Update: December 2018
The adenoids are the pharyngeal tonsil, which is located in
human nasopharynx, it performs the most important functions in the body –
produces lymphocytes, immune cells that protect the mucous membrane
nasopharyngeal membrane from infections.
When there is a pathological increase in nasopharyngeal
tonsils, this disease in medicine is called hypertrophy
adenoids, and with their inflammation – adenoiditis. Increase and inflammation
adenoids occurs in children aged 3-10 years, according to statistics 5-8%
children suffer from this disease, and both girls and boys with
the same frequency.
The incidence rate decreases with age, sometimes
The disease occurs in adults, but much less. If appear
adenoids in children, symptoms can be identified by difficulty
free breathing nose, the child often begins to get sick with colds
and viral diseases, snoring at night, the voice becomes
nasal, often occurs otitis media, developmental delay, abnormal
bite, slurred speech, hearing impairment. Even the field of surgical
removal of the adenoids is possible their repeated growth.
What are adenoids?
Nasopharyngeal tonsil – adenoids, enter the pharyngeal ring and
located on the junction of the pharynx and nose. In adults
adenoids most often have tiny sizes or in general
atrophy. But in children, lymphoid formations are very good.
developed as a weak immune system in childhood
operates with increased load, trying to maximize
respond to the attacks of all sorts of bacteria and viruses. Through
nasopharynx in the human body along with air, food, water
penetrates a great many different pathogens
-viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nasopharyngeal tonsil
prevents their deep penetration and protects against reproduction
germs in the airways.
Causes of adenoids in children
The growth of adenoids in children contributes to:
- Hereditary predisposition
in a child to the growth of nasopharyngeal tonsil, to this immune
pathology, which is also called – lymphatic diathesis or
This deviation is due to the lymphatic-hypoplastic anomaly.
constitution, that is, violations in the structure of the lymphatic and
Therefore, with such a pathology, a decrease in
thyroid function, then in addition to the adenoids in children, symptoms
supplemented by lethargy, swelling, apathy and a tendency to corpulence.
- Pathology of pregnancy and childbirth
Doctors also see the cause of adenoids in children in birth trauma
baby, pathological pregnancy, fetal hypoxia or asphyxia
во время родов. And also how important was the 1st trimester
pregnancy in mom is especially unfavorable
mother viral diseases in the period of 7-9 weeks of pregnancy,
taking antibiotics, toxic drugs for any duration
- Feeding, vaccinations, diseases
The effect on the increase in adenoids in children also has the character
infant feeding, vaccinations and various diseases in
early age, as well as overeating and abuse of sweet and
- Against the background of childhood infectious diseases such as scarlet fever,
measles (see measles symptoms in children), whooping cough, diphtheria possible
secondary inflammation and growth of adenoids in a child.
- Toxic effects on adenoids have frequent colds, and other
viruses, adenoid contamination by various pathogenic
- The presence of allergic reactions in the family history and in the child in
- Immunodeficiency state in a child.
- General unfavorable environmental situation in the place of residence
– polluted, polluted, dusty air, abundance of household chemicals
in the house, substandard furniture and plastic toxic products in
Signs, symptoms of adenoids in children
Why is it important to distinguish adenoid hypertrophy from adenoiditis?
Mom is very important to distinguish these two pathologies, for what? With
adenoiditis when the nasopharyngeal tonsil becomes inflamed in several
раз, многие врачи рекомендуют родителям ее удалять, но это
can be successfully treated by conservative means. But when
hypertrophy of the nasopharyngeal tonsil occurs in a significant
(third) degree, not amenable to conservative treatment and
causing complications – this pathology most often should be treated
Symptoms of adenoids in children – pharyngeal hypertrophy
Persistent violation of breathing through the nose, constant rhinitis,
nasal discharge of serous nature, the child is constantly or
periodically breathing through the mouth.
The child most often sleeps with an open mouth, sleep becomes
restless, with snoring, wheezing, with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome –
breath holding in sleep. Therefore, children can often have nightmares,
Asphyxiation may occur due to the collapse of the tongue root.
По причине разрастания tonsils усугубляются проблемы с
breathing, since congestive hyperemia occurs nearby
soft tissues – soft palate, posterior palatine arches, mucous
shell of the nose. therefore chronic rhinitis develops and frequent
cough due to runoff of mucus from the nose on the back wall
There are frequent inflammation of the hearing organs – otitis, a violation
hearing, since the openings of the auditory tubes overlap with overgrown
The appearance of irregularities in the timbre of the voice, it becomes nasal.
Violation of phonation occurs when adenoids become sufficient
Frequent inflammation of the paranasal sinuses – sinusitis, and
tonsillitis, bronchitis, pneumonia. Appearance of adenoid type of face then
there is a violation of the development of the facial skeleton – there is an indifferent
facial expression, constantly open mouth. In cases of prolonged
the course of the disease the lower jaw is lengthened and becomes
narrow, also broken bite.
The proliferation of adenoid tissue gradually affects the mechanism
breathing because breathing through the mouth is somewhat shallow, and
nasal breathing is deeper, then prolonged breathing through the mouth gradually
leads to inadequate ventilation and oxygen
starvation, brain hypoxia.
therefore нередко у ребенка снижается память, умственные
ability, attention dissipated, unmotivated appears
fatigue, drowsiness, irritability. Children complain
recurrent headaches, poorly in school.
Prolonged hypertrophy of the adenoids due to a decrease in the depth of inhalation
leads to disruption of the formation of the chest, it appears
called chicken breast.
With аденоидах у детей, симптомами заболевания могут быть также
anemia, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract – decreased appetite, possible constipation,
Symptoms of adenoiditis in children
- Against the background of enlarged adenoids, adenoiditis often occurs, with
this adenoids become inflamed, the temperature rises,
weakness, regional lymph nodes increase.
- Sometimes adenoiditis manifests itself only during ARVI, then
there is a violation of nasal breathing, mucous membranes appear
nasal discharge and other symptoms of acute viral infection. AT
In this case, after recovery, the adenoids decrease in
There are three degrees of adenoids in children – hypertrophy
Adenoids in children can be increased to varying degrees, taken
subdivide hypertrophy into 3 degrees. ATрачи в других развитых
countries emit more and 4 degree of adenoids, separating 3 and 4 degree
on the almost blocked nasopharynx and 100% closed back
nasal opening. This division into degrees is determined
radiologists because in the picture the size of the adenoids is easier to see
all – in the lumen of the nasopharynx visible shadow of the adenoids:
- 1 degree – when sprawl covers 1/3 of the rear opening
nasal passages or choanas. With этом ребенок испытывает затруднение
breathing only during sleep, and even if he is snoring and breathing badly
nose, with this degree of adenoid removal is not talking, rather
all, it is a prolonged runny nose that can be treated
- 1-2 degree – when adenoids occupy 1/3 to half
- 2 degree – when adenoids in a child close 66% of the lumen
nasopharynx. This causes the child to snore, periodically
mouth breathing even during the daytime, not discerning speech. Also not
considered an indication for surgery.
- 3 degree – when the pharyngeal tonsil closes almost
весь просвет nasopharynx. With этом ребенок не может дышать носом ни
night nor day. If a child sometimes breathes through its nose, it’s not 3
degree, and the accumulation of mucus that may occupy the entire
ATарианты лечения adenoids in children
There are 2 main treatment options for adenoids in children –
prompt removal and conservative. More about worth
whether to agree on an operation to remove adenoids, about methods
drug treatment can be found in our article – Treatment
adenoids in children
Консервативное без операционное лечение аденоидов — самое
correct, priority direction in the treatment of hypertrophy
глоточной tonsils. Before agreeing to an operation, parents
should use all possible treatments that allow
- Drug therapy of adenoids is primarily in
тщательном удалении слизи, отделяемого носа и nasopharynx. Only
after cleansing, you can use local medicines,
because the abundance of mucus significantly reduces the effectiveness
- Laser therapy – today this method is considered very
effective, and most doctors consider it safe, although
the remote effects of a laser exposure nobody knows
Long-term studies in the field of its application have not been made.
Laser therapy reduces swelling of lymphoid tissue, increases local
immunity, reduces inflammation in adenoid tissue.
- Homeopathic remedies are the safest method of treatment.
whose effectiveness is very individual, some children are very
good homeopathy helps, for others it turns out to be weak
effective. AT любом случае следует ее использовать, поскольку это
it is safe and possible to combine it with traditional treatment. Special
It is recommended to take Lymphomyosot – complex homeopathic
a drug produced by the famous German
Heel and thuja oil with adenoids is considered very
- Climatotherapy – treatment in sanatoriums of Crimea, Stavropol
edges, Sochi has a positive effect on the entire body,
boosts immunity and helps reduce growth
- Massage of the neck area, face, breathing exercises – enter
в состав комплексного лечения adenoids in children.
- Физиотерапия — это УФО, электрофорез, УATЧ — процедуры, которые
prescribed by the doctor endonasally, as a rule, 10 treatments each.
Surgical treatment of adenoids is possible only in the following
cases: If all conservative treatment has not given effect and
adenoiditis recurs more than 4 times a year if they develop
complications, such as otitis, sinusitis, if the child happens
частые остановки или задержки дыхания во сне, частые ОРATИ и другие
infectious diseases. It should beware of laser removal.
adenoids, since there is a possibility of negative influence
laser on the brain and surrounding tissue adenoid.