A short bridle in children, newborns, thatdo, consequences

Update: October 2018

In the mouth there are several strands of connective
tissues that are attached to the muscles and mucous membranes. Such
formations are called bridles. The most notable and important ones
are under the tongue, upper and lower lip.

Normal bridle structure Anomalies bridle
Lip Language Lip Language
From birth to 6-8 months (age of appearance first
Thin, poorly pronounced, end in 2-3 mm from the edge
alveolar process, lips move freely.
Thin, attached at a great distance about the tip, not
limits organ mobility
Thickened, short, attached close to the top of the alveolar
process, limit the movement of the lips.
Intertwined with the tip or ends close to it, short and
thickened, limits mobility. May be completely absent
– Ankyloglossia.
From 6-8 months to 2-2.5 years (the formation of a temporary
Ends in 3-5 mm from the edge of the alveolar process, not
limit movement.
Thin, attached at a great distance about the tip, not
limits organ mobility
Fastened to the top of the alveolar process, with lip abduction.
there is blanching of the gingival margin.
Intertwined with the tip or ends close to it, short and
thickened, limits mobility. May be completely absent
– Ankyloglossia.
From 2-2.5 years to 4-4.5 years (the period formed
временного bite)
Normally, all teeth are tight, without significant
gaps and “crawling” on each other. Bite normal
orthognathic. When shortening mucous cords can be
violation of the bite and the relative position of the teeth.
The period before the change of teeth (from 4.5 to 6 years)
Normally there are physiological “gaps” between the teeth,
that says about the growth of the jaws.
Период смены зубов (от 6 до 13 лет)
Located 4-6 mm from the alveolar region (due to the growth
Without changes Attachment height remains the same. Without changes
Period of permanent bite (after 13 years)
The level of attachment of all processes constant, does not interfere
movements, does not affect speech and bite. With abnormal location
may cause a speech defect, aesthetic deficiencies and

Signs of a short bridle of the tongue

Mucous tyazh language is normally fastened in the middle part of its part.
If it ends in the front third or even near the tip,
That is considered not long enough. At every age you can
detect the various symptoms of this pathology.короткая уздечка у детей

  • Difficulties in breastfeeding a newborn
  • Paradontitis
  • Speech disorder

Breastfeeding difficulties

Already at the initial examination and after the debut feeding the baby
you can see the wrong structure of the oral cavity. The main
a sign will be sluggish sucking of milk or the complete absence
productive sucking movements. We must remember what is
the condition occurs in many diseases, birth injuries, hypoxia
brain and other severe pathologies. Therefore, you must first exclude
all life threatening situations.

Ankyloglossia is a rare but bright anomaly – practically
full increment of the tongue to the mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth. it
does not allow making the movements necessary for sucking milk out
maternal breast. For a quick diagnosis
baby inspection.

It is more difficult to recognize the cause of sluggish sucking. It seems to be
the child eats, there is a lot of milk, but at the same time he is constantly hungry and ready
�”Hang” in the chest for hours, biting the nipple, nervous, and in the end can
refuse to eat. This also has a short bridle.
newborn, restricting free movement.


Due to the constant tension of the tissues of the floor of the mouth can
paradontitis occurs – an inflammatory process in the lower
teeth. This complication is rare, but any dentist with
the presence of periodontitis carefully examine the entire oral cavity.

Speech disorder

Pronunciation of some sounds (hissing, whistling, palatine)
requires active movements of the muscles of the tongue. Therefore, children with limited
his mobility may lag behind in speech development, long
utter words distortedly, and sometimes fix the speech defect.
A speech therapist will surely suspect a short frenulum of the tongue in
child, but it will look for other reasons for the wrong
sound pronunciation.

Four types of abnormal tongue bridles

  1. Thin, normally attached, but not long enough
    may slightly limit mobility.
  2. Thin, not long enough, attached close to the tip,
    limits its mobility. When raised in the center of the tongue
    a groove is formed.
  3. Dense not long band that is woven into the tip. Last
    rolls up and forks when raised.
  4. Unnoticeable tyazh in the thickness of the tongue, limiting it

Most of the speech disorders are noticeable in children with the third type,
and the most problematic sound is “p”. Severe anomalies
usually combined with a deep bite and too close
the location of the teeth, as tyazh can inhibit the growth of the jaw.



Because to determine the short bridle in the hospital is not always possible,
then it is helpful for parents to know the external signs of the anomaly.

  • When ankyloglossii child can not stick out his tongue, lick
  • With medium and light degrees of shortening may occur
    following signs: the tip of the protruding tongue is bent up,
    raising it leads to the formation of a groove in the middle.


There are several conditions in which it is necessary
surgical treatment:

  • Ankyloglossia
  • Sluggish milk sucking and poor weight gain with the exclusion of others
  • Нарушение звукопроизношения при исключении других reasons и при
    pronounced shortening

In these cases, a short bridle in children cut. it
procedure performed under local anesthesia, safe and
almost bloodless. Immediately after it you can feed the child and allow
talk to him. Recently, the method has been widely spread.
laser excision, as it is faster and more convenient than the old method.
Most often, the procedure is carried out in 2-4 months, according to indications and earlier.
If the pathology was discovered after five years, it may be necessary
plastic (for the formation of mucous tyazha).

In a situation where there are no problems with nutrition, the child is actively
trying to speak, then we can limit articulation
gymnastics. it упражнения, направленные на растяжение уздечки. AT
their basis is the maximum increase in amplitude during movement
language. You need to try to get them the tip of the nose, chin, roll
tubule or shift to the side.

Признаки укороченной уздечки верхней lips

The appendix connecting the upper lip and the mucous membrane also happens
too short and wide. it не вызывает нарушений речи или акта
sucking milk, but can affect the distance between the teeth.

Diastema – wide gap between the upper central incisors –
возникает по разным reasonsам. AT молочном прикусе она является
absolute norm, meeting almost all six-year-olds. But if
permanent canine teeth are cut, and the gap between the teeth is still
more than 3 mm remains, that is, it makes sense to think about the influence of the upper

Три типа аномальной уздечки верхней lips

  • Attached closer than 4 cm from the interdental papilla, but thin,
    достаточно длинная, не ограничивающая mobility.
  • Attached normally, thin, but short, can
    ограничивать подвижность lips.
  • Широкий тяж, вплетающийся в межзубный сосочек, подвижность lips
    limited, often between the teeth there is a large gap.

Excessive distance between teeth is most often caused by the third type.
anomalies. AT большинстве же таких случаев недлинная или низко
прикрепленная уздечка не является основной reasonsой.

In addition to the gap between the incisors, periodontitis may occur. Usually
this happens if any lip movements cause whitening
underlying tissues. Lack of blood circulation can cause
problems in the upper jaw.


Too small in length and wide, especially low
attached, can prevent the incisors from getting close. AT таких случаях
foreign experts recommend its excision after formation
permanent bite (11-14 years old) and elimination of diastema (system
braces or plates). In our country, sometimes they have surgery in
replaceable bite (in 5-6 years). it не совсем оправданно, так как
scar tissue may form. In addition, almost always
the eruption of canines leads to compression of the mucous membrane, its
thinning and self-closing diastema. AT результате
operation is not required.

The main principle of treatment is intervention according to indications. If there is
visual change in the mouth, but the child is not
suffers and there are no aesthetic flaws, then nothing is adjusted
and no need to treat.

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