The material is prepared on the basis of information provided by
Irina Belyaeva, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Head. ward for premature babies
The newborn baby is naturally armed with a whole complex
congenital reflexes. They help you quickly adapt to new
living conditions outside the womb. By checking them, you can evaluate
development of the nervous system of the child and smooth out in a timely manner
violations found by eliminating failures.
The content of the article
- 1 About the nature of congenital reflexes
- 1.1 Tasks for testing reflexes
- 1.2 Development of the baby under the supervision of a doctor
- 2 Inspection of a neurologist
It seems to us that the newborn child is completely helpless. But this
not true. Here he was just born, and is already looking for mother’s breasts. And How
just grab the nipple, he begins to actively suck the milk.
Therefore, to “get” food for him is exactly the power. But this только один из
many vital skills.
On the nature of congenital reflexes
Congenital reflexes got to us as a result of evolution from
distant ancestors. Their bookmark occurs at the initial stage.
intrauterine development, and they begin to appear in the first hours,
days and weeks after birth.
All innate reflexes are unconditional. It means that
they arise independently of us, and we consciously control them
can not. The same involuntary reaction of the nervous system in response to
external or internal irritation.
Congenital reflexes are regulated by the midbrain, which
develops the very first. By the time of active development of the cortex
brain, consisting of a more perfect gray matter,
a large proportion of the nervous system passes under its control. Then
congenital reflexes are replaced by conditional. And most of
involuntary reactions die away in the first year of a baby’s life.
Tasks for testing reflexes
Knowing when congenital reflexes should appear and fade,
parents can check whether the nervous system is developing normally
baby And for any deviations from the norm, they should refer to
to the doctor.
To make reflex manifestations bright, they need to be checked.
carry out under certain conditions. A well-fed baby will react
irritation sluggish, if the baby is hungry, then more vigorously.
Therefore, after feeding, the tests should be postponed for 30 minutes. Important,
to have natural light in the room and the temperature in it
was in the range of 22-24 degrees.
Оральные reflexes — самые важные из всех
innate skills. They appear when the lips of the baby are irritated. AND
it is thanks to them that the baby “finds” food and eats it. These include
in itself four unconditioned reflexes:
- Sucking. If the newborn offer
breast, he immediately begins to suck her. He will do the same with his or
someone else’s finger, toy or pacifier. Such a reflex occurs in
the first hours of a baby’s life and fading away on average to
year and a half;
- Proboscis. If quick, but easy to touch
lips of your baby with your finger or pacifier, his lips will bulge out, forming
tubule (proboscis). This reaction occurs in the first hours after
birth and passes to 2-3 months;
- Search. Gently stroke the baby’s mouth
or touch the nipple to his cheek near the lips. Baby right there
will turn his head in the direction from which he felt
irritation. If, however, slightly pushing the pacifier into the middle of the bottom
lips, the baby will open its mouth, bend its neck and try to capture
nipple mouth. The manifestation of this reflex suggests that deep
brain structures of the crumbs are developed harmoniously. Skill helps
to form mimic reactions. It appears in the first day after
birth and disappears by 3-4 months;
- Palmar and mouth. If you put the baby on
back, take his hand and put a little finger on the middle of it
palms, he will open his mouth and tilt his head forward. Similar
The baby must react if it affects the other pen. This
reflex is involved in the formation of conscious movements of the hands and mouth,
with which the child will soon begin to explore the world around us.
The skill arises in the first 2-3 days after birth and disappears
by about 3 months.
It is interesting! Sucking skill starts
fade away at about 12 months, and completely disappears in 1.5-2 years.
Experts believe that nature itself has determined the best
deadline to complete the GW.
Спинальные reflexes — это двигательные
involuntary reactions that are regulated by the spinal cord.
Thanks to them, our body takes various poses and moves in
space. The doctor judges the baby’s movement activity, evaluating
the strength of the manifestation of the following reflexes:
- Prehensile. Put the baby in the palm
a small object (handkerchief, toy or dummy), and he immediately
squeeze it into a cam. Such a grip can be so strong that
if the baby grabs her mother’s or father’s fingers, you can
will raise. Such a reflex is involved in the development of speech and small
motility. It occurs in the first week after birth.
extinguished by 3-4 months;
- Reflex crawling. If you put the child on
belly and touch with palms his soles, he will immediately begin
push off from support, moving forward. This навык заставляет
work all parts of the brain and is responsible for the development
consistency of movements. It appears 3-4 days after
birth, and consciously “crawling” kids start after 3-4
- Reflex Galanta. If you put the baby on the stomach
and run your fingers along the spine from the top down, stepping back
1 cm from him to the left, then he will arch the back to the right
the side. If you do the same on the right side, the child will blow
спину в левую the side. This skill prepares the nervous system to
conscious consistency of movements and links the work of both
hemispheres of the brain. The reflex begins to appear on the 5th or
6th day of life and fades away in 3-4 months;
- Protective. Put the baby on your belly. is he
приподнимет голову или повернёт её в the side. Using a protective
the reflex baby takes comfortable position for breathing, body, hands,
feet and head. At birth, this skill does not allow the baby to choke.
It appears immediately after birth and disappears approximately in
- Reflex Perez. Putting the baby on the belly
swipe, slightly pressing your finger on the vertebrae, on the vertebral
post upwards. The child should lift the pelvis and head, bend
back and bend your knees. From this baby sometimes screams
poops or pees. This unconditional reaction of the baby allows the doctor
judge the work of the spinal cord. is heа начинает проявляться в первую
week after birth, and takes place in 3-4 months;
- Reflex Moro. It can be checked in different ways.
Usually they do it like this: the baby is put backwards on a solid
surface (for example, a table). If you hit this surface,
departing from the head to the right or left by 15 cm, the baby first
spread his arms to the side, opening his fists, and straighten the legs, which
before that they were bent. After 2 or 3 seconds, the baby returns
hands in the starting position or starts hugging them. Not
scary, if 1 and 2 phases of skill manifest with different strengths – this
norm. The reflex appears on the first day after birth and disappears.
by 4–5 months;
- Plantar. If you press on the base
middle or big toe, then the baby immediately squeeze everything
little fingers. If from the heel to hold on the outer edge of the foot, then
the thumb will accelerate, while others form a fan. Such a skill
prepares the nervous system for conscious movement of the fingers
feet. is he возникает в первые дни после появления на свет и пропадает
примерно в 12–14 months;
- Reflex support and automatic walking.
Raise the baby with his hands for the armpits, turning him to face him and
holding his head with his fingers. If you put him on the floor, he
will rely on the foot. And if at the same time to tilt forward, then he
will begin to touch the legs (“walk”). Not страшно, если ноги крохи
intersect – this is normal up to one and a half months. Reflex,
preparing the child for real walking arises in the first
weeks after birth and passes in about 3 months.
Attention! Notкоторые родители с энтузиазмом
teach kids to “stand” on mom’s or father’s palms or
�”Walk on the table.” But during such workouts, undeveloped bone
the baby’s apparatus is experiencing excessive loads. It may become
cause of impaired development of the musculoskeletal system
(formation of clubfoot or incorrect posture).
Шейно-тонические reflexes — это reflexes,
responsible for the ability of the muscles to fix and hold the right
body position. Thanks to them, you can check the tone of the crumbs and
find out whether the middle and medulla brain develops normally.
There are three cervical-tonic reflex:
- Asymmetric. Turn the head carefully
baby right. In response, he will bend the left leg and the handle, and the right
handle and leg unbent. Thanks to this skill the child in the first
“finds” months of life and examines his hands, agrees
the work of the visual apparatus and the brain helps to develop
vestibular system. Reflex manifests itself during the first days.
life of the baby and disappears in 3-4 months;
- Symmetric. Tilt the head of the crumbs so
to chin reached to the chest. Then его ноги разогнутся, но
bent arms. If the head is returned to its original position, then
legs are bent, and handles are unbent. The reflex prepares the baby to
conscious crawling. is he возникает в первые сутки после рождения и
disappears in 3 or 4 months;
- Labyrinth. If you put the child on живот,
he will press his head to his chest or throw him back. Back arches, and
pens will press to chest, clenching fingers into fist. The legs will bend in
knees and pressed to the tummy. If you leave it in that position,
then after a few minutes the baby starts swimming
movements that then switch to spontaneous crawling. Skill
trains the crumbs muscles, preparing them for future walking. is he
manifested for the first time days of life and fades away in 4 months.
The development of the baby under the supervision of a doctor
Congenital reflexes the doctor must check during each
reception Assessing the degree of manifestation of skills allows you to judge
development of the central nervous system and timely to identify
deviations from the norm. Should guard too weak or too
strong unconditional crumbs as well as an asymmetrical response to
Disorders in the development of the nervous system is most often detected in
premature babies, as well as babies who have suffered a birth trauma,
hypoxia or asphyxia, infection during fetal development.
The risk group is also represented by babies with genetic pathologies.
(phenylketonuria, myopathy, etc.). In children who were sick with something
the first weeks after birth, reflexes are mild. To reduce
activity of the nervous system at that age leads to any failure in
With weak manifestations of inborn reflexes of the baby show
the neurologist who prescribes the treatment. It usually includes curative
gymnastics and massage. If necessary, the doctor prescribes nootropics.
(means to normalize brain activity). Similar treatment
necessary if the crumbs unconditional reactions do not fade for a long time.
We also read:
- Basic reflexes of newborns: unconditional and conditional
- On the sucking reflex of a newborn baby: weak or
lack of sucking reflex
Examination by a neurologist