A stuffy nose: what to do, the reasons for the child andan adult

Update: October 2018

Nasal breathing is necessary for a person not only to have air
in the nasal cavity was cleaned and warmed, but also to stimulate
brain. Therefore, when a person has a stuffy nose, he does not
only:

  • endangering the upper respiratory tract, breathing in the cold and
    raw air through mouth
  • but begins to experience difficulty concentrating,
    memorization and learning
  • there is chronic fatigue, aggravated by difficulties with
    sleep on the background of a stuffy nose, headaches
  • pain in the ears and throat, hearing loss may occur.

Why is laying nose

The most common causes of nasal congestion are excessively dry.
indoor air, drying up of the nasal mucosa, irritation of it
dust, tobacco smoke.

The main processes that occur in the nasal mucosa with
congestion, is swelling and swelling, expansion of the vascular network and
increase in mucus separation If the nose is stuffed up, the reasons should be sought.
in inflammation or allergies.

Inflammatory processes in the nose can occur when
the following diseases

  • Acute rhinitis of viral origin

It will give mucous clear discharge from the nose, watery and
profuse, accompanied by congestion and nasal difficulties
breathing. In addition to the mucous membrane, the skin of the nose also suffers.
handkerchiefs and constantly weeping. With this redness
followed by maceration of the skin and the subsequent formation of crusts. AT
case of herpetic lesion in the nose, severe pain and
bubbles with light content that open and gradually
heal with the formation of crusts, but without scarring.

  • Bacterial rhinitis

Replacing the viral process may come bacteria that
supplant viruses or coexist with them. Snot change color on
yellow or green. At the same time, after cleansing the nose, nasal breathing
may come back. The sense of smell suffers not too much.
strong.

  • Fungal process

Fungal process, как правило, кандидозный, дает отделяемое из
white nose, in which the veins of the fungal mycelium are visible.
The nasal mucosa may erode to form
weeping painful surfaces.

  • ATоспаление пазух носовой полости

It lays down the nose and sinus inflammation: ethmoiditis, sinusitis
(antritis, see all agents for the treatment of antritis). With this nose
Laid down, no snot, or they are very scarce, are purulent.
Loss of smell is characteristic: both smells cease to feel
half nose or just one. There are pains in the projection
concerned sinuses, which increase with forward bending
or head thrown back. Often the body temperature rises.
Sinusitis can follow the type of acute inflammation or move
chronic, when periods without complaints are replaced by reinforcement
symptoms.

Allergic rhinitis

This is the scourge of modern times. Against the background of the features of the complement system,
inherited, or high levels of immunoglobulins
class E, under the influence of artificial feeding, frequent
use of drugs, synthetic hygiene detergents,
abuse of household antiseptics and unnatural food
nasal mucosa begins to react to many allergens.
Appear:

  • swelling and swelling,
  • redness and itching
  • frequent sneezing.

Typical symptom of an allergic rhinitis – transparent, abundant
discharge, sometimes called “glass”.

  • Seasonal rhinitis – such a stuffy nose can be seasonal, in
    response to flowering grass or trees. Then allergic rhinitis
    flows in the program of pollinosis. Often it is called cross
    allergens such as birch pollen and apples, blooming alder and
    nuts. If the nose is heavily stuffed after contact with the allergen, it
    will respond to it the next time.
  • Year-round allergic rhinitis – cause wool
    animals, household dust, medicines, detergents, perfumes.
    Then the nose is constantly stuffed, snot occurs when contacting even
    low concentration of allergens. Often nasal congestion and
    snotty allergic origin combined with lesions
    eye (allergic conjunctivitis) at which itching and swelling
    eyelids, whites turn red, there is a lot of tearing and pain in
    eyes.

Allergies can seize and bronchial tree, then
allergic rhinitis is supplemented with bronchial asthma. Earlier
it was believed that an allergic rhinitis transformed into it, but
modern studies have proven that these are parallel processes with
similar developmental mechanisms.

ATазомоторный ринит

develops due to impaired vascular tone of the nasal mucosa,
which leads to its swelling. ATиновата во всем вегетативная нервная
a system whose tone is unbalanced. Under her influence the vessels in
nose expand. Edema appears.

The goblet cells at the same time begin to secrete increased
the amount of mucus that additionally clogs the nasal passages.
It lays a nose and ears, a clear discharge flows from the nose.
ATазомоторный ринит возникает при разрастаниях костных образований
nasal, chronic mucosal inflammations or under the influence of
long use vasoconstrictor nasal drops.

If the nose is stuffed up without a cold

Adenoids

Adenoid in children is the proliferation of lymphoid tissue in the nose. This
the problem often haunts children under six and substantially
complicates nasal breathing. Even the removal of adenoids does not solve
problems radically, as the tissue may re-grow.
A child with this disease keeps his mouth open.
Which forced to breathe. With age, the problem may be resolved
on their own. AT противном случае аденоиды удаляют.

Nose mucus polyps

They can occur in adults against the background of chronic
inflammatory diseases of the nasal cavity. More often men are ill.
The disease goes through three stages, gradually blocking the top
third, half, and then the entire nasal passage. ATторичная инфекция
even provokes the development of bronchial asthma
infectious-allergic origin (see removal of polyps in
nose).

Nasal septum curvature

Nasal septum curvature нарушают проходимость одной
half nose. You may experience breathing difficulties.
nose.

Other reasons

Large soft palate, impaired innervation of the uvula,
missing teeth can cause the soft palate to sink
during the night sleep. At night, there are episodes of absence.
nasal breathing (apnea), which leads to snoring and creates a risk for
development of sudden death, requiring very careful attention and
mandatory hike to a specialist.

During pregnancy

Women in an interesting position on the background of a high level
progesterone and prostaglandins often need nasal drops
more common. They have, without any allergies or colds
nasal congestion. He puts his nose without snot. This does not swell
only the mucous membrane, but also the soft tissues of the nose, may change its shape.
AT середине беременности могут появляться и носовые кровотечения.
ATсе эти явления самостоятельно проходят без лечения после родов,
when hormonal levels stabilize within the usual range.

When not breathing nose in a child

Babies up to three months have an unadapted nasal mucosa.
They are characterized by physiological rhinitis, when nasal congestion
in infants accompanied by mucous clear discharge. it
vascular reaction. Helping your baby adapt better to
bacterial, viral and dust environment of the outside world (see
runny nose in the newborn).

It is not necessary to treat such a runny nose if the child sucks easily, not
worried and not fever. You have to do something,
when the baby refuses to breast or can not suck because
nasal breathing problems. AT любом случае кроху целесообразно
show pediatrician.

  • A child up to one year old can have a stuffy nose if he suffers
    viral infection, bacterial rhinitis. Such states can
    complicated by otitis.
  • Children after one and a half years may already suffer from ethmoiditis, when
    prolonged nasal congestion is accompanied by fever
    and purulent discharge from the nose.
  • Older children suffer from the same diseases as
    adults.

Tumors as the cause of nasal congestion

Benign neoplasms of the nasal cavity lead to
congestion on the affected side.

  • Osteoma – bone tumor, as a rule, penetrates into the cavity
    nose again from the frontal or maxillary sinus. Strikes more often
    young.
  • Tumors of vascular origin – hemangiomas (red
    moles), lymphangiomas, angiofibromas provide not only difficulties with
    breathing nose, but also bleeding from the nose.

Malignant neoplasms grow directly in the cavity
nasal or paranasal sinuses.

  • Squamous cell carcinoma is twice as common in men.
    A small tumor resembles a nodule with a superficial sore. Large
    – loose knot overlapping the bow.
  • Adenocarcinoma is a glandular cancer often associated with
    carrier of Epstein-Barr virus. Ulceration is characteristic of the tumor.
    and the early appearance of metastases.
  • Sarcoma of the nasal cavity – connective tissue tumor, covered
    mucous membrane. It grows rapidly, growing into the nasal cavity and the orbit.

Small benign tumors are cauterized or looped off.
or a scalpel. Malignant or major neoplasms
subject to surgical removal (including cyber-knife with
laser) and subsequent radiation therapy.

How to treat?

Room air humidification

Before taking up drugs in case
difficult nasal breathing, should ventilate the room,
humidify the air in it with a special household humidifier
or by hanging a wet diaper on a heating radiator or
towel.

Seeing a doctor

ATторым пунктом при хронической заложенности носа становится
trip to an otolaryngologist or therapist. Since the banal
many diseases can hide from congestion;
use medicines uncontrollably.

Vasoconstrictor drops

If urgent help is needed, the drugs of choice will be
vasoconstrictor nasal drops. They constrict capillaries in the mucous
the nose. At the same time, swelling decreases and the patency is restored.
respiratory passages.

  • Alpha-2 adrenomimetics

narrow arterioles, veins and precapillary sphincters. Reduce
influx blood to the venous sinuses. Due to this, the swelling becomes
less. Act longer than Mezaton and Phenylephrine. Can
cause drying of the mucous membrane, resulting in
burning nose. If you use drugs longer than a week, then their
efficiency drops. Further, there may be such a complication as
ricochet rhinitis when the nose starts to constantly flow, and
congestion is only increasing. Nazivin, Nazol on the base
Oxymetazoline, Naphthyzinum, Sanorin on the basis of Naphazoline,
Xylometazoline (Otrivin, Galazolin, Xymelin) – a good choice for
Rhinitis, sinusitis and allergic nasal congestion. If month
nose is stuffed, then these drugs should not be used. Also they
contraindicated in glaucoma, hypertension,
hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, in infants.

  • Alpha-1 adrenomimetics: Mezaton, Phenylephrine affect smooth
    muscles of small arteries, narrowing them. Preferred with allergies and
    viral processes.
  • Drops that increase the secretion of norepinephrine. Ephedrine and drops on
    its basis is now used a little, since it can cause
    addiction.
  • Epinephrine is a beta adrenomimetic, similar in action to
    adrenalin. Contraindicated in chronic congestion.

With allergies, the choice of drugs is also wide.

  • Antihistamine

Histamine receptor blockers reduce tissue effects
mediator of histamine inflammation. Reduce such allergic
reaction, as the expansion of blood vessels, swelling of the mucous. As a result
decreases swelling, sneezing, itching. Used tablets of the second and
third generation: cetirizine, acrivastine, azelastine,
Levocabastine, Astemizole, Loratadine, Oxatamide,
Dimetinden, Terfenadine, Levocetirizine, Desloratadine,
Karebastinom, Epinastinom, Fexofenadine (see the list of pills from
allergies). They are used in allergic rhinitis, in the acute period
rhinitis and sinusitis.

  • In similar situations, stabilizers of obese walls are effective.
    Cell: Kromoglin, Sodium Cromoglycate, Kromogeksal, Lomuzal.
  • For severe allergies have to resort to glucocorticoids:
    Budesonide, Mometasone, Beclomethasone, Fluticasone. Based on them
    produce drugs: Nasobek, Bekonaze, Nasoneks, Fliksonaze.
    Nasonex is the drug of choice for overdoses or addictions
    vasoconstrictor drops.

Combined drugs

  • Polydex (vasoconstrictor in combination with an antibiotic)
  • Rinopront (capsules, phenidephrine, constricting vessels and
    Carbinoxamine, fighting allergies)
  • Rinotayes Doctor Theiss (antimicrobial eucalyptus oil and
    vasoconstrictor Xylometazoline).

We treat stuffy nose in children

  • In addition to hygiene measures for moistening and cleansing
    breathing air in babies treatment begins with inhalation
    saline through the nebulizer. It allows you to moisturize the mucous and
    deal with simple rhinitis. You can also use analogues
    saline solution (Aquamaris, Aqualor) which are instilled into the nose drop by drop
    in every nasal passage. Undesirable washing of the nasal passages in children
    due to the risk of secondary inflammation of the middle ear.
  • Mixtures of essential oils (Pinosol, Sinupret) are suitable for treatment
    viral and bacterial infections of the nasal cavity and sinuses. Nose drops
    закапывают по очереди in every nasal passage. 1-2 required
    drops.
  • A variant of convenient treatment of purulent processes in children is
    Protargol.
  • The vasoconstrictor pediatric Nazivin can be used (see
    drops in the nose with a cold).
  • Combined drugs: ATиброцил (сосудосуживающий
    Phenylephrine in combination with antiallergic Fenistil) can
    used in any inflammatory or allergic processes
    in babies.
  • With abundant discharge, preference is given to Rinoflumicilum.
    (narrowing vessels Tuaminohptan sulfate and acetylcysteine,
    thinning mucus).

Thus, if the nose is stuffed up, you need to see a doctor.
(general practitioner, pediatrician, ENT specialist or allergist). Self-medication can
lead to undesirable consequences, complicate the diagnosis, give
ricochet runny nose or mask the symptoms of tumors.

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