Adenoids in children: symptoms, causes and methodstreatment

Аденоиды лечение Adenoids are pharyngeal tonsils, which
are located in the nasopharynx. Associated disease – adenoiditis
– very common among children from three to ten years old and
delivers discomfort both to kids and their parents.

Therefore, treatment should begin immediately to avoid
the transition of the disease to the chronic stage.

Tonsil function

Adenoids have a very important barrier function – protection against
harmful microorganisms: bacteria, microbes, viruses. Have
there are 6 of them: unpaired (pharyngeal and lingual) and
steam rooms (two tubes and palatines). At the same time pharyngeal tonsils
are located very deeply, which means see without special
devices, where are the adenoids in the child, almost
is impossible.

Аденоиды когда удалятьDuring a common cold or flu,
to protect other organs, the tonsils increase in size,
they develop lymphocytes that fight pathogens
microorganisms. And after recovery, they return to
original condition.

Adenoids are considered part of the immune system.
организма
. So, in newborns they are poorly developed and not
perform the proper function. As they mature, the cells attack.
microbes and viruses that provoke the growth of adenoid tissue. K 2−3
over the years, the tonsils are lengthened and thickened, become completely
formed. And in 9–10 years, their reverse development occurs.
decrease in size.

Causes of adenoids in children

Haveвеличенные во время простуды в размере миндалины обычно
return to the previous state after 2−3 weeks. But if the disease
becomes prolonged, the adenoids do not have time to decrease and
bring the child a lot of inconvenience. This leads to chronic
inflammation. In addition to colds, there are other
causes of adenoiditis:

  • Hereditary (genetic predisposition due to
    disorders in the lymphatic and endocrine systems, so in children
    appear lethargy, dysfunction of the thyroid
    glands, overweight, apathy);
  • Аденоиды симптомыSevere pregnancy (taking antibiotics,
    toxic substances, viral infections in 1 trimester lead to
    intrauterine changes, as well as injuries during childbirth and hypoxia
    fetus);
  • Irrational nutrition of the child (inclusion in the nutrition of the child
    early-age products containing preservatives, flavors,
    dyes and stabilizers; excess food);
  • Consequences of infectious diseases (rubella, measles, whooping cough,
    грипп, скарлатина у детей);
  • Persistent allergic rhinitis;
  • Weakening of the immune system;
  • Anomaly of the structure of the nasopharynx;
  • Caries;
  • Adrenal gland disease;
  • Polluted environment (on tonsil inflammation can
    high gas pollution, dust, dry air, chemical
    emissions, etc.).

Children aged 3–7 years are particularly susceptible to this disease.
how they have contact with carriers of infections in child care facilities,
and the organs of the respiratory tract are not yet fully formed, therefore
high risk of infection.

Symptoms of inflammation

To begin immediate treatment, you need to have a clear
understanding of the symptoms of inflammation of the adenoids. Most characteristic
signs for parents to pay attention to,
will be the following:

  • Shortness of breath – the first sign of the disease. Child
    often breathes by mouth;
  • Sleep disturbance and crying at night – true signs of adenoids in
    child in 3 years. They are accompanied by snoring, sniffing and seizures.
    coughing and choking;
  • Аденоиды у детей причины показания к удалениюConstant
    runny nose, purulent nasal discharge;
  • Cough, sore throat, rhinitis, sinusitis, bronchitis,
    angina;
  • Nasty and hoarse voice;
  • Haveхудшение слуха, постоянный отит;
  • Oxygen starvation (hypoxia), decline in school performance
    in children due to insufficient blood supply to the brain;
    irritability and lethargy;
  • �”Adenoid” facial expression due to constantly open mouth:
    mandibular elongation, abnormal bite;
  • In rare cases, anemia (anemia) occurs;
  • Decreased appetite, gastrointestinal disease,
    diarrhea.

Symptoms and treatment аденоидов у детей практически всегда
are the same. Moreover, adenoiditis can occur in acute and chronic
flow.

The acute nature of the disease is accompanied by high fever,
pain in the nasopharynx, apathy and constant runny nose.

Possible complications

You can not solve the problem of inflammation of the tonsils alone.
Patients with this condition should be monitored.
the doctor. Because lymphoid tissue is a carrier of infection,
которая может перейти на другие органы, и последствиями
I can be:

  • Признаки аденоидов у детей Incorrect speech development due to
    constantly open mouth;
  • Incontinence (urinary incontinence);
  • Hearing problems;
  • Otitis and regular colds, allergic
    rhinitis;
  • Low performance and academic performance.

Children with inflamed adenoids become moody, lethargic,
alarming. Therefore, the problem must be solved immediately.

Diagnostic methods

Как вылечить аденоиды у детейIf there are obvious symptoms and
signs of adenoids in children, then you should urgently consult a doctor
otolaryngologist. With the help of special instruments and methods he can
make an accurate diagnosis and find the right treatment.

One of these methods is pharyngoscopy. This is what the ENT doctor
does first of all: examines the oral cavity, pharynx, pharynx and
glands. Haveже на этом этапе можно поставить приблизительный
diagnosis.

In rhinoscopy, the doctor inserts a special mirror into the child’s nose and
asks to say something, as with the vibration of the soft palate
adenoids also begin to fluctuate. Back rhinoscopy presents
is the method of inspection of the adenoids through the oral cavity. This allows
determine the condition and size of the tonsils.

The most qualitative research is
эндоскопия. The entire inspection process can be seen at
computer screen. The procedure helps to determine the condition of the organs.
nasal and oral cavity, mucus, pus and edema. Before
by inspecting the child an anesthetic injection is given, since
the doctor inserts a tube with a camera through the nasal passage, which may
cause discomfort. Despite the complexity of the
This method is the safest for children.

X-ray, so popular ten years ago, today is not
is used. This is because X-rays cause a large
harm to the body of a small patient. This method cannot give
a clear answer to the question about the state of the adenoids, as they are
The picture will look like pharyngeal mucus.

Previously, palpation was still used, but doctors consider it to
Today is completely ineffective.

Degrees of adenoids

Otolaryngologists distinguish three degrees of the size of the adenoids.
There is also the fourth with complete overlapping inflamed
tonsil respiratory tract. But this form is rare.
In medical practice are best known:

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  • First degree It is close to normal. Child нормально дышит
    during the day, but at night it is difficult for the tonsils to grow,
    because of what he can snore. At this stage you can freely
    do without surgery, there is a chance for conservative treatment;
  •  аденоиды у детейIn the second stage, the fabric closes more than
    half aisle (about 60 percent), snores appear at night,
    respiratory failure for 3-5 seconds, besides the child is experiencing
    difficulty breathing during the day, his mouth parted. Speech becomes
    incomprehensible, nasal, child hard to say, he does not get enough sleep,
    suffers from headache. If the adenoids are not inflamed, then the operation
    you can still postpone and choose a drug treatment;
  • Grade 3 adenoids are characterized by overlapping nasopharynx
    lymphoid tissue (only a small lumen remains), the child is not
    can breathe, his mouth is constantly open. There is no sleep, because of what
    he becomes lethargic and absent-minded. The face takes on a distinctive look.
    The brain receives little oxygen (hypoxia), the student starts
    experiencing problems in learning, in memorizing material, decreases
    academic performance More and more nasal fluid is purulent.
    yellow green accompanied by cough. At this stage
    ENT doctors are sending a patient for an operation to remove
    adenoids.

If the doctor correctly determines the degree, symptoms, signs
adenoids in children and treatment will appoint the right, that is a big chance
get rid of this problem forever. The main thing is to turn to
good specialist.

Способы treatment

Treatment may be conservative and surgical.
Otolaryngologists are trying to cure adenoiditis to the last with the help of
medicines, and only then send for surgery,
if required.

Drug therapy

Drug treatment is effective at first,
maximum of the second degree of the adenoids, when there is still a passage in
nasopharynx and inflammation of the adenoids can be removed. In the third stage
drug treatment can also be applied if there is
contraindications to surgery, for example:

  • Аденоиды у ребёнка симптомыinfectious diseases;
  • asthma;
  • severe allergies;
  • cardiovascular diseases and clotting disorders
    blood.

If there are no contraindications, then we can safely proceed to treatment. For
eliminate swelling, runny nose, inflammation, pus and mucus apply
the following means:

  1. Vasoconstrictor (sanorin, naphthyzine, galazolin, etc.);
  2. Anti-inflammatory sprays (Nazonex, Flix);
  3. Antihistamines (suprastin, fenistil, Erius,
    zyrtec);
  4. Solutions for cleaning the nasal cavity of accumulated mucus
    (quicks, rhinomaris, aquamaris);
  5. Local fortifiers (vitamins, minerals
    complexes);
  6. Antiseptic sprays and drops (albucid, protargol).

Sometimes otolaryngologists may appoint in addition to the main
treatment homeopathic medicines. They are completely safe for
children, however, their effectiveness is individual. With adenoiditis
prescribe thuja oil for instillation into the nose, as well as spray “Euphorbium
Compositum.

Folk remedies

Folk remedies могут применяться только на первой стадии и
после консультации лор-the doctor. You need to be very careful when applying
infusions of various herbs, as some of them may be
strongest allergens and worsen the condition.

Аденоиды у детей симптомыWashing is the best known method.
remove inflammation and get rid of nasal mucus. For него готовится
saline: a teaspoon per 200 ml of warm boiled water.
Before процедурой обязательно нужно использовать vasoconstrictor
sprays. You can use the already prepared set “Dolphin”, which
sold in pharmacies.

Травы можно применять двумя способами: как сок
for instillation into the nose and as a solution for washing. For этого
apply juice of celandine and yarrow. Effective when washing
infusion of leaves of bilberry (as well as its use inside), bark
oak and St. John’s wort, which have antiseptic and astringent
actions. Propolis smoke is also used, which must be inhaled.
alternately in each nostril for five minutes.

In addition to everything you do not need to supercool the child, smoke in
apartment, and harden the baby, try to carry it more often to the sea,
as the sea air has a beneficial effect on patients
with this disease.

Physiotherapy as an indispensable assistant

Физиотерапия повышает эффективность медикаментозного treatment.
Laser therapy is most commonly prescribed, which reduces swelling and
improves immunity. The recommended course is 10 sessions of 3 repetitions.
Laser radiation affects both adenoids and
surrounding tissue.

Помимо этого, положительный эффект оказывают электрофорез, HaveФЧ и
ультрафиолетовое облучение (HaveФО). ENT doctors advise doing
breathing exercises and massage of the neck area.

Indications for surgery

Not always cope with adenoid disease can
conservatively. Есть особые случаи, когда операция
becomes a necessity:

  • stage 3-4 adenoids;
  • the development of otitis media and the risk of hearing loss;
  • cessation of nasal breathing;
  • changes in the structure of the jaw and facial part;
  • the appearance of malignant tumors;
  • inefficiency of medical drugs.

Аденоиды у детей симптомы и лечениеRemoval operation
adenoids is called adenotomy. It is performed under general anesthesia.
local or general anesthesia and takes about 15–20 minutes. If not
no complications, then in the next 2−3 hours the child will be released
home.

Today, adenotomy is performed in two ways: with
using a laser and endoscope. Both methods guarantee quality
избавление от adenoids. After surgery, parents should reduce
the risk of colds and maintain children’s health
medical treatment, otherwise there is a danger of new growth
lymphoid tissue.

In the postoperative period, care must be taken:
limit physical activity, avoid baths and saunas, and
hot food and drink two weeks not to attend mass institutions and
protect yourself from the sun.

What could be the consequences

Parents who agree to adenotomy should be aware of
postoperative complications. To the most common
consequences include:

  • bleeding from the nose due to refusal of vasoconstrictor
    funds;
  • rhinophony, pain when swallowing;
  • allergy to medications;
  • appearance of putrid odor from the mouth due to inflammatory
    process.

As well as a number of complications, fever and
lymphadenitis. Therefore, parents should carefully monitor the child.
in order to avoid the emergence of new relapses (especially in children under three
years old).

Surgery does not always show excellent
result. If there is a predisposition to adenoiditis, then the tonsils
will begin to quickly inflame and grow, and the lack of their barrier
functions will only reduce the immunity of the child and contribute to the new
diseases. Therefore, many pediatricians and otolaryngologists are against
удаления adenoids. For малышей это ещё и сильнейший стресс,
which can turn into psychological trauma. Besides, if
the operation was performed poorly and illiterate specialist, there is
риск заражения тканей, возникновения сепсиса, дифтерии и
pneumonia, fever from 38 to 39 degrees.

Preventive measures

To avoid postoperative relapse and protect the child from
the disease itself, you need to follow preventive measures. First
business is necessary to strengthen the immune system: harden children, arrange
walking in the fresh air, airing the room, as well as giving
they vitamin and mineral complexes. Then you should pick for
child’s proper rational nutrition, including meat
protein needed by the growing body, healthy fats and carbohydrates.
Increase children’s physical activity, instill in them a love for
sports lifestyle. Avoid overheating and overcooling.
детского organism. Only by following these tips can you prevent
disease not only adenoids, but also the whole body.

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