccular formations
with accumulation of pus in them. Заболевание может вызвать осложнение
– the so-called tubo-ovarian abscess, as a result of which
the infection can enter the abdominal cavity causing inflammation
peritoneum, and as a result, peritonitis with various abscesses.

The consequences of peritonitis are:

  • the formation of adhesions, which are localized in the fallopian tubes;
  • increased risk of ectopic pregnancy;
  • infertility.

Ignoring signs of acute adnexitis in the absence
complications leads to a reduction in symptoms after 8–12 days and
Chronic illness.

Chronic form

Chronic adnexitis is most often the result.
undertreated acute process and proceeds with relapses,
resulting from the influence of non-specific factors
(stressful situations, hypothermia, overwork, etc.
d.) In chronic form, adnexitis causes anxiety in the form
�”Dull pain”, which is permanent.

Kinds Flow characteristics
Right adnexitis Inflamed ovaries and tubes only on the right side. Perceived
the pain is such that women often confuse them with appendicitis symptoms.
In this case consultation with the surgeon is obligatory.
Left side Inflammation exposed left appendages. The same pain is inherent.
various colitis.
Double sided The defeat of appendages on both sides gives almost always
the classic picture: it is characterized by pain in the lower abdomen,
extending into the vagina and anus.

The reasons

In a healthy female body ovaries and fallopian tubes
are sterile, so adnexitis can develop only after
penetration of infection from adjacent structures (uterine cavity,
vagina), or from distant foci of chronic inflammation
by blood or lymph.

Most adnexitis cases are not triggered by an alien.
infection, and own, living in the vagina,
conditionally pathogenic microflora.

The causative agents of the pathological process with adnexitis may
fall into the fallopian tubes in the following ways:

  • hematogenous (with blood flow);
  • lymphogenous (with lymph flow);
  • descending (from the sigmoid or cecum in the peritoneum);
  • ascending (from the vagina into the cervical canal, then into the cavity
    uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries).

Infection can spread in an ascending way with inflammation.
vagina, cervix or uterus and descending from other,
upstream organs (for example, appendicitis).

A healthy woman skidding pathogens in the appendages prevents
system of protective barriers that can only penetrate
aggressive gonococcus. Other microorganisms access them in
the result of any failures in protection.

The causes of adnexitis can be:

  • promiscuous sex life;
  • половые сношения во время месячных без презерватива;
  • hypothermia on the background of weak immunity;
  • previous female inflammatory diseases
    sexual sphere.

An important role is played by the state of immunity, because if a woman
is under constant stress, it is more susceptible
adnexitis.

First signs

Infectious pathogen causes swelling of uterine tissues
appendages, it is manifested by pain. Serous stands out
or purulent secretions, sometimes mixed with blood.  First signs
adnexitis following (we are talking about acute adnexitis):

  • Stomach ache;
  • Temperature rise;
  • Bloating, nausea or vomiting.

Симптомы adnexitis in women

The severity of the manifestation of this disease depends on
what extent is the inflammatory process common, what
the causative agent became its cause as well as from the individual condition
patient, in particular, from her immunity.

With adnexitis, inflammation is present in the ovaries and in the tubes.
The infection is initially localized in the cavity of the fallopian tubes, and
then rises relatively quickly to the ovaries. therefore
the inflammatory process in both structures develops in a single
the script.

На ранней стадии заболевания симптомы adnexitis in women
characterized by:

  • tension in the abdominal wall,
  • sharp pains
  • urinary disorder (painful and frequent)
  • disrupted general well-being.

In addition to pain, fever and abdominal distention,
disturb unpleasant discharge from the genital tract, serous,
blood or even purulent nature.

Symptoms of acute adnexitis

Among local signs distinguish:

  • pains of different nature and intensity in the lower abdomen, sometimes
    extending to the thigh or lower back;
  • significant decrease in sexual desire, right discomfort
    or on the left during intercourse;
  • discharge from the genitals mucous or purulent character
    (Beli), sometimes mixed with blood.

Acute purulent adnexitis, in addition to severe pain, is accompanied by
severe fever and intoxication symptoms, which makes it
similar to any acute inflammation of the abdominal cavity and
complicates the primary diagnosis.

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It is due to the clinic “acute abdomen” right
аднексит нередко имитирует острый аппендицит или
right renal colic.

Symptoms of the chronic form

The chronic form of the disease is characterized by dull pains,
which appear constantly. In this case, women are violated
menstrual cycle and sexual function. Sometimes chronic adnexitis
may be asymptomatic, and the disease is detected when
screening for infertility. Infertility due to impaired
ovarian function or obstruction of the fallopian tubes is a frequent symptom
adnexitis in chronic running form.

Right adnexitis сопровождается:

  • The pain in this form of adnexitis is localized on the right and may
    mimic acute appendicitis.
  • The nature of the pain pulling or burning, can give in a straight line
    bowel or sacrum.

Left side аднексит:

  • The pains are located on the left and are pulling, piercing or cutting.
    character
  • They can also be given to the tailbone or the rectum.

Double sided аднексит:

  • This syndrome is characterized by acute pain, irritation symptoms.
    peritoneum and muscle tension of the anterior abdominal wall (abdomen).
  • always acute with symptoms of intoxication.
    Sometimes he can give a picture of an acute abdomen.

Complications

In addition to problems with conception, which are caused by adhesions
in the pipes, there are other complications:

  • The probability of ectopic development increases tenfold.
    pregnancy on the background of adhesions and narrowing of the passage in the uterine
    pipes.
  • Infertility, violation of the production of sex hormones
    the ovaries.
  • Purulent complications requiring surgical treatment up to
    removal of the fallopian tubes.

Diagnostics

If you suspect adnexitis, or symptoms,
listed above, in one way or another indicate the presence of
problems, you should contact your gynecologist. Only he can deliver
the final diagnosis of adnexitis, considering the symptoms, as well as those
data obtained from a series of analyzes and studies
aimed at identifying the problem.

Diagnostics аднексита основывается на сборе анамнеза, жалоб,
gynecological examination. The following labs are also shown.
analyzes:

  • general blood and urine analysis;
  • biochemical blood test (C-reactive protein, blood sugar,
    total protein, etc.);
  • smear of vaginal secretions on flora, tank. seeding and research
    antibiotic sensitivity;
  • Ultrasound of the pelvic organs;
  • laparoscopy (in difficult cases);
  • tuberculin test (for suspected tuberculous
    infection).

In the diagnosis of adnexitis (both acute and chronic) important
The moment is the collection of complaints of the woman, since the details
development of the disease and microsymptomes allow to exclude other similar
on the manifestations of the disease.

If a woman is at risk (wears a spiral, suffers
sexually transmitted infections, underwent an abortion), a visit to the gynecologist
recommended at least 2 times a year.

Adnexitis treatment

Only a qualified specialist based on
tests and examination of the patient may appoint the most effective in
case by case treatment. Adnexitis – very serious
a disease that in the absence of adequate and competently
selected therapy can lead to very sad complications,
up to such a terrible diagnosis as infertility.

Treatment of the disease aims to:

  1. elimination of inflammation;
  2. the elimination of pain;
  3. increased immunity;
  4. restoration of genital functions;
  5. normalization of the nervous, endocrine and other activities
    systems.

In the treatment of acute adnexitis, hospitalization is necessary, since
acute adnexitis can have serious consequences and
complications: the formation of purulent cavities in the pipes, purulent
расплавление яичников, перитонит и т.д.

The patient is assigned bed rest for pain relief.
drugs are used, and to eliminate
inflammatory process applied broad-spectrum antibiotics
and anti-inflammatory drugs.

Treatment of acute left-sided or right-sided
adnexitis should be administered in stationary conditions, with
mandatory prescription of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory
drugs, for example:

  • Metronidazole,
  • Oflaksatsin.

Local treatment is carried out by prescribing baths or
douching disinfectant solutions (furatsilin, dimexide,
dioxidine, chlorophyllipt), as well as broths of medicinal herbs (celandine,
calendula, rose petals, chamomile, sage, yarrow and
others).

After adnexitis, that is, after the elimination of all inflammatory
manifestations in the acute form, can be appointed:

  • биостимуляторы, например Овариамин,
  • physiotherapeutic treatment (electrophoresis, vibratory massage and
    etc.),
  • stimulation of ovulatory function (Clofit drug).

Preparations for the treatment of adnexitis in the chronic stage should
be selected according to the goals of therapy, namely:

  • eliminate inflammation;
  • improve immunity;
  • sanitize existing infectious foci of other localization;
  • eliminate hormonal disorders;
  • restore normal menstrual cycle;
  • adjust the endocrine system.

Operation

Оперативное лечение проводят при необходимости на любой
adnexitis stages:

  1. In the acute period, laparoscopic surgery is performed for
    removal of volume formations – hydro- and pyosalpinx, abscess
    ovary. The tube is usually removed completely, the ovary is operated on.
    as economically as possible with the preservation of all viable tissues.
  2. In chronic adnexitis restore patency uterine
    pipes if possible.

If you find a disease, you must adhere to all
recommendations and prescriptions of the attending physician.

Maintaining proper diet

Food during the period of treatment of adnexitis should not be only
regular, but also rational, fully balanced.
Thanks to good nutrition, the body’s resistance to
pathogens, and improve metabolic processes in the inflamed
place

In the period of acute and exacerbations of chronic forms, the diet should be
hypoallergenic and exclude the following products:

  • egg whites;
  • fatty meats;
  • mushrooms;
  • chocolate and other sweets;
  • citrus, red berries;
  • products with dyes, flavors, preservatives,
    sweeteners;
  • A large amount of salt.

В рационе должны присутствовать продукты с высоким
содержание витамина С для укрепления иммунитета и более
Get well soon. These products include:

  • currant (red and black),
  • citrus,
  • Strawberry,
  • Bell pepper,
  • mulberry,
  • cranberry,
  • kiwi,
  • pomegranate, etc.

For a normal balance of proteins should be consumed low-fat
varieties of meat and fish (beef, rabbit, turkey, hake, putasu, pollock and
etc.). Be sure to include in the dishes greens: spinach,
parsley, basil, cilantro, onion feathers, leek and others.

Folk remedies

Обратите внимание: применять средства по народным рецептам
possible only with chronic adnexitis, which is in the stage
remission, or in the recovery period after treatment for acute
adnexitis when the peak of inflammation is already passed.

  1. Herbal infusions of chamomile, calendula or celandine are made
    douching. To do this, one tablespoon of selected herbs
    brewed with a glass of boiling water. The cooled decoction is used for
    procedures in accordance with the rules.
  2. Traditional therapy of chronic adnexitis quite often
    uses drugs prepared from only one
    plants. For example, you can consider a decoction based on calendula.
    This plant is most often recommended for warming and
    anti-inflammatory baths, as calendula has a bright
    pronounced antibacterial activity.
  3. You can hold the bath of the series – a decoction is prepared by
    classic recipe: a tablespoon of dry raw materials on glass of water,
    boil for 10 minutes, insist 2 hours.

Adnexitis treatment народными средствами при помощи ромашки или
Calendula is recommended as an auxiliary to the main
drug therapy.

Prevention

The risk group for developing adnexitis includes women suffering from
sexually transmitted infections using intrauterine contraceptives,
undergone surgery on the reproductive organs, as well as after
pregnancies ended in artificial
или самопроизвольными абортами.

To do this, a woman must observe a few simple
rules:

  • follow the rules of intimate hygiene;
  • give preference to underwear free cut from natural
    fabrics;
  • dress according to the season and do not sit in the cold even in warm
    the weather;
  • use protection during sexual intercourse;
  • regularly undergo preventive examinations at the gynecologist.

By following simple rules, you can be completely sure
maintaining their female health. Be healthy!

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